Skip to main content

Full text of "Historical collections : being a general collection of interesting facts, traditions, biographical sketches, anecdotes, &c., relating to the history and antiquities of every town in Massachusetts, with geographical descriptions"

See other formats













TORY,    ETC. 

[The  Seal  of  the  State  of  Massachusetts.] 

fBy  the  sword  he  seeks  peace  under  Liberty.} 


t  ^ 



Entered,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1839, 

BY   DORR,    ROWLAND    &    CO. 
In  the  Clerk's  Office  of  the  District  Court  of  Massachusetts. 






IN  view  of  the  great  variety  of  subjects  introduced  into  this  work,  and  the  almost 
impossibility  of  producing  a  publication  of  this  kind  without  errors  and  imperfections, 
it  is  with  a  degree  of  diffidence  that  it  is  laid  before  the  public.  This  is  felt  in  an  espe- 
cial manner  when  the  author  considers  who  will  be  his  readers.  A  traveller  in  foreign 
places  may  make  statements  at  random,  in  order  to  finish  up  his  picture,  which  may 
pass  for  truth,  when  there  is  no  one  at  hand  who  is  able  to  correct  his  errors.  This  publi- 
cation will  come  before  persons  many  of  whom  have  better  means  of  information, 
and  more  knowledge  on  some  subjects  introduced,  than  can  be  reasonably  expected 
from  the  author  of  this  work. 

Massachusetts  may  justly  claim  an  elevated  rank  among  the  states  of  this  Union. 
She  is  the  "  mother  state"  of  New  England,  and  the  birthplace  of  American  freedom. 
A  nobler  ancestry  no  people  ever  yet  possessed.  "  The  Puritans  (says  a  celebrated 
foreign  writer,  in  no  wise  partial  to  them)  were  the  most  remarkable  body  of  men,  per- 
haps, which  the  world  has  ever  produced. — They  were  men  whose  minds  had  derived 
a  peculiar  character  from  the  daily  contemplation  of  superior  beings  and  eternal  inte- 
rests. Not  content  with  acknowledging  in  general  terms  an  overruling  providence, 
they  habitually  ascribed  every  event  to  the  will  of  the  Great  Being,  for  whose  power 
nothing  was  too  vast,  for  whose  inspection,  nothing  was  too  minute.  To  know  him,  to 
serve  him,  to  enjoy  him,  was  with  them  the  great  end  of  existence.  They  rejected 
with  contempt  the  ceremonious  homage  which  other  sects  substituted  for  the  homage 
of  the  soul. — On  the  rich  and  the  eloquent,  on  nobles  and  priests,  they  looked  down 
with  contempt ;  for  they  esteemed  themselves  rich  in  a  more  precious  treasure,  and 
eloquent  in  a  more  sublime  language  ; — nobles  by  the  right  of  an  earlier  creaticTi,  and 
priests  by  the  imposition  of  a  mightier  hand."  Let  those  who  sneer  at  such  an  ances 
try  go  back  to  the  titled  robbers  of  the  middle  ages,  and  claim  affinity,  if  they  will, 
with  those  felons  of  the  human  race,  who  fatten  on  the  sweat  and  blood  of  suffering 

Travellers  who  have  heard  of  the  "cold  and  sterile  soil  of  New  England"  are  sur- 
prised on  finding  it  the  "  Garden  of  the  United  States."  On  every  hand  he  sees 
smiling  and  prosperous  villages,  and,  to  a  very  great  extent,  the  appearance  of  public 
and  private  happiness.  To  whatever  cause  blind  politicians  may  ascribe  this,  it  is 
because  "  the  Pilgrim  spirit  has  not  fled."  Under  no  other  system  but  Christianity  doejt 
true  liberty  exist,  or  are  human  rights  properly  respected.  By  it,  the  existence  of 
man  is  invested  with  dignity  and  importance  ;  by  this  levelling  and  exalting  system 
every  human  being,  in  whatever  circumstances  of  degradation  he  may  be  placed, 
stands  on  an  equality  with  the  mightiest  potentate  of  earth,  and  to  his  fate  is  attached 
a  mysterious  and  inconceivable  importance. 


To  the  various  gentlemen,  throughout  the  commonwealth,  who  have  furnished  infor- 
mation for  the  work,  the  author  would  here  return  his  grateful  acknowledgments, 
particularly  to  the  venerable  T.  M.  Harris,  D.  D.,  librarian  of  the  Historical  Society, 
and  to  Maturin  L.  Fisher,  Esq.,  formerly  librarian,  and  also  to  Samuel  F.  Haven,  Esq., 
the  present  librarian  of  the  American  Antiquarian  Society,  for  their  readiness  to  afford 
every  facility  in  their  power  in  accomplishing  the  object  of  the  work.  The  statements 
respecting  the  business  done  in  each  town  were  copied  from  the  "  Statistical  Tables," 
published  by  the  state  in  1837.  With  regard  to  the  title,  it  being  somewhat  similar  to 
that  of  the  volumes  published  by  the  Historical  Society,  it  was,  at  first,  not  thought 
advisable  to  adopt  the  one  now  selected  ;  upon  further  reflection,  however,  as  the  work 
could  not,  with  propriety,  be  called  a  History  of  Massachusetts,  but  is  properly  a  col- 
lection of  materials  ;  and  as  the  title  is  in  fact  different  from  the  volumes  above  men. 
aoned,  it  is  believed  that  no  just  grounds  of  complaint  are  given  by  adopting  the  present 
title  of  the  book. 

In  giving  the  ecclesiastical  history  of  the  several  towns,  it  may  perhaps  be  thought, 
by  some,  that  an  undue  prominence  is  given  to  the  Congregational  denomination.  In 
reference  to  this,  it  is  to  be  remembered  they  are  the  most  ancient,  as  well  as  most 
numerous,  denomination  in  the  commonwealth ;  that  almost  all  the  town  histories 
which  have  appeared  have  been  written  by  clergymen  of  that  order ;  and  of  course  it  is 
to  be  expected  that  the  religious  history  of  their  own  denomination  would  receive  their 
first  attention.  In  this  publication,  impartiality  has  been  attempted  ;  and  whenever 
authentic  accounts  of  other  denominations  have  been  obtained  they  have  been 
inserted.  Owing  to  prescribed  limits,  there  has  been  an  absolute  necessity  of  being 
brief  on  many  subjects  of  importance  :  many  things  have  been  omitted  which  it  was 
desirable  to  have  inserted.  There  are  materials  enough  to  have  extended  this  publi- 
cation far  beyond  its  present  limits ;  but  to  have  extended  it  to  more  than  one  volume 
would  have  rendered  it  too  expensive  for  general  circulation. 

The  drawings  for  the  numerous  engravings  interspersed  throughout  the  book  were, 
•with  few  exceptions,  taken  on  the  spot  by  the  author  of  this  work.  Before  deciding 
upon  the  correctness  of  these  representations,  he  wishes  his  readers  to  remember  that 
the  appearance  of  any  place  will  vary  considerably  as  it  is  viewed  from  different 
points  :  thus  a  north  view  will  appear  quite  different  from  one  taken  at  the  south.  A 
person  not  being  used  to  see  a  place  from  the  point  from  which  the  drawing  is  made, 
it  may  not  at  the  first  sight  be  readily  recognised.  Before  any  view  is  condemned  as 
being  incorrect,  it  will  be  necessary,  in  order  to  form  a  correct  judgment,  to  stand  on 
the  place  from  whence  the  drawing  was  made. 

In  giving  notices  of  distinguished  individuals,  a  limited  number  only  could  be 
inserted.  In  some  instances  the  information  respecting  some  towns  may  have  been 
defective.  The  history  of  some  important  towns  may  apparently  not  have  received 
that  attention  to  which  they  are  entitled.  This  is  owing  to  two  principal  reasons:  one 
is  the  failure  to  obtain  the  desired  information  after  the  attempt  was  made  ;  the  other 
is  the  fact,  that  of  some  important  places  but  little  can  be  said  which  would  be  of  general 
interest.  Amid  such  a  number  of  names,  dates,  &c.,  it  is  probable  some  mistakes 
may  have  occurred.  A  certain  writer  defines  all  history  to  be  merely  "  an  approxima- 
tion towards  truth."  Though  this  humiliating  statement  cannot  be  fully  allowed,  yet, 
when  the  imperfection  of  every  thing  human  is  considered,  it  cannot  be  denied  but 
that  it  may  have  some  foundation  in  truth. 

T   "W   Tl 

APRIL,  1839. 





Abington,   . 


Dalton,  . 


Hawley,      . 


Acton,  . 

.     346 



Heath,   . 

.     260 




.     171 

Hingham,  . 


Alford,  . 

.       65 




.       75 

Amesbury,  . 

.     310 

Deerfield,    . 

.     455 

Holden,      . 

.     231 

Andover,     . 


Dennis,  . 


Holliston,    . 


Ashby,   . 

.     347 

Dighton,     . 


Hopkinton,     . 

.     393 



Dorchester,    . 

.     463 




.     233 

Douglass,    . 


Hull,      . 

.     509 



Dover,   . 

.      467 


.     110 

Dracut,       . 






Dukes  County,   . 

.     563 


.     509 

Bamstable  County, 


Dunstable,     . 

.      337 

Lancaster,  . 


Barnstable,  . 


Duxbury,    . 



.       76 

Harre,     . 

.     553 

Lee,    .        .        . 




East  Bridgewaier,  . 

.     500 


.     578 


.     348 

Eastham,    . 


.     318 

Lenox,  . 


Bellingham,  . 

.     450 



Leverett,     . 


Berkley,      . 
Berlin,   . 

.     555 

Edgartown,    . 
Egremont,  . 

.      151 

Lexington,     . 

.     397 

Berkshire  County, 


.       60 


.     320 

tr.  j    i  • 

Littleton,    . 

.     401 

Beverly,      . 

.     349 

Essex,    .        ... 
Essex  County,    . 

.     175 

Lowell,       . 

.     281 


Blandford,  . 




Bolton,  . 

.     555 

Fall  River, 

.     120 

Lynn,     .        .        . 


Boxborough,  . 
Boxford,     . 

.     352 

Fitchburg,  . 

.       44 

Lynnfield,  . 



.     556 

Foxborough,  . 

.     468 


.     409 

Bradford,    . 







.     451 


.     469 


.     125 

Brewster,    . 


Franklin  County, 




Bridgewater,  . 

.     495 


.     125 

Marl  borough, 

.     411 

Brighton,    . 


Florida,      . 




Bristol  County.  . 

.     276 


.     568 

Medfield,    . 

.       46 

Brookfield,     . 

.     557 




.     413 

Brookline,  . 


Gill,       . 

.     253 

Medway,    . 


Buckland,      . 

.     240 




.     582 




.     321 

Methuen,    . 


Cambridge,    . 

.     354 


.     320 


.     512 

Canton,       .        . 


Granville,  . 


Middleton,     . 

.     207 


.     363 

Great  Barrington,  . 

.       70 

MMdlfSex  County, 







.     587 


.     364 

Greenwich,    . 

.     321 

Mill  bury,    . 






Milton,  . 

.     475 


.     561 



Chatham,   . 


Hadley,   .      .        . 

.     322 

Monson,       '  . 

.     284 

Chelmsford,  . 

.     374 

Halifax,      . 


Montague,  .        . 


Chelsea,     . 



.     181 


.     286 

Chester,      . 


Hampden  County, 
Hampshire  County, 

.     310 

Mount  Washington, 



.     316 

Hancock,    . 


Nantucket  County, 

.     445 

Chilmark,  . 



.     502 



Clarksburg,   .        . 

.       67 




.     477 

Cohasset  ,  .         . 


Hardwick,     . 

.     571 

New  Ashford, 



.     242 

Harwich,    . 


New  Bedford, 

.     126 

Concord,     .        . 


Harvard,        . 

.     571 

New  Braintree,  . 



.     244 

Hatfield.     . 
Haverhill,      . 

.     182 

Newburyport,     . 

.     203 





New  Marlborough,     .          83 
New  Salem,  .        .        .264 

Russell,      . 

.     600 



.    431 

Newton,     .        .        .        418 


.     600 

Norfolk  County,    .        .    450 
Northampton,     .        .        329 



Upton,  . 
Uxbridge,  . 

.     611 

Northborough,       .         .     589 
Northbridge,      .         .        591 
North  Bridgewater,        .    514 


.     227 
.       51 

Wales,  . 
Walpole,    . 

.     299 

North  Brookfield,       .        591 




.     432 

Northfield,     .         .         .265 

Savoy,   . 

.     90 



Norton,       .        .        .        127 

Scituate,     . 



.     529 

Norwich,       .        .        .334 


.     136 

Warren,     . 





.     274 

Oakham,        .        .        .592 

Sheffield,        . 

.       91 

Washington,       .       '. 


Orange,       .         .        .        268 

Shelburne  . 


Watertown,    . 

.     434 

Orleans,         .        .        .48 


.     423 

Wayland,    . 


Otis,  ....          85 




.     614 

Oxford,  .        .        .        .593 

Shrewsbury,  . 

.      602 

Wellfleet,   . 





.     274 

Palmer,       ...        286 


.      139 

Wenham,    . 


Pawtucket,    .        .        .128 




.     614 

Paxton,       ...        595 


.     604 

West  Boylston,  . 


Pelham,          .         .         .335 



West  Bridgewater, 

.     530 

Pembroke,          .        .        517 

South  Hadley, 

.     338 

West  Cambridge, 


Pepperell,       .        .        .422 

South  Reading 


Westfield,      . 

.     299 

Peru,           ...          86 

Southwick,    . 

.     287 

Westford,   . 


Petersham,    .        .        .596 




.     344 

Phillipston,         .        .        598 

Springfield,    . 

.     289 



Pittsfield,       ...      87 
Plainfield,  ...        335 

Stockbridge,  . 


West  Newbury,      .    . 
Weston,      . 

.     232 

Plymouth,      .         .         .518 




.     146 

Plymouth  County,      .        493 


.     487 

West  Springfield, 


Plympton,      .        .        .523 


.       '  .         428 

West  Stockbridge, 

.     102 

Prescott,     ...        337 


.     607 

We  y  mouth, 


Princeton,       .         .         .     598 

Sudbury,     . 



.     275 

Provincetown,    .        .          49 

Sunderland,   . 

.     272 



Quincy,          .        .        .    478 

Suffolk  County, 

.     532 

Williamstown,    . 

.     344 

Swanzey,    . 


Wilmington,  . 

.     442 

Randolph,  ...        481 



Raynham,      .        .        .130 


.     141 


.     109 

Reading,     .        .   '     .        422 





Rehoboth,      .        .        .132 

Tewksbury,    . 

.     430 

Worcester,     . 

.     618 

Richmond,          .         .          88 

Tisbury,     . 


Worcester  County, 


Rochester,      .         .     ...     524 


.     230 


.     345 

Rowe,          .         .         .         269 

Tofland,     . 




Rowley,          .         .        .217 

Town  send, 

.     431 

Roxbury,    .         .        .        482 




.     58 

I  N  D 


E  X. 

Adams  houses,  Quincy,          .                     480 
Alden,  Lieut.  J.,  epitaph,      .                     496 

Ashley,  Col.  John,  epitaph,   . 
Atheneum,  Boston, 


Allen,  Capt.  John,  epitaph,     .                      201 

Atheneum  at  Nantucket, 


Allen,  George,  epitaph,           .                       138 
Americans  killed  at  Lexington,                   400 
Ames,  Fisher,  notice  of,         .                      462 

Atherton,  H.,  epitaph,    . 
Atherton,  Rev.  Mr.,  preservation,  . 
Auburn,  Mt.,  cemetery, 


Ancient  church,  W.  Springfield,                  306 

J  > 

Ancient  house  in  Deerfield,   .                      251 
Ancient  house  in  Stockbridge,                       98 
Andross,  seizure  of,        .         .                        26 

Baptist  church,  first  in  Massachusetts, 
Bailey,  T.  and  L.,  epitaphs,  .        .    «_ 
Bancroft,  J.,  epitaph,      .        .        .  j1' 


Anecdote,  revolutionary,  New  Sal  m,         264 
Annawon,  capture  of,     .                                135 
Annawon's  rock,  view  of,       .                      134 

Barnard,  Rev.  J.,  epitaph, 
Battle  of  Lake  George,  account  of, 
Bean,  Rev.  J.,  epitaph, 


Antiquarian  Hall,  Worcester,                      620 

Beers,  Capt.,  surprised  and  slain,  . 


Arabella,  lady,       ...                       19 
Ark  in  Pawtucket  river,         .                      129 

Bell  Tavern  at  Danvers, 
Bills  of  credit,  first, 


Armory  buildings,  Springfield,                   294 

.     622 



Blackstone,  William,  account  of,   . 
Bleeders,  notice  of  persons  so  called, 
Blind,  institution  for,     . 
Bliss,  Rev.  D.,  epitaph, 
Bloodshed,  first  in  Philip's  war,    . 
Bloody  Brook,  attack  of, 
Bordwell,  E.,  epitaph, 
Boston,  evacuation  of,    . 
Boston  harbor  first  visited,     . 
Boston  in  1 663,  .  . 

Boston  massacre,  1770, 
Boundary  line  between  Connecticut  > 
and  Massachusetts,  ) 

Bours,  Rev.  Peter,  epitaph,   . 
Bowditch,  Hon.  Nathaniel,  notice  of, 
Bradford,  Hon.  W.,  epitaph, 
Brainerd,  David,  notice  of, 
Breck, J.,  epitaph, 
Breck,  Rev.  Robert,  epitaph, 
Breck,  Rev.  R.,  epitaph, 
Bridge,  Rev.  E*.,  epitaph,       .        <. 
Brookfield,  attack  on, 
Brown,  Capt.  J.,  . 

Bryant,  Wm.  C.,  notice  of,    . 
Bug,  singular  account  of, 
Bunker  Hill  battle, 
Burk,  Major  John,  journal  of, 

Cabotville,  Springfield,  .. 

Cargill,  Hugh,  epitaph, 
Cesar,  a  slave,  epitaph  on, 
Chabanakongkomun,  Indian  town, 
Chapman,  Thomas,  epitaph, 
Chauncy,  Rev.  J.,  epitaph,    . 
Cheese,  the  mammoth, 
Chicopee  village,  Springfield, 
Church,  first  Protestant  in  America, 
Churches,  list  of,  Boston, 
Church,  ancient,  at  Hingham, 
Clams,  account  of  taking, 
Clark,  Rev.  T.,  epitaph, 
Coffin,  Admiral  Sir  Isaac,     . 
C«it,  I.,  Dr.,  epitaph, 
College  commons,  ancient,     . 
Concord,  action  at,         ... 
Congregational  church,  first, 
Convention  at  Hatfield, 
Coin,  first  in  New  England,  . 
Cornette,  L.,  epitaph, 
Correction,  house  of, 
Cotton,  Rev.  J.,  epitaph, 
Cushman,  T.,  epitaph, 

Daggett,  Rev.  Naphtali,  taken  prisoner 

Danforth,  Capt.  J.,  notice  of, 

Day,  first  printer, 

Dighton  rock,  inscriptions,  &c., 

Doolittle's  engravings, 

Dorrellites,  account  of, 

Dummer  academy,  oldest  in  N.  E., 

Dustin,  Mr.  and  Mrs.,  escape, 

East  Cambridge,  view  of, 
East  Boston,  view  of, 
Eaton,  Gen.,  notice  of, 
Edwards,  Rev.  Jonathan, 
Eels  in  Merrimac  river, 
Elizabeth  Islands,  Martha's  Vineyard, 
Elegy  on  Rev.  Mr.  Whitefield, 
Eliot's  translation,  anecdote,  . 
Eliot,  Rev.  John,  notice  of,    . 
Epitaphs,  Latin,  Cambridge, . 
Eustiss,  William,  epitaph, 
Execution  of  Daley  and  Halligan, 




Fare,  bill  of,  on  Cape  Cod,    . 
Fairhaven,  attack  on,     . 
Fall  fight,  Turner's  falls, 



Faneuil  Hall,  view  of,    . 



Father's  Choice,  poetry,  by  Mrs.  Hale, 



Fearing,  Maj  .  Israel,  bravery  of,    . 
Fire  at  Newburyport,  account  of,  . 



Fire  at  Shrewsbury  



Fisk,  Rev.  Moses,  epitaph,    . 
Folger,  Peter,  notice  of,         ... 



Four  Comers  village,  Middleborough,   . 



Franklin,  Benjamin,  notice  of, 



French  Protestants  at  Oxford, 




Gage,  Gen.,  residence,  Danvers,     .        . 



Gay  Head,  Martha's  Vineyard, 



Gerry,  Hon.  Elbridge,  notice  of,   . 



Gloucester,  strange  occurrences  at, 
Glover,  Brigadier  Gen.,  notice  of,  . 



Glover,  John,  epitaph, 
Gookin,  Maj.  Gen.,  notice  of, 



Gosnold's  discoveries,  &c.,  1602,    . 



Gray  Lock,  an  Indian  



Green,  Joseph,  Rev.,  inscription,   . 



Groton  attacked  by  Indians,  . 




Hale,  old  Mr.,  singularities  of, 


Harvard,  Rev.  John, 



Harvard  University, 



Heath,  Maj.  Gen.  William, 




Hermit,  Timothy  Leonard, 
Historical  Society,  Mass. 



Holyoke,  Mt.,  view  from, 



Holyoke,  Mrs.  Mari,  epitaph 



House,  oldest  in  N.  E., 



House  on  Cape  Cod, 



Horn  Pond,  Woburn,  . 



Hospital,  State  Lunatic,                 .        * 



Hospital,  Mass.  General, 



Howe,  L.,  singular  monument  of,  . 



Howe,  Rev.  Mr.,  of  Hopkinton,    . 



Hubbard's  Indian  Wars,  notice  of, 



Hutchinson,  Gov.,  notice  of, 



Hutchinson,  Mrs.,  account  of, 




Indian  church  in  Marsh  pee, 
Indians  on  Martha's  Vineyard, 



Indians,  first  church  of,           . 



Indian  traditions,  Nantucket, 



Indian  tradition,  Dighton, 



Indians  christianized,    . 



Inoculation  of  small-pox, 


Iron  forge,  first,          .            . 




Jack,  John,  epitaph  on,           .        .        . 



Jerusalem,  New,  church,  tenets,     . 



Judson,  Rev.  E.,  epitaph, 




Konkapot,  Indian  captain, 




Landing,  first  celebration  of, 


Lathrop,  Rev.  Joseph,  notice  of,    . 



Law  decisions,  curious,  . 



Le  Baron,  Dr.,  notice  of,        .        .        . 



Leonard  house  in  Raynham,  . 



Leonard,  Zephaniah,  epitaph, 



Lexington,  views  in,      .        .        .    396 

,  399 


Lincoln,  Benjamin,  Maj.  Gen., 



Louisburg,  capture  of,    . 





Lowell,  Chevalier's  account  of, 



Lyman,  Rev.  H.  epitaph, 
Lynn,  poetic  description  of  settlers, 
Lyon,  Marcus,  murder  of,      . 




Mallefuild,  J.,  epitaph,  . 
Mann,  Bazaleel,  and  Dr.,  epitaph,  . 
Marine  Hospital,  Chelsea,     .        .        . 


Saddle  Mountain,  view  of, 
Salt,  manner  of  making,                 . 


.      40 

Marblehead,  description  of,  1720,  . 
Marriage,  first,  notice  of, 
Massasoit,  sickness  of,  . 
Massachusetts,  Fort,      .... 
Massachusetts  patent,    .... 
Mather,  Cotton,  notice  of, 


Scammel,  Gen.  Alexander, 
Sea  serpent,  account  of,  .                 .^ 
Seal  of  Massachusetts,  &c., 
Sergeant,  Rev.  John, 
Shaker  village  in  Hancock, 
Shays'  defeat  at  Springfield, 
Sheffield,  remarkable  occurrences  in, 

.     588 
.     180 
.     219 
.       96 
.      74 
.    297 
.       93 


Sherman,  Rev.  J.,  epitaph,     . 

.     439 

McLean  Asylum,           . 
Monument  mountain,     .... 
Monument  at  Concord,  . 
Monument  at  Bloody  Brook,  . 
Monument  at  Bunker  Hill,     . 
Monument  at  Danvers  
Monis,  Rabbi  Judah,      .... 
Mountain  Miller,  account  of,  . 
Mt.  Holyoke  Female  Seminary,    . 
Mugford,  Capt.  James,  .... 
Murder  of  Miss  McKinstry,  .        .        * 

Nahant,  account  of, 
Nashoba,  Indian  town,           . 
Navy  yard,  Charlestown, 
Newman,  Rev.  Mr.,  remarkable  death,  . 
Newspaper,  first  in  America, 
Nonantum,  Indian  settlement, 



Shipwreck  of  the  pirate  Bellamy,  . 
Skeleton,  &c.,  found  at  Fall  River, 
Snake  attack  on  Nauhaught, 
South  Boston,  view  of,  . 
Spurzheim,  monumenl  of, 
Stamp  Act,    
Standish,  Capt.,  notice  ofj      . 
State  prison,  Charlestown,     . 
State-house,  Boston, 
Stockbridge  Indians,  account  of,    . 
Stoddard,  Rev.  Mr.,  preservation  of, 
Stone,  Capt.  J.,  epitaph, 
"  Striped  Pig,"  &c. 
Superstition  of  an  Irishman,  . 
Swamp  fight,  Narragansetts, 
Swift,  Rev.  J.,  epitaph,  . 

Tappan,  Benj.,  epitaph, 
Tea,  destruction  of,        ... 

.       67 
.     123 
.       59 
.     536 
.     361 
.       29 
17,  499 
.     367 
.     542 
.     332 
.     386 
.     130 
.     137 
.       24 
.     339 

.     201 

.     547 

Old  colony  seal,     .                 . 
Oldtown  harbor,     .                 . 
Ordination  at  Woburn, 
Ordination  at  Salem, 
Ossian,  quotation  from, 
Otis,  James,  notice  of,            ... 

Page,  "  Old  Governor,"  . 
Paine,  Robert  Treat,  notice  of, 
Paper-mill,  first  in  N.  E., 
Parsons,  Theophilus,  notice  of, 
Paskhomuch,  Indian  attack  on, 
Pear  tree,  ancient,  Eastham, 
Perkins,  Jacob,  notice  of, 



Thatcher,  Col.  J.,  notice  of,  . 
Thompson,  E.,  epitaph, 
Thomas,  Isaiah,  notice  of,     . 
Tornado  at  Salisbury,    . 
Townsend,  Daniel,  epitaph,   . 
Treat,  Rev.  Mr.,  burial  of,     .        « 
Turner's  falls,        .... 
Turner,  Capt.,  killed,    . 
Tuttle,  Mr.,  killed  by  mistake, 

Ursuline  convent, 

Van  Rensselaer,  Mr.  remarkable 
preservation  of,  . 
Vale  of  West  Boylston 

.       59 
.     612 
.     621 
.     228 
.     199 
.       43 
.     254 
.     255 
.     263 

.     863 

,       73 

Philip,  King,  draught  by, 
Pickering,  Timothy,  epitaph, 
Pilgrim  Society,    .                         . 
Pilgrim  Hall,         .        .                 . 
Pilgrim  Fathers,  landing  of, 
Pirates  at  Saugus,          .                 .        . 
Plymouth  settlers,  names  of, 
Pool,  Miss,  monument  of, 
Powder  mill  explosion  at  Lee 


Walker,  J.,  epitaph, 
Ward,  Judge,  intrepidity  of,  . 
Ward,  Artemas,  Hon.,  epitaph, 
Wachusett,  Mt.,  view  of; 
Wadsworth,  Capt.,  killed,     . 
Wamesit,  an  Indian  town, 
Warren,  Gen.,  notice  of, 

.     328 

.     624 
.     604 
.     600 
.     430 

.     404 
.     485 
.     359 

Pratt,  Mr.,  great  age  of, 
Prentice,  Capt.  T.,  epitaph, 
Punkapoag,  Indian  town, 
Puritans,  account  of,                       . 
Pynchon  house,  Springfield, 



Webster,  John,  epitaph, 
Webster,  Hon.  Daniel,  residence,  . 
Wesleyan  academy  at  Wilbraham, 
Weld,  Rev.  Mr.,  notice  of,     . 
Wells,  J.,  escape  from  the  Indians. 
Whale  fishery,       .... 

.     326 
.     512 
.     308 
.     113 
.     257 
.     448 

Quakers,  laws  against, 
Quincy  Market,  Boston, 
Auincy,  Josiah,  epitaph, 



Whaling  song,  by  Dr.  Osborn, 
Whitman,  Eliza,  notice  of,    . 
Whitefield,  notice  of,  monument,  &c., 
Willet,  Capt.  Thomas,  notice  of,    . 

.       53 
.     175 
.     214 
.     138 

Regicides,  Gofie  and  Whalley,      . 
Robbins,  Dr.,  library,     . 
Rock,  fractured,  Sunderland, 
Rocks,  sacrifice,  Plymouth, 
Rock,  writing,  at  Dighton, 
Roarers,  Rev.  E.,  epitaph, 
Roifc,  Rev.  Mr.,  killed  by  Indians, 
Russell.  Rer.  J.  and  Mrs.,  epitaph, 
Rutland,  incursion  of  Indians, 


Williams,  Hon.  I.,  epitaph,  . 
Williams,  Mrs.,  killed  by  Indians, 
Williams,  Rev.  S.,  epitaph,  . 
Witchcraft  at  Andover, 
Witchcraft  at  Danvers,  . 
Witchcraft,  notice  of,     . 
Witchcraft,  Cotton  Mather's  account, 
Wood's  hole,  Falmouth, 
Wood,  Capt.  David,  epitaph, 
Woodcock,  John,  notice  of,    . 

.     328 
.     258 
.     334 
.     163 
.     172 
.       27 
.    221 
.      44 
.      46 
.     Ill 



MASSACHUSETTS,^  the  oldest  of  the  New  England  states,  and 
the  first  in  population  and  resources,  was  first  permanently  settled 
by  Europeans  at  Plymouth,  on  the  22d  of  December,  1620.  There 
is  good  reason  to  believe  that  the  first  civilized  people  who  visited 
the  territory  now  comprised  within  the  limits  of  the  state,  were  the 
Norwegians,  who  emigrated  from  Iceland,  and  formed  a  settlement 
on  the  coast  of  Greenland  in  A.  D.  986.  From  this  place,  in  A.  D. 
1000,  a  ship,  with  a  crew  of  thirty-five  men,  proceeded  southward 
on  a  voyage  of  discovery.  From  the  account  of  their  voyage, 
which  is  still  preserved,  it  appears  highly  probable  that  they  sailed 
as  far  south  as  Narragansett  bay,  near  the  head  of  which  it  is 
supposed  they  passed  the  winter.  It  also  appears  that  after  this 
period  they  made  other  voyages  along  the  coast,  and  even  attempted 
settlements,  of  the  fate  of  which  we  have  no  information. 

About  the  period  of  the  commencement  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
the  English  sovereigns  maintained  a  despotic  power  over  the  con- 
sciences of  their  subjects.  All  who  dissented  from  the  national 
creed  established  by  law  were  persecuted  with  great  rigor.  The 
avowed  maxim  in  that  age,  adopted  by  religious  as  well  as  political 
rulers,  was,  that  uniformity  in  religion  was  essential  to  the  peace 
of  society ;  and  that  it  was  therefore  the  right  and  duty  of  every 
sovereign  to  maintain  it  in  his  dominions,  by  the  force  of  law  and 

In  1602,  a  number  of  religious  people  in  the  north  of  England, 
called  Puritans,  (so  called  from  their  efforts  to  preserve  purity  in 
divine  worship,)  were  so  persecuted  on  account  of  their  religious 
sentiments,  that  they  were  compelled  to  take  measures  to  find 
refuge  in  a  foreign  land.  A  little  band  of  these  brethren  entered 
into  a  solemn  covenant  with  each  other  "to  walk  with  God  and  one 
another,  in  the  enjoyment  of  the  ordinances  of  God,  according  to 
the  primitive  pattern,"  whatever  it  might  cost  them.  '  A  number 
of  ministers  entered  into  this  association,  among  whom  was  Mr. 
Robinson,  a  man  of  eminent  piety  and  learning. 

Mr.  Robinson,  and  as  many  of  his  congregation  as  found  it  in 

*  This  word  was  the  name  for  an  Indian  tribe  who  lived  around  the  vicinity  of 
Massachusetts  Bay.  The  word  Massachusetts,  according  to  Roger  Williams,  signifies, 
in  the  Indian  language,  Blue-Hills. 


10  OUTLINE     HI  is   I1  u  R  Y  . 

their  power,  left  England  in  the  years  1607  and  1608,  settled  in 
Amsterdam,  in  Holland,  from  whence,  in  1609,  they  removed  to 
Leyden.  Here  they  lived  in  great  friendship  among  themselves 
and  their  neighbors,  until  they  removed  to  New  England.  As 
early  as  1617,  Mr.  Robinson's  people  meditated  a  removal  to 
America.  The  reasons  of  their  removal  were,  to  preserve  the 
morals  of  their  youth,  which  were  in  danger  of  being  corrupted  by 
the  dissolute  manners  of  their  neighbors,  the  Dutch ;  the  desire  of 
perpetuating  a  church  which  they  believed  to  be  constituted  after 
the  simple  and  pure  model  of  the  primitive  church  of  Christ ;  and 
a  zeal  to  propagate  the  Gospel  in  the  regions  of  the  new  world. 

These  reasons  having  been  duly  considered  by  the  church,  after 
seeking  divine  direction  by  humiliation  and  prayer,  they  agreed  to 
come  over  to  America,  and  settle  in  a  distinct  body,  under  the 
general  government  of  Virginia.  They  also  agreed  that  their 
pastor,  Mr.  Robinson,  should  remain  with  the  greater  part  of  the 
church,  whether  they  chose  to  remain  at  Leyden,  or  to  come  over 
to  America.  In  1617  they  sent  Mr.  Robert  Cushman  and  Mr. 
John  Carver  to  England,  to  treat  with  the  Virginia  Company,  and 
ascertain  whether  the  king  would  grant  them  liberty  of  conscience, 
if  they  removed  to  their  territory.  The  Virginia  Company  were 
very  desirous  to  have  them  settle  within  the  limits  of  their  patent ; 
the  king,  however,  would  grant  no  public  recognition  of  religious 
liberty,  but  promised  that  if  they  behaved  peaceably  he  would 
not  molest  them  on  account  of  their  religious  sentiments.  In 
February,  1619,  Mr.  Cushman  and  Mr.  Bradford  were  sent  to 
England,  where,  after  a  long  attendance,  they  obtained  of  the 
Virginia  Company  a  patent  of  the  northern  parts  of  Virginia.  This 
patent  was  taken  out  in  the  name  of  John  Wincob,  a  religious 
gentleman  in  the  family  of  the  Countess  of  Lincoln,  who  intended 
to  accompany  them,  but  was  providentially  detained.  This  patent 
therefore  was  never  used,  but  carried,  however,  to  Leyden,  with 
proposals  from  Mr.  Weston,  and  several  other  respectable  mer- 
chants and  friends,  for  their  consideration,  with  a  request  that 
immediate  preparations  should  be  made  for  their  voyage. 

After  a  day  of  solemn  prayer,  in  accordance  with  their  custom 
previous  to  their  engaging  in  important  concerns,  the  congregation 
of  Mr.  Robinson  concluded  to  remove  to  America.  As  it  was  not 
convenient  for  all  of  them  to  go  at  once,  it  was  agreed  that  part  of 
their  number  should  go,  and  make  preparation  for  the  rest,  After 
due  consultation,  it  was  determined  that  Mr.  Robinson  and  the 
greater  part  of  the  congregation  should  remain  at  Leyden.  The 
other  part,  with  Mr.  Brewster  for  their  elder  and  teacher,  agreed 
to  be  the  first  adventurers.  A  small  ship,  of  about  sixty  tons, 
called  the  Speedwell,  was  now  purchased  and  fitted  out  in  Holland; 
another  of  about  one  hundred  and  eighty  tons,  called  the  May- 
flower, was  hired  at  London.  "  All  other  matters  being  prepared, 
a  large  concourse  of  friends  from  Amsterdam  and  Leyden  accom- 
panied the  adventurers  to  the  ship,  which  lay  at  Delft  Haven ;  and 
the  night  preceding  their  embarkation  was  spent  in  tearful  prayers, 

O  IT  T  M  N  E     H  I  S  T  O  R  Y  .  11 

and  in  the  most  tender  and  friendly  intercourse.  The  next  day 
fair  wind  invited  their  departure.  The  parting  scene  is  more 
easily  felt  than  described.  Their  mutual  good  wishes,  their 
affectionate  and  cordial  embraces,  and  other  endearing  expressions 
of  Christian  love  and  friendship,  drew  tears  even  from  the  stran- 
gers who  beheld  the  scene.  When  the  time  arrived  that  they  must 
part,  they  all,  with  their  beloved  pastor,  fell  on  their  knees,  and 
with  eyes,  and  hands,  and  hearts  lifted  to  Heaven,  fervently  com- 
mended their  adventuring  brethren  to  the  Lord  and  his  blessing. 
Thus,  after  mutual  embraces,  accompanied  with  many  tears,  they 
bid  a  long,  and  many  of  them  a  last,  farewell." 

Having  a  fair  wind,  they  arrived  at  Southampton  about  the  2d 
of  July,  and  found  that  the  Mayflower  had  arrived  at  that  place 
from  London,  and  immediate  preparations  were  made  for  embarka- 
tion. They  divided  themselves  into  two  companies,  one  for  each 
ship,  and,  with  the  approbation  of  the  captains,  each  company 
chose  a  governor,  and  two  or  three  assistants,  to  preserve  order 
and  distribute  provisions.  They  sailed  from  Southampton  on  the 
5th  of  August.  They  had  not  proceeded  far,  before  the  smallest 
ship  proved  so  leaky,  that  they  were  obliged  to  return  and  refit. 
On  the  21st  of  August,  they  sailed  again,  and  proceeded  about  one 
hundred  leagues,  when  they  were  obliged  to  return  again,  when  the 
smaller  ship  was  left  behind  as  unfit  for  service.  Leaving  a  part 
of  the  company  which  had  embarked  in  the  smaller  vessel,  the 
remainder  went  on  board  of  the  Mayflower.  On  the  6th  of  Septem- 
ber, they  set  sail  from  Plymouth.  After  a  boisterous  passage, 
they  arrived  at  Cape  Cod  on  the  9th  of  November,  and  the  next 
day  they  anchored  in  the  harbor  which  is  formed  by  the  hook  of 
the  cape.  This  however  was  not  the  place  of  their  destination ; 
neither  was  it  within  the  limits  of  their  patent.  It  was  their  inten- 
tion to  have  been  landed  at  the  mouth  of  Hudson  river ;  but  it 
appears  the  Dutch,  intending  to  plant  a  colony  there  of  their  own, 
secretly  hired  the  master  of  the  ship  to  contrive  delays  in  England, 
and  then  to  conduct  them  to  these  northern  coasts,  and  there,  under 
the  pretence  of  shoals  and  winter,  to  discourage  them  in  venturing 
to  the  place  of  their  destination. 

Finding  that  they  were  not  within  the  limits  of  their  patent,  and 
consequently  not  under  the  jurisdiction  of  the  Virginia  Company, 
they  concluded  it  necessary  to  establish  a  separate  government  for 
themselves.  Accordingly,  before  landing,  having  devoutly  given 
thanks  to  the  Almighty  for  their  safe  arrival,  they  formed  them- 
selves into  a  body  politic  by  a  solemn  contract,  to  which  they  all 
subscribed,  and  Mr.  John  Carver  was  unanimously  chosen  their  go- 
vernor for  the  first  year.  The  following  is  a  copy  of  this  contract, 
with  the  names  of  the  signers,  the  number  in  their  families,  &c. 

"  In  the  name  of  God,  Amen.  We  whose  names  are  under  written,  the  loyal  sub- 
jects  of  our  dread  sovereign  Lord  Kirn:  James,  by  the  grace  of  God,  of  Great  Britain, 
France  and  Ireland,  king^  defender  of  the  faith,  Ace.,  having  undertaken,  for  the  glory 
of  God  and  advancement  of  the  chrstkm  faith  and  honor  of  our  king  and  country,  a 
voyage  to  plant  the  first  colony  in  the  northern  parts  of  Virginia,  do,  by  these  presents, 
solemnly  and  mutually,  in  the  presence  of  God  and  of  one  another,  covenant  and  com 



bine  ourselves  together  into  a  civil  body  politic,  for  our  better  ordering  and  preserva- 
tion, and  furtherance  of  the  ends  aforesaid ;  and  by  virtue  hereof  do  enact,  constitute, 
and  frame  such  just  and  equal  laws  and  ordinances,  acts,  constitutions,  and  offices, 
from  time  to  time,  as  shall  be  thought  most  meet  and  convenient  for  the  general  good 
of  the  colony,  unto  which  we  promise  all  due  subjection  and  obedience.  In  witness 
whereof  we  have  hereunto  subscribed  our  names,  at  Cape  Cod,  the  llth  day  of 
November,  in  the  year  of  the  reign  of  our  sovereign  Lord  King  James  of  England, 
France  and  Ireland,  the  eighteenth,  and  of  Scotland  the  fifty-fourth,  Anno  DdVnini 

This  compact  was  subscribed  in  the  following  order  by 

No.  in  Family.  I 

Mr.  John  Carver,!  8 

Mr.  William  Bradford,! 
Mr.  Edward  Winslow,! 
Mr.  William  Brewster,! 
Mr.  Isaac  Allerton,! 
Capt.  Miles  Standish,! 
John  Alden, 
Mr.  Samuel  Fuller, 

*  Mr,   Christopher  Mar- 
tin,! 4 

*  Mr.  William  Mullins,!  5 

*  Mr.  William  White,!      5 
(Besides  a  son  born  in 

Cape  Cod  harbor,  and 
named  Peregrine) 
Mr.  Richard  Warren,         1 

No.  in  Family. 

John  Howland,  (of  Car- 
ver's family,) 
Mr.  Stephen  Hopkins,!      8 

*  Edward  Tilly,!  4 

*  John  Tilly,!  3 
Francis  Cook,  2 

*  Thomas  Rogers,  2 

*  Thomas  Tinker,!  3 

*  John  Ridgdale,!  2 

*  Edward  Fuller,!  3 

*  John  Turner,  3 
Francis  Eaton,!  3 

*  James  Chilton,!  3 

*  John  Crackston,  2 
John  Billington,!  4 

*  Moses  Fletcher,  1 

No.  in  Family. 

*  John  Goodman,  1 

*  Degory  Priest,  1 

*  Thomas  Williams,          1 
Gilbert  Winslow,  1 

*  Edward  Margeson,         1 
Peter  Brown,  1 

*  Richard  Britterige,          1 
George  Soule,  (of  Edward 

Winslow's  family) 

*  Richard  Clarke,     '  1 
Richard  Gardiner,               1 

*  John  Allerton,  1 

*  Thomas  English,  I 
Edward  Dotey,   Edward 

Leister,    (both  of  Ste- 
phen Hopkins'  family.) 

This  brief,  and  comprehensive,  and  simple  instrument  established  a  most  important 
principle,  a  principle  which  is  the  foundation  of  all  the  democratic  institutions  of  Ame- 
rica, and  is  the  basis  of  the  republic  •,  and,  however  it  may  be  expanded  and  compli- 
cated in  our  various  constitutions,  however  unequally  power  may  be  distinguished  m 
the  different  branches  of  our  various  governments,  has  imparted  to  each  its  strongest 
and  most  striking  characteristic. 

Many  philosophers  have  since  appeared,  who  have,  in  labored  treatises,  endeavored 
to  prove  the  doctrine,  that  the  rights  of  man  are  inalienable,  and  nations  have  bled 
to  defend  and  enforce  them,  yet  in  this  dark  age,  the  age  of  despotism  and  supersti- 
tion, when  no  tongue  dared  to  assert,  and  no  pen  to  write,  this  bold  and  novel  doctrine, 
which  was  then  as  much  at  defiance  with  common  opinion  as  with  actual  power,  of 
which  the  monarch  was  then  held  to  be  the  sole  fountain,  and  the  theory  was  univer- 
sal, that  all  popular  rights  were  granted  by  the  crown, — in  this  remote  wilderness, 
amongst  a  small  and  unknown  band  of  wandering  outcasts,  the  principle  that  the  mill 
of  the  majority  of  the  people  shall  govern,  was  first  conceived,  and  was  first  practically 

The  pilgrims,  from  their  notions  of  primitive  Christianity,  the  force  of  circumstan- 
ces, and  that  pure  moral  feeling  which  is  the  offspring  of  true  religion,  discovered  a 
truth  in  the  science  of  government  which  had  been  concealed  for  ages.  On  the 
bleak  shore  of  a  barren  wilderness,  in  the  midst  of  desolation,  with  the  blast  of  winter 
howling  around  them,  and  surrounded  with  dangers  in  their  most  awful  and  appall- 
ing forms,  the  pilgrims  of  Leyden  laid  the  foundation  of  American  liberty. — Baylies, 
vol.  i.  p.  29. 

Government  being  thus  established,  their  next  object  was  to  find 
a  convenient  place  for  a  settlement.  On  the  same  day  sixteen  men, 
well  armed,  with  a  few  others,  were  sent  on  shore  to  fetch  wood 
and  make  discoveries.  They  returned  at  night  without  having 
found  any  person  or  habitation.  On  the  15th  of  November,  Miles 
Standish,  and  sixteen  armed  men,  in  searching  for  a  place  for  set- 
tlement, saw  five  or  six  Indians,  whom  they  followed  for  several 

!  Those  with  this  mark  brought  their  wives. 

*  Those  who  died  before  the  end  of  the  next  March  are  distinguished  by  an  aste- 


miles,  until  night ;  but,  not  overtaking  them,  were  obliged  to  lodge 
in  the  woods.  The  next  day  they  discovered  heaps,  one  of  which 
they  dug  open ;  but  finding  within  implements  of  war,  they  con- 
cluded these  were  Indian  graves.  In  different  heaps  of  sand  they 
also  found  baskets  of  corn,  a  quantity  of  which  they  took  away, 
to  the  amount  of  about  ten  bushels.  This  was  a  fortunate  disco- 
very; it  gave  them  seed  for  a  future  harvest,  and  probably  saved 
the  infant  colony  from  famine.  They  made  diligent  inquiry  for 
the  owners  of  the  corn,  whom  they  found,  and  afterwards  paid 
them  to  their  entire  satisfaction.  Before  the  end  of  November, 
Peregrine  White,  the  son  of  William  and  Susanna  White,  was 
born,  being  the  first  child  of  European  parents  born  in  New 

On  the  sixth  of  December,  the  shallop  was  sent  out  with  seve- 
ral of  the  principal  men,  Carver,  Bradford,  Win  slow,  Standish, 
and  others,  and  eight  or  ten  seamen,  to  sail  around  the  bay  in 
search  of  a  place  for  a  settlement.  The  next  day  the  company 
divided;  and  some  travelled  on  the  shore,  whilst  the  others  coasted 
in  the  shallop.  On  the  morning  of  the  eighth,  those  on  the  shore 
were  surprised  by  a  party  of  Indians,  who  shot  their  arrows  at 
them ;  they  however  instantly  fled  upon  the  discharge  of  the  mus- 
kets of  the  English.  On  the  night  of  the  ninth,  being  Saturday, 
they  reached  a  small  island,  (since  called  Clark's  Island).  They 
reposed  themselves,  and  on  the  next  day  on  this  spot  they  kept 
the  Christian  Sabbath.  The  day  following,  December  llth,  O.  S., 
they  sounded  the  harbor,  and  found  it  "fit  for  shipping."  A  part 
of  their  number  landed  and  went  some  distance  into  the  country. 
They  also  examined  the  land  near  the  shore,  and  found  it  hai 
been  planted  with  Indian  corn  two  or  three  years  before.  A  beau- 
tiful brook  was  near,  and  a  number  of  springs  of  pure  water;  and 
judging  this  to  be  a  good  place  for  a  settlement,  they  returned  with 
the  welcome  intelligence  to  the  ship.  This  day  has  since  been 
considered  as  the  day  on  which  the  Pilgrim  Fathers  landed  on 
the  Rock  of  Plymouth.  The  day  which  has  been  annually  cele- 
brated in  commemoration  of  this  momentous  event,  is  the  twenty- 
second  of  December,  N.  S.,  which  has  been  supposed  to  correspond 
with  the  eleventh,  O.  S. 

On  Saturday  the  23d,  they  began  to  cut  timber  and  provide 
materials  for  building.  This  business  found  them  employment, 
when  the  weather  would  permit,  till  about  the  19th  of  February. 
The  whole  company,  consisting  of  one  hundred  and  one  souls,  were 
divided  into  nineteen  families,  who  each  built  their  own  house  or 
hut ;  they  all,  however,  engaged  in  building  a  storehouse  twenty  feet 
square  for  common  use.  From  the  time  of  their  arrival  on  the  coast, 
till  the  day  of  their  permanent  landing,  the  weather  was  often  stormy 
and  severe.  The  men  who  were  employed  in  exploring  the  coast, 
were  exposed  to  great  hardships  from  watchings  and  fastings,  wet 
and  cold.  During  the  month  of  December,  six  of  their  number 
died,  and  many  others  sickened  of  grievous  colds,  of  which  they 
never  recovered.  On  the  Lord's  day,  December  31st,  they  attend- 


od  public  worship  for  the  first  time  on  shore,  and  named  the  place 
Plymouth;  partly  because  the  harbor  was  so  named  by  Capt. 
Smith  ,  who  visited  this  coast  in  1614,  and  partly  from  gratitude 
for  the  kind  treatment  they  had  received  from  Christian  friends  at 
Plymouth,  the  last  port  in  England  which  they  had  left. 

The  colonists,  on  the  9th  of  January  1621,  proceeded  to  the 
erection  of  their  town,  which  they  built  in  two  rows  of  houses 
for  greater  security.  On  the  14th,  their  common  storehouse  took 
fire  from  a  spark  that  fell  on  its  thatched  roof,  and  was  entirely 
consumed;  but  providentially,  by  the  timely  exertions  of  the  peo- 
ple, the  contents  of  the  building,  so  necessary  for  their  support, 
were  preserved.  On  the  17th  of  February  they  met  for  settling 
military  orders,  and  Miles  Standish  was  chosen  their  captain. 
The  settlers  suffered  extremely  this  month  by  sickness  and  death, 
and  no  less  than  seventeen  of  their  number  died.  Their  sufferings 
were  much  increased  by  the  want  of  well  persons  to  take  care  of 
the  sick  ;  there  being  at  one  time  no  more  than  six  or  seven  in 
tolerable  health.  In  March,  1621,  fifty-five  only  survived  of  the 
one  hundred  and  one  who  came  in  the  Mayflower. 

On  the  16th  of  March,  an  Indian  came  into  Plymouth  alone, 
and  surprised  the  inhabitants  by  calling  out  in  broken  English, 
"  Welcome,  Englishmen  !  Welcome,  Englishmen!"  He  was  the 
first  of  the  natives  who  visited  them  :  his  name  was  Samoset,  and 
was  a  Sagamore  who  had  come  from  Monhiggon,  (a  place  now  in 
the  limits  of  Maine,)  where  he  had  learned  something  of  the 
English  tongue  from  the  captains  of  the  fishing  vessels  who 
resorted  thither.  He  informed  the  Plymouth  people  that  the  place 
where  they  were  seated  was  called  by  the  Indians  Patuxet  ;  that 
all  the  inhabitants  died  of  an  extraordinary  plague  about  four 
years  since  ;  and  that  there  was  neither  man,  woman  nor  child 
remaining.  No  natives,  therefore,  were  dispossessed  of  their  land 
to  make  room  for  the  English,  excepting  by  the  providence  of  God, 
before  their  arrival. 

Samoset  was  treated  with  hospitality  by  the  settlers,  and  was 
disposed  to  preserve  an  intercourse  with  them  ;  and  on  his  third 
visit  brought  Squanto,  one  of  the  natives  who  had  been  basely 
carried  off  by  Capt.  Hunt  in  1614,  and  afterwards  lived  in 
England.  These  Indians  informed  the  English  that  Massasoit, 
the  greatest  king  of  the  neighboring  tribes,  was  near,  with  a  train 
of  sixty  men.  The  meeting  between  him  and  the  English  was 
conducted  with  considerable  formality  and  parade.  They  entered 
into  a  friendly  treaty,  wherein  they  agreed  to  avoid  injuries  on 
both  sides,  to  punish  offenders,  to  restore  stolen  goods,  to  assist 
each  other  in  all  justifiable  wars,  to  promote  peace  among  their 
neighbors,  &c.  Massasoit  and  his  successors  for  fifty  years  invio- 
lably observed  this  treaty.  The  prudent  and  upright  conduct  of 
the  Plymouth  settlers  towards  their  neighbors,  the  Indians,  secured 
their  friendship  and  alliance.  On  the  13th  of  September,  1621,  no 
less  than  nine  sachems  declared  allegiance  to  king  James,  and 
Massasoit,  with  many  sachems  under  him,  subscribed  a  writing 
acknowledging  the  king  of  England  as  their  sovereign, 

O  U  T  L  I  N  E     H  I  S  T  O  R  Y  .  15 

The  first  marriage  in  the  colony  was  solemnized  on  May  12th, 
1621,  between  Mr.  Edward  Winslow  and  Mrs.  Susanna  White. 
The  first  duel  in  New  England  was  fought  on  the  18th  of  June, 
between  two  servants,  both  of  whom  were  wounded.  For  this 
disgraceful  offence,  they  were  formally  tried  before  the  whole  com- 
pany, and  sentenced  to  have  "their  heads  and  feet  tied  together, 
and  so  to  be  twenty-four  hours  without  meat  or  drink."  Such, 
however,  was  the  painfulness  of  their  situation,  and  their  piteous 
entreaties  to  be  released,  that,  upon  promise  of  better  behavior  in 
future,  they  were  soon  released  by  the  governor.  The  colonists 
planted  twenty  acres  with  corn,  of  which  they  had  a  good  crop. 
They  were  instructed  in  the  manner  of  planting  by  Squanto ;  but 
were  unsuccessful  in  their  first  trial  with  English  grain,  by  reason, 
as  is  supposed,  of  the  lateness  of  the  season,  and  bad  quality  of  the 
seed.  Governor  Carver  was  taken  sick  on  the  fifth  of  April,  while 
engaged  in  planting  corn,  and  died  in  a  few  days.  His  death  was 
greatly  lamented,  as  he  was  a  man  of  great  piety,  humility,  and 
benevolence.  He  possessed  a  considerable  estate,  the  greater  part 
of  which  he  expended  for  the  good  of  the  colony.  Soon  after  his 
death,  Mr.  William  Bradford  was  chosen  governor,  and  by  renewed 
elections  continued  in  office  -for  several  years. 

On  the  3d  of  November,  1620,  king  James  signed  a  patent  incor- 
porating the  Duke  of  Lenox,  the  Marquises  of  Buckingham  and 
Hamilton,  the  Earls  of  Arundel  and  Warwick,  Sir  Ferdinando 
Gorges,  with  thirty-four  others,  and  their  successors,  styling 
them  "  The  Council  established  at  Plymouth,  in  the  county  of 
Devon,  for  planting,  ruling,  ordering,  and  governing  of  New  Eng- 
land in  America."  To  this  council  he  granted  that  part  of  Ame- 
rica which  lies  between  the  fortieth  and  forty-eighth  degrees  of 
north  latitude.  This  patent  was  the  great  civil  basis  of  all  the 
grants  and  patents  by  which  New  England  was  afterwards  divided. 
The  Plymouth  Council  retained  the  power  vested  in  them  by  the 
crown  until  the  year  1635,  when  they  resigned  their  charter. 
Previous  to  this,  however,  the  council  had  made  several  grants  of 
land  to  adventurers  who  proposed  to  settle  in  New  England. 
They  granted  New  Hampshire  to  Capt.  John  Mason  in  1621 — the 
Province  of  Maine  to  Sir  R.  Gorges  in  1622 — and  Massachusetts 
Bay  to  Sir  Henry  Roswell  and  five  others  in  1628. 

In  1622,  Mr.  Weston,  a  merchant  of  London,  having  procured 
for  himself  a  patent  for  a  tract  of  land  in  Massachusetts  Bay,  sent 
two  ships,  with  fifty  or  sixty  men,  at  his  own  charge,  to  settle  a 
plantation.  This  company  attempted  a  settlement  at  Weymouth, 
but,  "being  a  set  of  rude,  profane  fellows,  regardless  of  justice, 
provoked  the  Indians  by  stealing  their  corn,  and  other  abuses,  to 
become  their  enemies,  and  occasioned  much  trouble,  both  to  them- 
selves and  the  Plymouth  settlers."  The  Indians  soon  entered  into 
•  a  conspiracy  to  destroy  the  settlement,  which  they  would  have 
effected,  had  it  not  been  for  the  interposition  of  their  Plymouth 

The  Plymouth  settlers  having   received   information  that  the 


sachem  Massasoit  was  sick  and  apparently  near  death,  and  that  a 
Dutch  ship  was  driven  ashore  near  his  house,  the  governor  sent 
Edward  Winslow  and  John  Hambdeii  to  visit  him,  and  speak  with 
the  Dutch.  Having  Hobamack  for  their  guide,  they  reached  the 
residence  of  Massasoit,  whom  they  found  extremely  ill,  but,  by  the 
timely  assistance  of  Mr.  Winslow,  he  recovered.  The  following  is 
an  account  of  this  journey  as  narrated  by  Mr.  Winslow. 

"  The  next  day,  (March  1623)  about  one  of  the  clock,  we  came  to  a  ferry  in  Con- 
batant's  country,  where,  upon  discharge  of  my  piece,  divers  Indians  came  to  us,  from 
a  house  not  far  off.  There  they  told  us  that  Massassowat  was  dead,  and  that  day 
buried ;  and  that  the  Dutch  would  be  gone  before  we  could  get  thither,  having  hove 
off  their  ship  already.  This  news  struck  us  blank  ;  but  especially  Hobbamock,  who 
desired  we  might  return  with  all  speed.  I  told  him  I  would  first  think  of  it,  consider- 
ing now  that,  he  being  dead,  Conbatant  was  the  most  like  to  succeed  him,  and  that 
we  were  not  above  three  miles  from  Mattapuyst,  his  dwelling  place.  Although  he 
were  but  a  hollow-hearted  friend  toward  us,  I  "thought  no  time  so  fit  as  this  to  enter 
into  more  friendly  terms  with  him,  and  the  rest  of  the  sachems  thereabout ;  hoping, 
through  the  blessing  of  God,  it  would  be  a  means,  in  that  unsettled  state,  to  settle 
their  affections  towards  us ;  and  though  it  were  somewhat  dangerous,  in  respect  of 
our  personal  safety,  because  myself  and  Hobbamock  had  been  employed  upon  a  ser- 
vice against  him,  which  he  might  now  fitly  revenge  ;  yet,  esteeming  it  the  best 
means,  leaving  the  event  to  God  in  his  mercy,  I  resolved  to  put  it  in  practice,  if  mas- 
ter Hamden  and  Hobbamock  durst  attempt  it  with  me;  whom  I  found  willing  to  that 
or  any  other  course  might  tend  to  the  general  good.  So  we  went  towards  Mattapuyst. 

"In  the  way,  Hobbamock,  manifesting  a  troubled  spirit,  brake  forth  into  these 
speeches:  'Neen  rvomasu  Sagimus,  neen  womasu  Sagimus,  &c.,-  — My  loving  sachem, 
my  loving  sachem  !  Many  have  I  known,  but  never  any  like  thee.'  And,  turning  to 
me,  he  said  whilst  I  lived  I  should  never  see  his  like  amongst  the  Indians;  saying 
he  was  no  liar;  he  was  not  bloody  and  cruel,  like  other  Indians.  In  anger  and  pas- 
sion he  was  soon  reclaimed  ;  easy  to  be  reconciled  towards  such  as  had  offended  him  ; 
ruled  by  reason  in  such  measure  as  he  would  not  scorn  the  advice  of  mean  men  ; 
and  that  he  governed  his  men  better  with  few  strokes  than  others  did  with  many ; 
truly  loving  where  he  loved ;  yea,  he  feared  we  had  not  a  faithful  friend  left  among 
the  Indians  ;  showing  how  he  ofttimes  restrained  their  malice,  &c.;  continuing  a  long 
speech,  with  such  signs  of  lamentation  and  unfeigned  sorrow,  as  it  would  have  made 
the  hardest  heart  relent. 

"At  length  we  came  to  Mattapuyst,  and  went  to  the  sachimo  comac.o,  for  so  they  called 
the  sachem's  place  though  they  call  an  ordinary  house  witeo ;  but  Conbatant,  the 
sachem,  was  not  at  home,  but  at  Puckanokick,  which  was  some  five  or  six  miles  off. 
The  squa  sachem,  for  so  they  call  the  sachem's  wife,  gave  us  friendly  entertainment. 
Here  we  inquired  again  concerning  Massassowat :  they  thought  him  dead,  but  kneAV 
no  certainty.  Whereupon  I  hired  one  to  go,  with  all  expedition,  to  Puckanokick,  that 
we  might  know  the  certainty  thereof,  and  withal  to  acquaint  Conbatant  with  our  there 
being.  About  half  an  hour  before  sun-setting  the  messenger  returned,  and  told  us 
that  he  was  not  yet  dead,  though  there  was  no  hope  we  should  find  him  living.  Upon 
this  we  were  much  revived,  and  set  forward  with  all  speed,  though  it  was  late  within 
night  ere  we  got  thither.  About  two  of  the  clock,  that  afternoon,  the  Dutchmen 
departed  ;  so  that  in  that  respect  our  journey  was  frustrate. 

"When  we  came  thither,  we  found  the  house  so  full  of  men,  as  we  could  scarce  get 
in,  though  they  used  their  best  diligence  to  make  way  for  us.  There  were  they  in 
the  midst  of  their  charms  for  him,  making  such  a  hellish  noise  as  it  distempered  us 
that  were  well,  and  therefore  unlike  to  ease  him  that  was  sick.  About  him  were  six 
or  eight  women,  who  chafed  his  arms,  legs,  and  thighs,  to  keep  heat  in  him.  When 
they  had  made  an  end  of  their  charming,  one  told  him  that  his  friends,  the  English, 
were  come  to  see  him.  Having  understanding  left,  but  his  sight  was  wholly  gone, 
he  asked  who  was  come.  They  told  him  Winsnow,  for  they  cannot  pronounce  the 
letter  I,  but  ordinarily  n  in  the  place  thereof.  He  desired  to  speak  with  me.  When 
I  came  to  him,  and  they  told  him  of  it,  he  put  forth  his  hand  to  me,  which  I  took. 
Then  he  said  twice,  though  very  inwardly,  Keen  Winsnow  ?  \vhich  is  to  say,  Art  thou 
Winslow  ?  I  answered,  Ahhe,  that  is,  Yes.  Then  he  doubled  these  words  :  Malta 
neen  rvonckanet  namen,  Winsnow  !  that  is  to  say,  0  Winslow,  I  shall  never  see  theo 


"  Then  I  called  Hobbamock,  and  desired  him  to  tell  Massassowat.  that  the  governor, 
hearing  of  his  sickness,  was  sorry  for  the  same  ;  and  though,  by  reason  of  many  busi- 
nesses, he  could  not  come  himself,  yet  he  sent  me  with  such  things  for  him  as  he 
thought  most  likely  to  do  him  good  in  this  extremity  ;  and  whereof  if  he  pleased  to 
take,  I  would  presently  give  him  j  which  he  desired ;  and  having  a  confection  of  many 
comfortable  conserves,  on  the  point  of  my  knife,  I  .gave  him  some,  which  1 
could  scarce  get  through  his  teeth.  When  it  was  dissolved  in  his  mouth,  he 
swallowed  the  juice  of  it ;  whereat  those  that  were  about  him  much  rejoiced,  saying 
he  had  not.  swallowed  anything  in  two  days  before.  Then  I  desired  to  see  his  mouth, 
which  was  exceedingly  furred,  and  his  tongue  swelled  in  such  a  manner  as  it  was  not 
possible  for  him  to  eat  such  meat  as  they  had,  his  passage  being  stopped  up.  Then  I 
washed  his  mouth,  and  scraped  his  tongue,  and  got  abundance  of  corruption  out  of 
the  same.  After  which  I  gave  him  more  of  the  confection,  which  he  swallowed  with 
more  readiness.  Then  he  desired  to  drink.  I  dissolved  some  of  it  in  water,  and  gave 
him  thereof.  Within  half  an  hour  this  wrought  a  great  alteration  in  him,  in  the  eyes 

of  all  that  beheld  him.  Presently  after  his  sight  began  to  come  to  him Then 

I  gave  him  more,  and  told  him  of  a  mishap  we  had,  in  breaking  a  bottle  of  drink, 
which  the  governor  also  sent  him,  saying,  if  he  would  send  any  of  his  men  to 
Patuxet,  I  would  send  for  more  of  the  same  j  also  for  chickens  to  make  him  broth, 
and  for  other  things,  which  I  knew  were  good  for  him  ;  and  would  stay  the  return  of 
his  messenger,  if  he  desired.  This  he  took  marvellous  kindly,  and  appointed  some, 
who  were  ready  to  go  by  two  of  the  clock  in  the  morning  ;  against  which  time  I  made 
ready  a  letter,  declaring  therein  our  good  success,  the  state  of  his  body,  &c.,  desiring 
to  send  such  things  as  I  sent  for,  and  such  physic  as  the  surgeon  durst  administer  to 

"  He  requested  me  that,  the  day  following,  I  would  take  my  piece,  and  kill  him  some 
fowl,  and  make  him  some  English  pottage,  such  as  he  had  eaten  at  Plymouth ;  which 
I  promised.  After,  his  stomach  coming  to  him,  I  must  needs  make  him  some  without 
fowl,  before  I  went  abroad,  which  somewhat  troubled  me  ;  but  being  I  must  do  some- 
what, I  caused  a  woman  to  bruise  some  corn,  and  take  the  flour  from  it,  and  set  over 
the  grit,  or  broken  corn,  in  a  pipkin,  for  they  have  earthen  pots  of  all  sizes.  When 
the  day  broke,  we  went  out,  it  being  now  March,  to  seek  herbs,  but  could  not  find  any 
but  strawberry  leaves,  of  which  I  gathered  a  handful,  and  put  into  the  same  ;  and  be- 
cause I  had  nothing  to  relish  it,  I  went  forth  again,  and  pulled  up  a  sassafras  root, 
and  sliced  a  piece  thereof,  and  boiled  it,  till  it  had  a  good  relish,  and  then  took  it  out 
again.  The  broth  being  boiled,  I  strained  it  through  my  handkerchief,  and  gave  him 
at  least  a  pint,  which  he  drank,  and  liked  it  very  well.  After  this  his  sight  mended 

more  and  more ; and  he  took  some  rest ;  insomuch  as  we  with  admiration 

blessed  God  for  giving  his  blessing  to  such  raw  and  ignorant  means,  making  no 
doubt  of  his  recovery,  himself  and  all  of  them  acknowledging  us  the  instruments  of 
his  preservation.  That  morning  he  caused  me  to  spend  in  going  from  one  to  another 
amongst  those  that  were  sick  in  the  town,  requesting  me  to  wash  their  mouths  also, 
and  give  to  each  of  them  some  of  the  same  I  gave  him,  saying  that  they  were  good 
folk.  This  pains  I  took  with  willingness,  though  it  were  much  offensive  to  me,  not 
being  accustomed  with  such  poisonous  savors. 

"  The  messengers  were  now  returned,  but  finding  his  stomach  come  to  him,  he  would 
not  have  the  chickens  killed,  but  kept  them  for  breed.  Neither  durst  we  give  him 
any  physic,  which  was  then  sent,  because  his  body  was  so  much  altered  since  our 
instructions  ;  neither  saw  we  any  need,  not  doubting  now  of  his  recovery,  if  he  were 
careful.  Many,  whilst  we  were  there,  came  to  see  him  ;  some,  by  their  report,  from 
a  place  not  less  than  a  hundred  miles.  Upon  this  his  recovery,  he  brake  forth  into 
these  speeches :  '  Now  I  see  the  English  are  my  friends  and  love  me  ;  and  whilst  I  live, 
I  will  never  forget  this  kindness  they  have  showed  me.'  Whilst  we  were  there,  our 
entertainment  exceeded  all  other  strangers." — Good  News  from  New  England. 

Massasoit,  gratefully  impressed  with  the  kind  offices  performed 
by  Winslow,  revealed  a  plot  of  the  Massachusett  Indians  against 
Weston's  people  at  Wessagusset,  and,  lest  the  English  at  Plymouth 
should  avenge  their  countrymen,  they  were  also  to  be  destroyed  ; 
and  he  advised  them  to  kill  the  conspirators,  as  the  only  means  of 
security.  The  governor,  on  receiving  this  intelligence,  which  was 
confirmed  by  other  evidences,  dispatched  Capt.  Standish  with 
eight  men,  in  order,  if  a  plot  should  be  discovered,  to  fall  on  the 



conspirators.  Standish  sailed  to  the  Massachusetts,  where  the 
natives,  suspecting  his  design,  insulted  and  threatened  him. 
Watching  his  opportunity,  when  four  of  the  principal  conspirators 
were  in  a  room  with  about  the  same  number  of  his  own  men, 
he  attacked  them,  and,  after  a  dreadful  struggle,  succeeded  in  kill- 
ing the  whole.  This  sudden  and  unexpected  execution  so  terrified 
the  other  natives,  who  had  intended  to  join  with  the  Massachusetts 
in  the  conspiracy,  that  they  forsook  their  houses  and  fled  to  swamps 
and  desert  places,  where  they  contracted  diseases  which  proved 
mortal  to  many  of  them,  among  whom  were  a  number  of  sachems. 

The  fame  of  the  plantation  at  Plymouth  being  spread  in  the 
west  of  England,  Mr.  White,  a  celebrated  minister  of  Dorchester, 
in  1624,  excited  some  merchants  and  other  gentlemen  to  attempt 
another  settlement  in  New  England.  They  accordingly,  on  a 
common  stock,  sent  over  several  persons,  who  began  a  plantation 
at  Cape  Ann.  In  March  of  this  year,  Mr.  Winslow,  agent  for  the 
colony,  arrived  in  the  ship  Charity,  and,  together  with  a  good  sup- 
ply of  clothing,  brought  a  bull  and  three  heifers,  which  were  the 
first  cattle  of  the  kind  in  this  part  of  America.  At  the  close  of 
this  year  (1624)  the  plantation  at  Plymouth  consisted  of  one  hun- 
dred and  eighty  persons,  who  lived  in  thirty-two  dwelling-houses. 
Their  stock  was  a  few  cattle  and  goats,,  and  a  plenty  of  swine  and 
poultry.  Their  town  was  pallisadoed  about  half  a  mile  in  compass. 
On  a  hill  in  the  town,  they  had  a  fort  well  built  of  wood,  and  a 
watch-tower.  This  year  they  freighted  a  ship  of  one  hundred  and 
eighty  tons. 

The  year  1625  is  distinguished  by  the  death  of  the  Rev.  Mr. 
Robinson.  He  died  at  Leyden,  in  March,  1625,  in  the  fiftieth  year 
of  his  age.  He  was  truly  a  great  and  good  man,  and  highly 
esteemed.  After  his  death,  his  wife,  children,  and  most  of  his 
congregation,  came  and  joined  their  brethren,  the  colonists  at  Ply- 
mouth. In  1630,  when  the  plantation  consisted  of  about  three 
hundred  souls,  a  patent  was  taken  out  in  the  name  of  William 
Bradford,  his  heirs,  associates,  and  assigns.  This  patent  con- 
firmed their  title  to  a  tract  of  land  bounded  on  the  east  and  south 
by  the  Atlantic  ocean,  and  by  lines  drawn  west  from  the  rivulet 
Connohasset  and  north  from  the  river  of  Narragansett,  which 
lines  meet  in  a  point,  comprehending  all  the  country  then  called 
Pokanokit.  In  the  same  patent  was  granted  a  large  tract  border- 
ing on  the  river  Kennebec.  (now  in  the  state  of  Maine,)  where 
they  carried  on  a  traffic  with  the  natives  for  furs.  This  patent 
passed  the  king's  hand,  but,  on  account  of  the  agents  of  the  colony 
inserting  a  clause  without  their  advice,  the  patent  was  never 
finished,  and  they  remained  without  a  charter  until  they  were 
incorporated  with  Massachusetts  in  1691  or  1692.  Notwithstanding 
this,  Plymouth  was  a  government  de  facto,  and  considered  as  such 
by  king  Charles  in  his  letters  and  orders  which  were  sent  them  at 
various  times,  previous  to  their  incorporation  with  Massachusetts. 

On  the  19th  of  March,  1628,  the  Plymouth  Council  sealed  a 
patent  to  Sir  Henry  Roswell  and  five  others,  of  all  that  part  of 


New  England  included  between  a  line  drawn  three  miles  south  of 
Charles  river,  and  another  three  miles  north  of  the  river  Merrimac, 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  South  sea.  A  royal  charter,  giving  pow- 
ers of  government,  passed  the  seals  March  4th,  1629.  At  this 
period  a  few  scattering  settlements  only  had  been  made  in  Massa- 
chusetts Bay.  In  the  summer  of  1628,  Mr.  Endicott,  one  of  the 
original  planters,  with  a  small  colony,  was  sent  over  to  begin  a 
plantation  at  Nawnkeag,  (now  Salem).  The  June  following, 
about  two  hundred  persons,  with  four  ministers,  came  over  and 
joined  Mr.  Endicott' s  colony;  and  the  next  year  they  formed  them- 
selves into  a  church,  being  the  first  church  gathered  in  the  original 
colony  of  Massachusetts,  and  the  second  in  New  England;  the 
church  at  Plymouth  being  gathered  eight  years  before.  In  1630, 
seventeen  ships  came  over  to  Massachusetts  from  different  ports  in 
England,  with  more  than  fifteen  hundred  passengers,  among  whom 
were  many  persons  of  distinction.  Many  of  these  persons  were 
from  illustrious  and  noble  families.  Having  been  .accustomed  to  a 
life  of  ease  and  enjoyment,  their  sufferings  for  the  first  year  were 
very  great,  and  proved  fatal  to  many ;  among  others  to  the  lady 
Arabella,  who  "came  from  a  paradise  of  plenty  and  pleasure,  in 
the  family  of  a  noble  earl,  into  a  wilderness  of  wants."  She  died 
at  Salem,  where  she  first  landed,  and  Mr.  Johnson,  her  husband, 
overcome  with  grief,  survived  her  but  a  short  time.  About  this 
time  settlements  were  made  at  Charlestown.  Dorchester,  Cam- 
bridge, Roxbury  and  Boston.  The  first  General  Court  of  Massa- 
chusetts was  held  October  19th,  1630,  at  Boston,  by  the  freemen 
of  the  corporation  at  large.  At  this  court  it  was  agreed  that,  in 
future,  the  freemen  should  choose  the  assistants,  and  that  the 
assistants  should  choose  from  among  themselves  the  governor  and 
deputy-governor.  The  court  of  assistants  were  to  have  the  power 
of  making  laws  and  appointing  officers.  Being  desirous  of  esta- 
blishing a  religious  commonwealth,  they  ordained  "  that  none  but 
church  members  should  be  admitted  to  the  freedom  of  the  body 
politic,"  or  enjoy  the  privilege  of  voting. 

In  1632  and  1633  great  numbers  of  emigrants  came  over  to  New 
England.  Such  was  the  tide  of  emigration,  that  the  king  in  coun- 
cil issued  an  order  in  February,  1633,  to  prevent  it.  Notwith- 
standing this  order,  Messrs.  Cotton,  Hooker,  and  Stone,  three  emi- 
nent ministers,  who  were  considered  the  most  famous  pillars  of 
the  churches,  came  over  this  year,  with  two  hundred  emigrants, 
and  landed  at  Boston.  Mr.  Cotton  settled  at  Boston,  the  other 
two  at  Cambridge.  Mr.  Hooker,  with  one  hundred  others,  re- 
moved in  1636,  and  settled  Hartford  in  Connecticut:  In  1634,  it 
was  found  so  very  inconvenient  for  all  the  freemen  to  assemble  in 
one  place  and  transact  their  business,  the  mode  of  legislation  was 
altered  by  the  general  consent  of  the  towns.  They  delegated  to 
twenty-four  representatives  the  authority  granted  by  the  charter  to 
the  whole  body  of  freemen.  The  appellation  of  General  Court, 
which  had  been  applied  to  all  the  freemen  when  assembled,  was 
now  transferred  to  their  representatives.  It  was  during  this  year 


(1634)  that  Roger  Williams,  the  minister  of  Salem,  having  occa- 
sioned disturbances  hy  tenets  considered  not  only  heretical,  but 
seditious,  and  being  found  irreclaimable,  was  ordered  to  leave  the 
colony.  He  retired  to  Rehoboth,  which  was  then  within  the  juris- 
diction of  Plymouth.  In  1635,  there  came  to  Massachusetts  a 
large  number  of  inhabitants  from  England,  among  whom  were 
Hugh  Peters,  who  was  afterwards  chaplain  to  Cromwell,  and  Mr. 
Vane,  afterwards  Sir  Henry  Vane,  who  acted  a  conspicuous  part 
during  the  Commonwealth  of  England.  Mr.  Vane  was  made 
governor  of  the  colony  the  year  after  his  arrival.  His  popularity, 
however,  was  transient.  During  his  administration,  in  1636,  Mrs. 
Hutchinson,  a  woman  distinguished  for  her  eloquence,  held  weekly 
meetings  for  persons  of  her  own  sex,  in  which  she  commented  on 
the  sermons  of  the  preceding  Sunday,  and  advanced  mystical  and 
extravagant,  doctrines.  These  spread  rapidly  among  the  people, 
and  many  became  converts,  among  whom  were  Governor  Vane, 
Mr.  Cotton  and  Mr.  Wheelwright,  two  distinguished  ministers. 
Great  excitement  was  produced  among  the  people,  the  final  result 
of  which  was,  a  synod  was  appointed  to  be  held  at  Cambridge  in 
August,  1637,  where  were  assembled  both  ministers  and  messen- 
gers of  churches,  and  magistrates,  who,  after  three  weeks'  disputa- 
tion, condemned  as  erroneous  upwards  of  eighty  opinions,  said  to 
have  been  maintained  by  persons  in  the  country.  In  consequence 
of  this,  Mrs.  Hutchinson  and  some  of  her  principal  followers  were 
sentenced  to  banishment.  She,  with  her  husband  and  family, 
removed  to  Rhode  Island,  where,  in  1642,  Mr.  Hutchinson  died. 
She,  being  dissatisfied  with  the  people  or  place,  removed  to  the 
Dutch  country  beyond  New  Haven,  where  she  was  killed,  with  all 
her  family,  being  sixteen  in  number,  except  one  daughter,  who  was 
carried  into  captivity. 

The  year  1637  was  distinguished  by  the  Pequot  war  in  Con- 
necticut, in  which  were  killed  five  or  six  hundred  Indians,  and  the 
warlike  Pequots  were  mostly  destroyed.  This  first  war  with  the 
Indians  struck  such  a  terror  into  the  surrounding  tribes,  that  for 
forty  years  afterwards  they  never  openly  commenced  hostilities 
with  the  English.  In  1640,  the  tide  of  emigration  from  England 
ceased.  Persecution  having  ceased  in  England,  the  motives  for 
coming  to  New  England  were  removed.  They  who  then  professed 
to  give  the  best  account,  say  that  in  two  hundred  and  ninety-eight 
ships,  which  were  the  whole  number  from  the  beginning  of  the 
colony,  there  arrived  twenty-one  thousand  two  hundred  passengers, 
men,  women,  and  children,  perhaps  about  four  thousand  families. 
After  this  period  it  is  supposed  that  for  a  long  time  afterwards 
more  persons  returned  to  England,  than  came  from  England  to 
the  colonies.  "  Such,  however,  were  the  character  and  virtues  of 
the  emigrants,  such  the  power  over  difficulties,  which  their  reso- 
lute minds,  and  bodies  hardened  by  labor,  had  imparted  to  them, 
that  they  continued  to  increase  with  astonishing  rapidity  in  wealth 
and  numbers." 

In  1643,  four  of  the  New  England  colonies,  Massachusetts,  Con- 


necticut,  Plymouth  and  New  Haven,  united  in  a  confederacy  foi 
mutual  protection  and  assistance.  The  articles  of  union  and  con- 
federation were  signed  at  Boston,  on  the  19th  of  May.  The  rea- 
sons assigned  for  this  union,  were,  the  danger  from  the  Indians, 
from  the  Dutch  at  New  York,  and  from  the  French ;  also  the 
impossibility  of  obtaining  aid  from  the  mother  country  in  case  of 
any  sudden  attack.  By  the  articles  of  the  confederation,  each 
colony  was  to  appoint  two  commissioners,  who  were  to  assemble 
by  rotation  in  the  respective  colonies,  and  were  empowered  to 
enact  ordinances  of  general  concern ;  and  in  case  of  invasion  each 
colony  was  bound  to  furnish  a  stipulated  proportion  of  men  and 
money.  The  commissioners  who  formed  the  union,  declared,  that, 
as  in  nation  and  religion,  so  in  other  respects,  they  be  and  continue 
one ;  and  henceforth  be  called  by  the  name  of  The  United  Colonies 
of  New  England.  This  union  rendered  the  colonies  formidable  to 
their  enemies,  and  secured  the  peace  and  rights  of  the  country. 

The  first  instance  on  record  in  Massachusetts  of  a  trial  for  witch- 
craft, was  in  1648,  when  Margaret  Jones,  of  Charlestown,  was  indict- 
ed for  a  witch,  found  guilty,  and  executed,  in  accordance  with  the 
laws  of  England  against  this  crime.  "  She  was  charged  with 
having  such  a  malignant  touch,  that  if  she  laid  her  hands  upon 
man.  woman,  or  child,  in  anger,  they  were  seized  presently  with 
deafness,  vomiting,  or  other  sickness,  or  some  violent  pains." 
Since  the  year  1634,  committees,  consisting  of  ministers  and  prin- 
cipal laymen,  were  appointed  almost  every  year,  for  twelve  or 
fourteen  years,  to  prepare  a  code  of  laws  for  the  colony.  Mean- 
while, laws  of  the  greatest  necessity  had  been  successively  enacted. 
This  year  (1648)  the  whole  were  collected,  ratified  by  the  court, 
and  printed.  In  civil  actions,  equity,  according  to  the  circum- 
stances of  the  case,  seems  to  have  been  their  rule  of  determining. 
In  punishing  offences,  they  professed  to  be  governed  by  the  judi- 
cial law  of  Moses,  but  no  farther  than  those  laws  were  of  a  moral 
nature.  Many  of  their  sentences  previous  to  their  having  a  regu- 
lar code  of  laws,  seem  to  be  adapted  to  the  circumstances  of  a 
large  family  of  children  and  servants,  as  will  appear  from  the  fol- 
lowing, which,  from  among  many  others  of  the  same  sort,  are 
taken  from  the  public  records, 

Josias  Plaistowe,  for  stealing  four  baskets  of  corn  from  the  Indians,  is  ordered  to 
return  them  eight  baskets,  to  be  fined  five  pounds,  and  hereafter  to  be  called  by  the 
name  of  Josias,  and  not  Mr.,  as  formerly  he  used  to  be.* 

Captain  Stone,  for  abusing  Mr.  Ludlow,  and  calling  him  justass.  is  fined  one  hun- 
dred pounds,  and  prohibited  from  coming  within  the  patent,  without  the  governor's 
leave,  upon  pain  of  death. 

Serjeant  Perkins  ordered  to  carry  forty  turfs  to  the  fort  for  being  drunk. 

Edward  Palmer,  "for  his  extortion  in  taking  two  pounds  thirteen  shillings  and  four- 
pence  for  the  wood-work  of  Boston  stocks,  is  fined  five  pounds,  and  ordered  to  sit  one 
hour  in  the  stocks. 

*  They  were  very  careful  to  give  no  titles  where  they  were  not  due.  In  a  list  of 
one  hundred  freemen  you  will  not  find  above  four  or  five  distinguished  by  Mr.,  although 
they  were  men  of  some  substance.  Goodman  and  goodwife  were  the  common  appella- 
tions. « 


Capt.  Lovel  admonished  to  take  heed  of  light  carriage. 

Thomas  Petit,  for  suspicion  of  slander,  idleness  and  stubbornness,  is  censured  to 
be  severely  whipped  and  to  be  kept  in  hold. 

Catharine,  the  wife  of  Richard  Cornish,  was  found  suspicious  of  incoritinency,  and 
seriously  admonished  to  take  heed. 

Daniel  Clarke,  found  to  be  an  immoderate  drinker,  was  fined  forty  shillings. 

John  Wedgewood,  for  being  in  the  company  of  drunkards,  to  be  set  in  the  stocks. 

John  Kitchin,  for  showing  books  which  he  was  commanded  to  bring  to  the  governor, 
and  forbidden  to  show  them  to  any  other,  and  yet  showed  them,  was  fined  ten  shil- 

Robert  Shorthose,  for  swearing  by  the  blood  of  God,  was  sentenced  to  have  his 
tongue  put  into  a  cleft  stick,  and  to  stand  so  for  the  space  of  half  an  hour. 

Great  numbers  of  the  like  kind  might  be  added. — Hutchinson's  Hist,  of  Mass.,  vol.  i. 
p.  436. 

About  this  period,  the  custom  of  wearing  long  hair,  "  after  the 
manner  of  Russians  and  barbarous  Indians,"  as  Gov.  Endicott 
and  others  termed  it,  was  deemed  contrary  to  the  word  of  God, 
which  says  "it  is  a  shame  for  a  man  to  wear  long  hair."  The 
rule  in  New  England  was,  that  none  should  wear  their  hair  below 
their  ears.  In  a  clergyman  it  was  peculiarly  offensive,  as  they 
were  required  to  go  with  open  ears.  A  few  years  before  this, 
tobacco  was  prohibited  under  a  penalty,  and  the  smoke,  in  some 
manuscripts,  is  compared  to  the  smoke  of  the  bottomless  pit. 
Some  of  the  clergy  fell  into  the  practice  of  smoking,  and  tobacco, 
by  an  act  of  government,  "was  set  at  liberty." 

The  trade  of  the  colony  increasing,  especially  with  the  West 
Indies,  where  the  bucaneers  or  pirates  at  this  time  were  numerous, 
and  part  of  the  wealth  they  took  from  the  Spaniards,  as  well  as 
what  was  produced  by  the  trade,  being  brought  into  New  England 
in  bullion,  "  it  was  thought  necessary,  for  preventing  fraud  in 
money,"  to  erect  a  mint  for  coining  shillings,  sixpences,  and  three- 
pences, with  no  other  impression  at  first  than  N.  E.  on  the  one 
side,  and  XII.,  VI.,  or  III.  on  the  other;  but  in  October,  1651,  the 
court  ordered  that  all  pieces  of  money  should  have  a  double  ring 
with  this  inscription,  MASSACHUSETTS,  and  a  tree  in  the  centre,  and 
NEW  ENGLAND  and  the  year  of  our  Lord  on  the  other  side.1*  The 
annexed  cut  is  a  representation  of  one  of  these  coins. 

*  The  first  money  being  coined  in  1652,  the  same  date  was  continued  upon  all  that 
uas  struck  for  thirty  years  afterwards.  No  other  colony  ever  presumed  to  coin  metal 
into  money.  A  very  large  sum  was  coined,  and  the  mint-master  made  a  large  fortune 
by  it,  as  he  was  allowed  to  take  fifteen  pence  out  of  every  twenty  shillings  for  the 
trouble  of  coining,  &c.  It  was  commonly  reported  that  Mr.  Sewall,  who  married  his 
only  daughter,  received  with  her  thirty  thousand  pounds  in  New  England  shillings.- 
Hutchinson's  Hist.  vol.  I  p.  178. 


In  the  year  1656  began  what  is  generally  called  the  persecution 
of  the  Quakers.  The  first  who  openly  professed  their  principles 
in  the  colony  were  Mary  Fisher  and  Ann  Austin,  who  came  from 
Barbadoes  in  July  of  this  year.  In  a  few  weeks  after,  nine  others 
arrived  in  a  ship  from  London.  Being  brought  before  the  court 
of  assistants  on  the  8th  of  September,  they  affirmed  they  were 
sent  by  God  to  reprove  the  people  for  their  sins.  Being  questioned 
how  they  could  make  it  appear  that  God  had  sent  them,  they, 
after  a  pause,  replied,  that  they  had  the  same  call  that  Abraham 
had  to  go  out  of  his  country.  To  other  questions  they  gave  rude 
and  contemptuous  answers,  which  is  the  reason  assigned  for  com- 
mitting them  to  prison.  A  great  number  of  their  books,  which 
they  intended  to  circulate  over  the  country,  were  seized  and  re- 
served for  the  fire.  Soon  after  this,  as  the  governor  was  going 
from  public  worship  on  the  Lord's  day,  several  gentlemen  accom- 
panying him,  Mary  Prince  called  to  him  from  a  window  of  the 
prison,  railing  and  reviling  him,  saying,  "  Woe  unto  thee,  thou  art 
an  oppressor,"  and  denouncing  the  judgments  of  God  upon  him. 
She  also  wrote  him  a  letter,  filled  with  opprobrious  language. 
The  governor  sent  for  her  twice  from  the  prison  to  his  own  house, 
and,  with  a  number  of  ministers,  endeavored  with  much  tenderness 
and  moderation  to  convince  her  of  her  errors.  She,  however, 
railed  upon  them,  calling  them  hirelings,  deceivers  of  the  people, 
Baal's  priests,  the  seed  of  the  serpent,  &c. 

At  this  time  there  was  no  special  provision  made  in  the  laws 
for  the  punishment  of  Quakers ;  but,  in  virtue  of  a  law  which 
had  been  made  against  heretics  in  general,  the  court  passed  sen- 
tence of  banishment  upon  them  all.  Afterwards  other  severe  laws 
were  enacted,  among  which  were  the  following :  any  Quaker,  after 
the  first  conviction,  if  a  man,  was  to  lose  one  ear,  and  for  the 
second  the  other ;  a  woman,  each  time  to  be  severely  whipped ; 
and  the  third  time,  whether  man  or  woman,  to  have  their  tongues 
bored  through  with  a  red-hot  iron.  In  October,  1658,  after  much 
opposition  by  members  of  the  court,  they,  by  a  majority  of  one 
vote  only,  passed  a  law  for  punishing  with  death  all  Quakers  who 
should  return  into  their  jurisdiction  after  banishment.  Under  this 
law  four  persons  were  executed.  The  friends  of  the  Quakers  in 
England  now  interposed,  and  obtained  an  order  from  the  king, 
September  9th,  1661,  requiring  that  a  stop  should  be  put  to  all 
capital  or  corporeal  punishments  of  his  subjects  called  Quakers, 
and  that  such  as  were  obnoxious  should  be  sent  to  England.  This 
order  was  obeyed,  arid  all  disturbances  by  degrees  subsided. 

Much  censure  has  been  passed  upon  the  New  England  colonies 
for  their  severe  laws  against  those  calling  themselves  Quakers ; 
yet  it  must  be  recollected  that  the  laws  in  England  against  them, 
at  this  period,  were  severe,  and  although  none  were  put  to  death 
by  public  execution,  yet  many  were  confined  in  prisons,  where 
they  died,  in  consequence  of  the  rigor  of  the  law.  One  principal 
thing  which  tends  to  mislead  the  judgment  of  many,  in  this  pre- 
sent age,  is  the  supposition  that  those  who  suffered  the  punishment 


of  the  law  were  essentially  of  the  same  spirit  and  practice  of  the 
respectable  and  worthy  society  of  Friends  or  Quakers  of  the  pre- 
sent day.  This  is  a  mistake ;  many  who  went  by  this  name  at 
that  period  may  be  considered  as  fanatics,  and  proper  subjects  of 
a  madhouse.  The  following  instances  of  their  conduct  may  be 
considered  as  a  species  of  madness.  "  Some  at  Salem,  Hampton. 
Newbury,  and  other  places,  coming  into  the  congregations  and 
calling  to  the  minister  in  time  of  public  worship,  declaring  their 
preaching,  &c.,  to  be  an  abomination  to  the  Lord.  Thomas  New- 
house  went  into  the  meeting-house  at  Boston,  with  a  couple  of 
glass  bottles,  and  broke  them  before  the  congregation,  and  threat- 
ened, *  Thus  will  the  Lord  break  you  in  pieces.'  Another  time, 
M.  Brewster  came  in  with  her  face  smeared  and  black  as  a  coal. 
Deborah  Wilson  went  through  the  streets  of  Salem  as  naked  as 
she  came  into  the  world. "#  "  That  some  provision  was  necessary 
against  these  people  so  far  as  they  were  disturbers  of  civil  peace 
and  order,  every  one  will  allow ;  but  such  sanguinary  laws  against 
particular  doctrines  or  tenets  in  religion  are  not  to  be  defended." 

The  year  1675  is  memorable  for  a  war  with  the  Indians,  called 
King  Philip's  War,  isrhich  was  the  most  general  and  destructive 
ever  sustained  by  the  infant  colonies.  Philip  resided  at  Mount 
Hope,  in  Rhode  Island,  and  was  the  grandson  and  successor  of 
Massasoit,  with  whom  the  Plymouth  colonists  had  made  a  treaty 
fifty  years  before.  For  a  long  time  previous  to  the  war,  he  was 
jealous  of  the  whites.  His  object  appears  to  have  been,  to  unite 
all  the  Indian  tribes  to  make  a  combined  effort  to  exterminate  the 
colonists,  and  thus  preserve  their  hunting  grounds  and  indepen- 
dence. The  immediate  cause  of  the  war  was  the  execution  of 
three  Indians  by  the  English,  whom  Philip  had  excited  to  murder 
Sausaman,  a  Christian  Indian,  who  had  informed  the  whites  of 
the  plot  Philip  was  forming  against  them.  Philip,  to  avenge  their 
deaths,  commenced  hostilities,  and  by  his  influence  drew  into  the 
war  most  of  the  tribes  in  New  England.  The  Indians,  at  this 
period,  had  acquired  the  use  of  fire-arms,  and  the  war  soon 
became  general.  Their  first  attack  was  made  June  24th,  upon 
the  people  of  Swanzey,  as  they  were  returning  from  public  wor- 
ship ;  eight  or  nine  persons  were  killed.  Brookfield,  in  Worcester 
county,  was  next  attacked,  and  every  house  burnt  but  one. 
During  the  month  of  September,  Hadley,  Deerfield,  and  North- 
field,  on  Connecticut  river,  were  attacked ;  many  persons  were 
killed,  and  many  buildings  consumed. 

In  the  winter  was  the  celebrated  expedition  against  the  Narragansetts,  who  had 
given  indications  of  their  favorable  disposition  to  Philip.  The  active  co-operation  of 
that  powerful  tribe,  notwithstanding  their  treaty  in  July  and  subsequent  pacific  assur- 
ances, was  seriously  apprehended.  A  thousand  men  were  raised  by  order  of  the 
commissioner,)  of  the  United  Colonies  for  this  important  service.  Six  companies  from 
Massachusetts,  with  a  troop  of  horse,  were  under  the  command  of  Major  Appleton. 
Five  companies  from  Connecticut  were  led  by  Major  Treat.  The  two  companies 
from  Plymouth  were  under  Major  Bradford.  Governor  Winslow  was  commander-in 

*  Hutchinson,  vol.  i.,  p.  203  and  204. 


chief,  by  appointment  from  the  commissioners.  The  preparation  and  the  march  of 
this  army,  the  most  considerable  that  New  England  had  then  seen,  were  most  prompt 
and  persevering.  In  the  depth  of  a  severe  winter,  they  advanced  to  the  attack  of  a 
formidable  foe,  posted  in  a  strong  position  in  his  wilderness  retreat.  The  attack  on 
the  enemy's  fort,  December  19th,  (O.  S.,)  was  completely  successful.  It  was  a  coun- 
terpart to  the  memorable  exploit  against  the  Pequots,  forty  years  before,  by  the  men 
of  Connecticut.  A  day  of  horrible  conflagration  and  slaughter  inflicted  a  blow,  from 
which  the  Narragansett  nation  never  recovered.  Seven  hundred  of  their  fighting 
men  fell  in  the  action,  and  it  was  computed  that,  at  least,  three  hundred  more  died  of 
their  wounds  and  from  the  hardships  which  ensued.  Such  are  the  numbers  given  by 
Hubbard,  in  his  Narrative,  derived  from  the  confession  of  Potock,  one  of  the  Indian 
chiefs,  afterwards  taken  at  Rhode  Island,  and  put  to  death  in  Boston.  It  was  a  dear- 
bought  victory  to  the  assailants.  Five  brave  captains  were  slain  in  the  action  :  Da- 
venport of  Boston,  son  of  Captain  Richard  Davenport,  distinguished  in  the  Pequot  war, 
Johnson  of  Roxbury,  Gardner  of  Salem,  Gallop  of  New  London,  and  Marshall  of 
Windsor.  Captain  Sieley*  of  Stratford  was  mortally  wounded,  and  lived  but  a  few 
days  after  the  fight.  The  whole  loss  sustained  by  the  assailants  was  eighty-five 
killed,  and  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  wounded.  Among  the  wounded  were  Major 
Bradford  and  Captain  Church,  of  Plymouth  Colony,  and  Lieut.  Upham  of  Massachu- 
setts. The  latter  died  of  his  wound  some  months  afterward.  J.  Gorham  of  Barnsta- 
ble,  captain  of  one  of  Plymouth  Colony  companies,  was  seized  with  a  fever,  and  died 
on  the  expedition.  Church  was  a  volunteer,  and,  as  he  informs  us  in  his  narrative, 
rode  in  the  general's  guard.  He  pointedly  condemns  the  burning  the  wigwams  in  the 
fort,  which  would  have  afforded  a  comfortable  shelter  to  the  troops.  For  want  of  such 
accommodation,  they  were  compelled,  immediately  after  the  action,  to  perform  a  severe 
march  of  sixteen  of  eighteen  miles,  in  a  cold  and  stormy  night,  to  Wickford.  This 
march  was  peculiarly  distressing  to  the  wounded  men.  Many  of  them  died  on  the 
way,  or  soon  afterward.  None  of  them  could  have  their  wounds  dressed  until  they 
arrived  at  head-quarters. — Davis1  Edition  of  New  England  Memorial,  432  p. 

From  this  blow,  called  the  Swamp  Fighf,  the  Indians  never 
recovered.  They  were  not  yet,  however,  effectually  subdued. 
During  the  winter,  the  savages  continued  murdering  and  burn- 
ing. The  towns  of  Lancaster,  Medfield,  Weymouth,  Groton, 
Springfield,  Northampton,  Sudbury,  and  Marlborough,  in  Massa- 
chusetts, and  of  Warwick  and  Providence,  in  Rhode  Island,  were 
assaulted,  and  some  of  them  partly,  and  others  wholly,  destroyed. 
On  the  12th  of  August,  1676,  the  finishing  blow  was  given  to  the 
Indian  power,  by  the  death  of  king  Philip,  who  was  killed  by  a 
friendly  Indian,  in  the  vicinity  of  Mount  Hope.  In  this  distress- 
ing war,  the  English  lost  six  hundred  men,  the  flower  of  their 
strength:  twelve  or  thirteen  towns  were  destroyed,  and  six  hun- 
dred dwelling-houses  consumed. 

In  the  height  of  the  distress  of  Philip's  war.  and  while  the  colony 
was  contending  with  the  natives  for  the  possession  of  the  soil,  com- 
plaints were  renewed  in  England,  which  struck  at  the  powers  of 
government.  An  inquiry  was  set  on  foot,  and  followed  from  time 
to  time,  until  IBS  1.  when  judgment  was  given  against  the  charter. 
In  1686,  in  May,  a  commissioner  arrived,  appointing  a  president 
and  divers  gentlemen  of  the  council,  to  take  upon  them  the  admi- 
nistration of  government.  This  administration  was  short,  and 
productive  of  no  grievances.  In  December,  of  the  same  year,  Sir 
Edmund  Andross  arrived  with  a  commission  from  king  James,  for 
the  government  of  the  New  England  colonies,  with  the  exception 
of  Connecticut.  His  kind  professions  for  a  while  encouraged  the 

*  Seelev  of  New  Haven. 


hopes  of  the  people ;  he,  however,  soon  threw  off  the  mask,  and 
did  many  arbitrary  acts,  whereby  the'  people  were  oppressed, 
and  himself  and  his  followers  were  enriched.  The  press  was 
restrained ;  public  thanksgiving,  without  an  order  from  the  crown, 
was  prohibited ;  fees  of  all  officers  were  increased ;  and  the  people 
were  compelled  to  petition  for  new  patents  for  their  lands,  for 
which  they  were  obliged  to  pay  exorbitant  prices.  The  colony 
was  greatly  disquieted  by  these  and  other  tyrannical  proceedings, 
and  the  hatred  of  the  people  was  excited  in  proportion  to  their 

In  the  beginning  of  1689,  a  rumor  reached  Boston,  that  William, 
prince  of  Orange,  had  invaded  England,  with  the  intention  of 
dethroning  the  king.  Animated  with  the  hope  of  deliverance,  the 
people  rushed  to  arms,  took  possession  of  the  fort,  seized  Andross, 
Randolph,  the  licenser  of  the  press,  and  other  obnoxious  charac- 
ters, and  placed  them  in  confinement.  A  council  of  safety,  con- 
sisting of  their  former  magistrates,  was  then  organized  to  admi- 
nister the  government  till  authentic  intelligence  should  be  received 
from  England.  In  a  few  weeks  tidings  arrived  that  William  and 
Mary  were  firmly  seated  on  the  throne :  they  were  immediately 
proclaimed  with  great  rejoicings.  The  people  of  Massachusetts 
applied  for  the  restoration  of  their  old  or  the  grant  of  a  new  char- 
ter. A  definite  answer  was  deferred,  but  the  council  was  author- 
ized to  administer  the  government  according  to  the  old  charter  till 
further  directions  were  given.  Andross  and  his  associates  were 
ordered  home  for  trial.  A  new  charter  was  received  in  1692 
by  Massachusetts,  which  added  to  her  territory  Plymouth,  Maine, 
and  Nova  Scotia.  By  this  charter,  the  appointment  of  the  gover- 
nor was  in  the  crown,  and  every  freeholder  of  forty  shillings  ster- 
ling a  year,  and  every  inhabitant  of  forty  pounds  sterling  personal 
estate,  was  allowed  to  vote  for  representatives. 

At  this  period,  the  French  in  Canada  and  Nova  Scotia  insti- 
gated the  northern  and  eastern  Indians  to  commence  hostilities 
against  the  English  settlements.  Dover  and  Salmon  Falls,  in  New 
Hampshire.  Casco,  in  Maine,  and  Schenectady,  in  New  York, 
were  attacked  by  different  parties  of  French  and  Indians,  and 
shocking  barbarities  committed.  Regarding  Canada  as  the  princi- 
pal source  of  their  troubles,  New  England  and  New  York  formed 
the  bold  project  of  reducing  it  by  force  of  arms.  For  this  pur- 
pose, they  raised  an  army,  under  General  Winthrop,  which  was 
sent  against  Montreal,  and  equipped  a  fleet,  which,  commanded 
by  Sir  William  Phipps,  was  destined  to  attack  Quebec.  The  sea- 
son was  so  far  advanced  when  the  fleet  arrived  at  Quebec,  Octo- 
ber 5th,  1690,  the  French  so  superior  in  number,  the  weather  so 
tempestuous,  and  the  sickness  so  great  among  the  soldiers,  that  the 
expedition  was  abandoned.  Success  had  been  so  confidently 
expected,  that  no  adequate  provision  was  made  for  the  pay- 
ment of  the  troops.  There  was  danger  of  a  mutiny.  In  this 
extremity,  the  government  of  Massachusetts  issued  bills  of  credit, 
as  a  substitute  for  money ;  and  these  were  the  first  ever  issued  in 
the  American  colonies. 


In  1692,  a  great  excitement  was  again  revived  in  New  England 
on  account  of  the  supposed  prevalence  of  witchcraft.  It  com- 
menced at  this  time  in  Danvers,  thefn  a  part  of  Salem.  Near  the 
close  of  February,  several  children  in  this  place  began  to  act  in  a 
peculiar  and  unaccountable  manner.  Their  strange  conduct  con- 
tinuing for  several  days,  their  friends  betook  themselves  to  fasting 
and  prayer.  During  religious  exercises,  the  children  were  gene- 
rally decent  and  still ;  but  after  service  was  ended,  they  renewed 
their  former  unaccountable  conduct.  This  was  deemed  sufficient 
evidence  that  they  were  laboring  under  the  "influence  of  an  evil 
hand,  or  witchcraft."  After  a  few  days,  these  children  began  to 
accuse  several  persons  in  the  vicinity  of  bewitching  them.  Unfor- 
tunately, they  were  credited,  and  these  suspected  persons  were 
seized  and  imprisoned.  From  this  time,  this  contagion  spread 
rapidly  over  the  neighboring  country,  and  soon  appeared  in 
various  parts  of  Essex,  Middlesex,  and  Suffolk.  Persons  at 
Andover,  Ipswich,  Gloucester,  Boston,  and  other  places,  were 
accused  by  their  neighbors,,  and  others.  For  a  time,  those 
who  were  accused  were  persons  of  the  lower  classes.  But  at 
length  some  of  the  first  people  in  rank  and  character  were  accused 
of  the  crime  of  witchcraft.  The  evil  had  now  become  awfully 
alarming.  Before  the  close  of  September,  nineteen  persons  were 
executed  ;  and  one,  (Giles  Corey,)  was  pressed  to  death  for  refusing 
to  put  himself  on  a  trial  by  jury ;  all  these  persons  died  professing 
their  innocence  of  the  crime  laid  to  their  charge.  At  length  the 
magistrates  became  convinced  that  their  proceedings  had  been  rash 
and  indefensible.  A  special  court  was  held  on  the  subject,  and 
fifty  who  were  brought  to  trial  were  acquitted,  excepting  three, 
who  were  reprieved  by  the  governor.  These  events  were  followed 
by  a  general  release  of  all  who  were  imprisoned.  At  this  period 
the  belief  of  the  actual  existence  of  witchcraft,  prevailed  in  the 
most  enlightened  parts  of  Europe.  The,  learned  Baxter  pro- 
nounced the  disbeliever  in  witchcraft  "  an  obdurate  Sadducee," 
and  Sir  Matthew  Hale,  one  of  the  greatest  of  English  judges, 
repeatedly  tried  and  condemned  persons  accused  of  this  crime. 
It  ought  also  to  be  mentioned,  that,  if  we  are  to  credit  the  testi- 
mony of  many  respectable  witnesses,  many  things  took  place  at 
that  time,  which,  even  in  this  age,  cannot  be  satisfactorily  ex- 

The  war  with  the  French  and  Indians,  which  began  in  1690, 
was  not  yet  terminated.  For  seven  years  the  frontier  settlements 
were  harassed  by  the  savages,  till  peace  took  place  between 
France  and  England.  But  in  a  few  years  war  again  "broke  out  in 
Europe,  which  was  the  signal  for  hostilities  in  America.  In 
February,  1704,  Deerfield,  on  Connecticut  river,  was  surprised  in 
the  night,  about  forty  persons  killed,  and  more  than  one  hundred 
made  prisoners,  among  whom  were  Mr.  Williams,  the  minister, 
and  his  family.  In  1707,  Massachusetts,  New  Hampshire,  and 
Rhode  Island,  despatched  an  armament  against  Port  Royal,  in 
Nova  Scotia;  but  the  expedition  was  unsuccessful.  In  1710,  New 


England,  assisted  by  the  mother  country,  with  a  fleet,  succeeded 
in  reducing  the  place;  and  its  name,  in  honor  of  queen  Anne, 
was  changed  to  Annapolis.  This  success  encouraged  the  com- 
mander, General  Nicholson,  to  visit  England  and  propose  an  expe- 
dition against  Canada.  His  proposition  was  adopted,  and  in  June, 
1711,  Admiral  Walker,  with  a  fleet  of  fifteen  ships  of  war,  and 
forty  transports,  with  an  army  of  veteran  troops,  arrived  at 
Boston,  from  whence  he  sailed  for  Quebec  about  the  last  of  July. 
At  the  same  time,  General  Nicholson  repaired  to  Albany,  to  take 
the  command  of  the  forces  that  were  to  proceed  by  land.  When 
the  fleet  had  advanced  ten  leagues  up  the  St.  Lawrence,  the  wea- 
ther became  tempestuous  and  foggy.  Nine  of  the  transports  were 
dashed  in  pieces  on  the  rocks,  and  upwards  of  a  thousand  men 
perished.  Weakened  by  this  disaster,  the  admiral  returned  to 
England,  and  the  New  England  troops  returned  to  their  homes. 
Nicholson,  having  learned  the  fate  of  the  fleet,  returned  with  his 
troops  to  Albany.  In  1713,  peace  was  made  between  France  and 
Great  Britain  at  Utrecht. 

In  1716.  Samuel  Shute,  a  colonel  in  the  army  of  the  celebrated 
Duke  of  Marlborough,  was  appointed  governor  of  Massachusetts. 
For  a  long  period  afterwards,  many  controversies  and  difficulties 
took  place  between  the  royal  governors  sent  from  England  and 
the  representatives  of  the  people,  who  were  jealous  of  their  rights 
as  British  subjects.  These  disturbances  continued,  with  some 
intervals,  till  the  period  of  the  American  Revolution. 

In  1744,  war  again  broke  out  between  England  and  France, 
and  the  colonies  were  again  involved  in  its  calamities.  Their 
commerce  and  fisheries  suffered  great  injury  from  privateers  fitted 
out  at  Louisburg,  a  strong  fortress  on  the  island  of  Cape  Breton. 
This  place  was  considered  one  of  the  strongest  in  America  ;  the 
fortifications  had  been  twenty-five  years  in  building,  and  had  cost 
the  French  five  and  a  half  millions  of  dollars.  The  legislature  of 
Massachusetts,  convinced  of  the  importance  of  reducing  this  place, 
planned  a  daring,  but  successful  enterprise  for  its  reduction. 
Accordingly,  about  four  thousand  men.  from  Massachusetts,  New 
Hampshire,  and  Connecticut,  under  the  command  of  Gen.  Pep- 
perell.  sailed  from  Boston  for  the  conquest  of  this  place.  Having 
the  assistance  of  four  ships  of  war,  under  Commodore  Warren, 
from  the  West  Indies,  the  troops  arrived  at  Louisburg,  about  the 
1st  of  May,  1745,  and  commenced  the  siege.  For  fourteen  nights 
successively,  the  New  England  troops,  sinking  to  their  knees  in 
mud,  drew  their  cannons  and  mortars  through  a  swamp  two 
miles  in  length.  By  this  means,  the  siege  was  pushed  with  so 
much  vigor,  that,  on  the  16th  of  June,  the  garrison  surrendered. 
France,  fired  with  resentment  against  the  colonies,  the  next  sum- 
mer sent  a  powerful  fleet  to  ravage  the  coast  of  New  England  and 
recover  Louisburg.  The  news  of  their  approach  spread  terror 
throughout  New  England.  But  an  uncommon  succession  of  dis- 
asters, which  the  pious  at  that  time  ascribed  to  the  special  inter- 
position of  Providence,  blasted  the  hopes  of  the  enemy.  Tho 


French  fleet  was  delayed  and  damaged  by  storms  :  some  of  the 
ships  were  lost,  and  a  pestilential  fever  prevailed  among  the 
troops,  and  the  two  admirals  killed  themselves  through  chagrin 
on  the  failure  of  the  expedition.  The  war  at  this  period  was 
ended  by  the  peace  of  Aix  la  Chapelle,  in  1748,  by  which  all  pri- 
soners on  each  side  were  to  be  restored  without  ransom,  and  all 
conquests  made  during  the  war  were  to  be  mutually  restored. 

Scarcely  had  the  colonies  begun  to  reap  the  benefits  of  peace, 
before  they  were  again  thrown  into  anxiety  and  distress  by  ano- 
ther war  against  France.  The  war  actually  commenced  in  1754, 
though  not  formally  declared  till  May,  1756.  Early  in  the  spring 
of  1755,  preparations  were  made  by  the  colonies  for  vigorous  exer- 
tions against  the  enemy.  Four  expeditions  were  planned  : — one 
against  the  French  in  Nova  Scotia ;  a  second  against  the  French 
on  the  Ohio ;  a  third  against  Crown  Point ;  and  a  fourth  against 
Niagara.  The  expedition  agains-t  Nova  Scotia,  consisting  of  three 
thousand  men,  chiefly  from  Massachusetts,  was  led  by  Gen. 
Monckton  and  Gen.  Winslow.  With  these  troops,  they  sailed  from 
Boston  on  the  1st  of  June,  arrived  at  Chignecto,  in  the  bay  of 
Fundy.  After  being  joined  by  three  hundred  regular  British 
troops,  they  proceeded  against  fort  Beau  Sejour,  which  surren- 
dered, after  a  siege  of  four  days.  Other  forts  were  taken,  and 
Nova  Scotia  was  entirely  subdued.  In  order  that  the  French  in 
Canada  should  derive  no  assistance  from  this  territory,  the 
country  was  laid  waste,  and  the  inhabitants  were  taken  from  the 
country,  and  dispersed  among  the  English  colonies.  One  thousand 
of  these  proscribed  Acadians  were  transported  to  Massachusetts, 
where  many  of  them  embarked  for  France.  The  expedition 
against  Niagara  was  committed  to  Governor  Shirley,  of  Massa- 
chusetts, whose  force  amounted  to  two  thousand  five  hundred 
men.  The  season,  however,  was  too  far  advanced  before  he  had 
completed  his  preparations,  to  effect  any  thing  of  importance,  and 
the  expedition  was  abandoned. 

The  war  continued,  with  varied  success,  till  the  conquest  of 
Quebec  by  the  army  under  Gen.  Wolfe,  in  September,  1759,  and 
the  final  reduction  of  Canada  in  1760.  This  event  caused  great 
and  universal  joy  in  the  colonies,  and  public  thanksgivings  were 
generally  appointed.  A  definitive  treaty,  the  preliminaries  of 
which,  had  been  settled  the  year  before.  v\ras  signed  at  Paris  in 
1763.  by  which  all  Nova  Scotia,  Canada,  the  isle  of  Cape  Breton, 
and  all  other  islands  in  the  gulf  and  river  St.  Lawrence,  were 
ceded  to  the  British  crown. 

After  the  peace  of  1763,  the  British  parliament  formed  a  plan 
for  raising  a  revenue  by  taxing  the  colonies.  For  this  purpose, 
an  act  was  passed  for  laying  a  duty  on  all  paper,  vellum,  or 
parchment,  used  in  America,  and  declaring  all  writings  on 
unstamped  materials  to  be  null  and  void.  This  act,  called  the 
Stamp  Act,  received  the  royal  assent  March  22d,  1765.  When  the 
news  of  this  act  reached  the  colonies,  the  people  everywhere 
manifested  alarm  and  a  determination  to  resist  its  execution.  The 

:$Q  0  U  T  L  I  N  E     H  I  S  T  O  R  Y  . 

assembly  of  Virginia  first  declared  its  opposition  to  the  act  by  a 
number  of  spirited  resolves ;  but  Massachusetts  took  the  lead  in 
this  important  crisis,  and  maintained  it  in  every  stage  of  the  sub- 
sequent revolution.  In  Boston,  the  populace,  in  some  instances, 
demolished  the  houses  of  the  friends  of  the  British  measures,  and 
in  various  ways  manifested  the  public  indignation.  To  render 
the  opposition  complete,  the  merchants  associated,  and  agreed  to  a 
resolution  not  to  import  any  more  goods  from  Great  Britain  until 
the  stamp  law  should  be  repealed.  To  give  efficacy  to  the  oppo- 
sition to  this  act,  Massachusetts  proposed  a  meeting  of  deputies 
from  the  several  colonies,  to  be  held  at  New  York  in  October, 
1765.  Deputies  from  nine  of  the  colonies  met,  agreed  on  a  decla- 
ration of  rights  and  grievances,  sent  a  petition  to  the  king,  and  a 
memorial  to  both  houses  of  parliament.  This  spirited  opposi- 
tion, seconded  by  the  eloquence  of  Mr.  Pitt  and  other  friends  of 
America,  produced  a  repeal  of  the  stamp  act  on  the  18th  of  March, 

The  British  ministry,  notwithstanding  the  fate  of  the  stamp  act, 
still  persisted  in  their  design  of  raising  a  revenue  from  America ; 
and,  in  1767,  an  act  was  passed  for  laying  duties  on  glass,  paint- 
ers' colors,  paper,  and  tea  imported  -into  the  colonies.  These 
duties  were  small,  but  the  colonists  objected  to  the  principle,  rather 
than  to  the  amount  of  the  tax,  and  remonstrated  against  the  act. 
A  second  association  was  formed  for  suspending  the  importation  on 
all  goods  on  which  duties  were  charged.  These  measures  of  Mas- 
sachusetts were  adopted  by  the  other  colonies,  and  a  circular  letter 
from  Boston  had  its  influence  in  giving  concert  and  consistency  to 
the  opinions  and  proceedings  of  the  colonial  assemblies.  This  op- 
position, supported  by  petitions  and  remonstrances,  procured  the 
abolition  of  all  the  duties,  except  of  three  pence  on  every  pound  of 
tea.  The  British  ministry,  finding  mild  efforts  to  be  unavailing  i;i 
establishing  their  authority  in  regard  to  raising  a  revenue,  sent 
four  regiments  to  be  stationed  in  Boston,  to  overawe  the  inhabitants 
and  enforce  the  obnoxious  orders  of  parliament. 

In  pursuance  of  the  ministerial  plan  of  reducing  Massachusetts 
to  obedience,  an  act  of  parliament  was  passed  for  the  regulation 
of  its  government,  by  which  the  powers  of  the  people  were  abridg- 
ed, and  the  officers  of  government  were  made  dependent  on  the 
crown  for  their  appointment  and  salaries.  By  another  act,  persons 
indicted  for  murder  or  other  capital  offences  might,  if  the  governor 
should  think  an  impartial  trial  could  not  be  had  in  the  colony,  be 
sent  to  Great  Britain  to  be  tried.  In  1774,. the  parliament,  in  order 
to  punish  the  refractory  province  of  Massachusetts,  and  especially 
the  inhabitants  of  Boston,  passed  an  act  to  shut  the  port  of 
Boston  and  restrain  all  intercourse  with  the  town  by  water.  The 
government  and  public  offices  were  removed  to  Salem.  But  this 
miserable  proceeding  had  no  effect  but  to  irritate  the  feelings  of  all 
concerned.  In  May,  1774,  Gen.  Gage  arrived  in  Boston,  with  the 
commission  of  governor  of  Massachusetts  and  comrnander-in-chief 
of  the  British  forces.  He  summoned  the  assembly  to  convene  at 


Salem;  but,  on  further  reflection,  countermanded  the  summons. 
The  counter  order,  however,  was  deemed  illegal,  and  the  members 
convened.  The  governor  not  meeting  them,  they  organized  them- 
selves into  a  provincial  congress,  which  formed  a  plan  of  defence, 
appointed  general  officers,  and  took  measures  to  collect  supplies  and 
military  stores  at  Concord  and  Worcester. 

The  assembly  of  Massachusetts,  after  a  short  adjournment,  again 
met,  and  determined  to  raise  twelve  thousand  men,  sent  agents  to 
the  neighboring  colonies,  and  requested  their  co-operation.  The 
New  England  colonies  accordingly  sent  on  their  committees,  who 
met  and  agreed  on  a  plan  of  operations.  At  the  same  time  meas- 
ures were  taken  to  effect  a  union  of  all  the  colonies,  and  for  this 
purpose  it  was  agreed  that,  delegates  from  the  several  colonies 
should  meet  in  a  general  congress.  This  body  met  on  the  5th  of 
September,  1774,  and  approved  of  the  opposition  made  by  Massa- 
chusetts to  the  exercise  of  the  arbitrary  power  of  the  British  min- 
istry, and  stated  their  resolution  to  support  her  in  her  opposition. 
They  published  a  declaration  of  the  rights  of  the  colonies,  one  of 
which  was  an  exemption  from  taxes  imposed  upon  them  by  a 
legislature  in  which  they  were  not  represented.  When  the  pro- 
ceedings of  the  Americans  were  laid  before  parliament,  that  body 
declared  that  rebellion  actually  existed  in  the  province  of  Massa- 
chusetts, and  they  accordingly  besought  his  majesty  to  take  the 
most  effectual  measures  to  enforce  due  obedience  to  the  laws  of  the 
supreme  legislature.  From  this  time  an  appeal  to  arms  seemed 
unavoidable,  and  both  parties  prepared  for  the  conflict. 

The  great  drama  of  the  Revolution  opened  in  Massachusetts,  at 
Lexington,  Concord,  and  Bunker's  Hill,  and  for  about  a  year  she 
sustained  the  first  shock  of  the  struggle.  On  July  2d,  1775,  Gen. 
Washington  arrived  at  Cambridge,  and  took  the  command  of  the 
American  army  encamped  at  that  place.  He  introduced  military 
order,  and,  with  about  20,000  men,  besieged  the  town  of  Boston. 
Batteries  were  erected  on  Dorchester  heights,  which  greatly 
annoyed  the  shipping  in  the  harbor,  and  preparations  were  made 
for  a  general  assault.  On  the  17th  of  May,  1776,  the  British  troops 
evacuated  Boston,  and,  embarking  on  board  of  their  vessels,  sailed 
for  New  York.  After  this  time,  the  soil  of  Massachusetts,  except- 
ing some  islands,  remained  free  from  actual  invasion. 

In  1780,  the  present  constitution  of  government  of  the  Common- 
wealth of  Massachusetts  went  into  operation  :  it  was  formed  by  a 
convention  of  delegates  appointed  by  the  people  for  that  purpose. 
John  Hancock  was  elected  the  first  governor,  and  held  the  office 
by  annual  election  till  1785.  The  year  1786  is  rendered  memo- 
rable for  Shay's  Rebellion.  This  insurrection  was  caused  chiefly 
by  the  oppressive  debts  contracted  during  the  revolutionary  war 
by  individuals  and  corporations  throughout  the  state,  and  by  the 
state  itself.  After  the  insurgents  had  held  conventions,  interrupted 
the  proceedings  of  the  courts  of  justice  in  several  counties,  and 
collected  a  considerable  armed  force,  and  thus  greatly  alarmed  the 
government  and  agitated  the  community,  they  were  entirely  put 


down,  and  dispersed  by  the  state  troops  under  the  command  of 
Gen.  Shepherd  and  Gen.  Lincoln. 

The  Federal  Constitution  of  the  United  States  was  adopted  by  the 
convention  of  Massachusetts  in  1788,  by  a  vote  of  187  to  168,  and 
the  state  was  a  firm  supporter  of  the  administration  of  Washington, 
the  first  President.  The  embargo  laid  upon  American  vessels 
in  1808,  and  other  commercial  restrictions,  together  with  the  war 
with  Great  Britain  in  1812,  bore  with  severity  upon  the  extensive 
commercial  interests  of  Massachusetts.  Maine  was  a  part  of  the 
state  till  1820,  and  during  the  war  of  1812  a  portion  of  its  territory 
was  in  the  hands  of  the  enemy.  The  war,  and  the  acts  of  the 
national  government  during  its  continuance,  were  unpopular  with 
the  majority  of  the  citizens  of  the  state. 

Massachusetts  has  ever  been  one  of  the  most  distinguished  mem- 
bers of  the  American  Confederacy.  The  spirit  of  her  institutions 
has  been  transfused  into  many  of  her  sister  states,  and  she  may 
justly  claim  an  elevated  rank  among  the  members  of  this  Union. 
During  the  great  struggle  of  the  Revolution,  Massachusetts  stood 
foremost:  the  powerful  and  efficient  efforts  of  her  patriots  and 
statesmen,  stand  recorded  on  the  pages  of  American  history ;  and 
the  mouldering  bones  of  her  sons,  whitening  the  battle-fields  of 
the  Revolution  show  her  devotion  to  the  cause  of  civil  liberty. 


THIS  county  is  the  easternmost  land  in  Massachusetts,  compre- 
hending the  whole  of  the  peninsula  of  Cape  Cod,  so  named  from 
the  large  number  of  codfish  taken  near  it  by  one  of  its  first  discov- 
erers. It  was  incorporated  in  1685.  The  shape  of  the  peninsula 
is  that  of  a  man's  arm  bent  inwards  both  at  the  rdbow  and  wrist; 
its  whole  length  is  65  miles,  and  its  average  breadth  about  five. 
The  basis  of  this  peninsula,  constituting  almost  the  whole  mass,  is 
a  body  of  fine  yellow  sand ;  above  this,  is  a  thin  layer  of  coarser 
white  sand  ;  and  above  this  another  layer  of  soil,  gradually  declin- 
ing from  Barnstable  to  Truro,  where  it  vanishes.  In  many  parts 
<3f  the  county  the  traveller,  while  viewing  the  wide  wastes  of  sand, 
is  forcibly  reminded  of  descriptions  given  of  the  deserts  of  Arabia. 
Notwithstanding  the  general  barrenness  of  the  soil,  the  inhabitants 
of  this  county  are  in  as  comfortable  and  even  thrifty  circumstances 
as  in  almost  any  section  of  this  country.  The  inhabitants  generally 
derive  their  subsistence  from  the  fishing  and  coasting  business,5* 
and  it  may  be  said  of  the  majority  of  the  men  who  are  born  on 
the  Cape,  that  in  one  sense  "  their  home  is  on  the  ocean"  and  when 
with  their  families  they  are  only  on  a  visit,  and  to  a  great  extent 

*  A  very  general  prejudice  has  existed  in  the  minds  of  many  people  living  in  the 
interior  against  the  inhabitants  of  the  Cape ;  this  has  arisen  from  the  fact,  that  sea- 
men,  as  a  class,  have  been  considered  as  more  addicted  to  vice  tha.n  many  others.  This 
opinion,  as  far  as  it  regards  the  inhabitants  of  this  county,  is  erroneous  ;  and  it  may 


are  dependent  on  Boston  and  other  places  for  a  large  proportion 
of  their  meats  and  bread  stuffs.  The  county  has  but  little  wood, 
but  it  is  well  stored  with  peat.  The  manufacture  of  salt  receives 
great  attention ;  about  two  millions  of  dollars  are  invested  for  this 
purpose.  The  tonnage  of  Barnstable  district  is  28,153  tons.  Pop- 
ulation 31,109.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  towns. 

Barnstable,  Eastham,  Orleans,  Wellfleet, 

Brewster,  Falmouth,  Provincetown,      Yarmouth. 

Chatham,  Harwich,  Sandwich, 

Dennis,  Marshpee,  Truro, 


BARNSTABLE  is  the  county  town  of  Barnstable  county,  and  is  a 
port  of  entry.  It  was  incorporated  September  3d,  1639.  There  is 
no  particular  account  to  be  found  of  the  first  settlement  of  this 
town.  Probably  there  was  none  made  much  before  its  incorpora- 
tion, as  but  two  persons  are  named  in  the  original  grant.  "  The 
Indian  name  of  the  place  appears  to  have  been  Mattacheese,  Mat- 
tacheest,  or  Mattacheeset.  Probably  they  are  all  the  same  name, 
which  was  given  by  the  Indians  to  a  tract  of  land  which  included 
Yarmouth,  or  at  least  a  part  of  it ;  for  in  the  grant  of  Yarmouth 
that  place  is  said  to  have  been  called  Mattacheeset.  The  church 
at  Scituate  being  in  a  broken  condition,  the  Rev.  John  Lothrop  of 
that  place  removed  with  part  of  the  church  to  Barnstable,  in  Octo- 
ber, 1639,  the  same  year  the  town  was  granted  by  the  Old  Colony. 
It  appears  from  the  records  which  have  been  preserved,  that  all  the 
south  side  of  the  town  was  amicably  purchased  of  Wianno,  and 
several  other  sachems,  about  1650.  There  is  reason  to  believe  that 
all  the  north  part  was  likewise  purchased  of  the  natives,  although 
no  record  of  it  now  remains. 

The  town  of  Barnstable  extends  across  the  peninsula  of  Cape 
Cod,  which  is  here  from  five  to  nine  miles  wide,  and  its  soil  is  better 
than  most  towns  on  the  Cape.  The  land  on  the  north  side  of  the 
township  is  uneven,  and  in  some  places  rocky.  There  is  a  line 
of  hills  extending  east  and  west  through  the  whole  length  of  the 
town,  the  greatest  height  of  which  is  about  a  mile  from  the  harbor 
and  marshes  on  the  north  side.  South  of  this  ridge  the  land  is 
generally  level  to  the  sea.  Barnstable  harbor  is  formed  by  a  neck 
of  land  (called  Sandy  Neck)  which  projects  from  the  Sandwich 
line  on  the  north  shore,  and  runs  east  almost  the  whole  length  of 
the  town.  The  neck  is  about  half  a  mile  wide ;  the  harbor  is  about 
a  mile  wide  and  four  miles  long.  The  tide  rises  in  it  from  10  to 
14  feet.  There  is  a  bar  at  the  entrance  of  the  harbor  which  pre- 

be  safely  stated,  that  in  no  part  of  the  state  are  the  people  more  moral,  or  the  insti- 
tutions of  morality  and  religion  more  regarded.  The  inhabitants  of  the  Cape  are 
literally  more  purely  the  descendants  of  the  "pilgrim  fathers"  than  any  others  in  any 
part  of  the  state,  as  very  few  foreign  emigrants  have  settled  among  them. 



vents  the  entrance  of  very  large  ships.     The  principal  village  is 
situated  in  the  north-east  section  of  the  town,  on  the  main  road. 

North  rvesUrn  view  of  the  Barnstable  Court-House,  and  otker  buildings. 

The  above  is  a  north-western  view  of  the  Barnstable  court-house, 
(recently  erected)  and  some  other  buildings  in  the  vicinity.  The 
Unitarian  church  is  seen  in  the  distance,  standing  on  elevated 
ground.  A  newspaper  is  published  in  the  village. 

Hyanrds  is  a  village  on  the  south  side  of  the  town,  and  contains 
two  churches,  one  Baptist  and  one  Universalist,  and  is  five  miles 
S.  E.  of  Barnstable  court-house,  twenty-four  from  Falmouth,  and 
thirty  from  Nantucket.  It  has  a  good  harbor,  and  by  an  expensive 
breakwater,  now  constructing  by  the  United  States  government, 
will  become  safe  from  all  winds  for  all  classes  of  vessels  navigat- 
ing the  sound  and  passing  round  the  Cape.  Oysterville  is  a  settle- 
ment in  the  south-eastern  part  of  the  town,  containing  one  or  two 
churches  and  a  postoffice.  Besides  these,  there  are  two  other  small 
villages,  one  called  Centerville,  (formerly  called  by  the  Indian  name 
Ckeqiiaket^)  the  other  Cotuit,  in  the  western  part  of  the  town,  four 
miles  southerly  from  the  court-house.  There  are  in  the  town  eight 
houses  of  worship,  two  Orthodox,  one  Unitarian,  two  Methodist, 
one  Baptist,  one  Universalist,  and  one  for  various  denominations. 
The  manufacture  of  salt  was  commenced  here  as  early  as  1779 :  it 
then  sold  for  six  dollars  a  bushel.  In  1837,  there  were  27,125 
bushels  of  salt  made  in  the  town.  There  are  numerous  ponds  arid 
extensive  salt  marshes.  Between  fifty  and  sixty  sail  of  fishing 
vessels  and  coasting  vessels  belong  to  this  town.  Population  4,017. 
Distance  thirty  miles  S.  E.  from  Plymouth,  sixty-five  S.  E.  of  Bos- 
ton, and  466  miles  from  Washington. 

The  Rev.  John  Lothrop  was  the  first  minister  in  this  town,  as 


has  been  stated ;  his  successor  was  the  Rev.  Thomas  Walley,  who 
was  ordained  in  1663;  the  next  was  Rev.  Jonathan  Russell,  who 
was  ordained  in  1683 ;  Mr.  Russell  was  succeeded  hy  his  son  of  the 
same  name,  who  was  ordained  in  1712,  and  died  in  1759.  When 
the  town  was  divided  into  two  precincts,  in  1719,  Mr.  Russell, 
then  minister,  being  left  to  his  own  choice,  chose  the  west  precinct, 
commonly  called  Great  Marshes,  where  he  continued  till  his  death. 
In  1725,  the  church  in  the  east  precinct  was  gathered,  and  the 
Rev.  Joseph  Greene  was  ordained.  Mr.  Greene  was  succeeded  by 
Rev.  Timothy  Hilliard  in  1771,  who  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  John 
Mellen  Jr.  in  1783.  In  the  west  church,  Mr.  Russell  was  succeeded 
by  Rev.  Cakes  Shaw  in  1760. 

It  has  been  stated  "the  West.  Barnstable  church  is  the  first  inde- 
pendent Congregational  church  of  that  name  in  the  world."  It  was 
organized  in  1616,  in  England,  principally  through  the  instrumen- 
tality of  Rev.  Henry  Jacob,  who  was  chosen  and  constituted  its 
first  pastor. 

"  The  foundation  of  this  church  was  laid  in  the  following  manner  :  After  solemn 
fasting  and  prayer,  each  made  open  confession  of  his  faith  in  Jesus  Christ ;  and  then, 
standing  up  together,  they  joined  hands  and  solemnly  covenanted  with  each  other,  in 
the  presence  of  Almighty  God,  to  walk  together  in  all  his  ways,  ordinances,  Ace.  On 
account  of  the  violence  of  the  persecution  with  which  this  church  was  assailed,  their 
pastor  continued  with  them  only  eight  years,  and  then  fled  to  Virginia,  in  this  country, 
where  he  soon  after  died.  The  church  then  chose  as  their  second  pastor  Rev.  John 
Lothrop,  from  whom  descended  most  of  the  numerous  families  of  this  name  scat- 
tered  through  our  country.  In  1632  Mr.  Lothrop  and  the  little  band  to  wftom  he  mi- 
nistered, when  assembled  for  worship  in  a  private  building,  were  surprised  by  their 
persecutors,  and  only  18  of  their  number  escaped,  while  42  were  apprehended  and 
cast  into  prison.  After  being  confined  for  two  years,  all  were  released  upon  bail,  ex- 
cepting  Mr.  Lothrop,  for  whom  no  favor  could  be  obtained.  In  the  mean  time  his 
wife  died,  and  his  children  left  in  needy  and  distressed  circumstances.  At  length  Mr. 
L.,  on  condition  of  leaving  the  country,  obtained  his  freedom.  In  1034,  with  31  of 
his  church  and  congregation — all  he  could  collect — he  came  to  New  England  and  set- 
tled in  Scituate.  At  that  time  the  churches  at  Plymouth,  Duxbury  and  Marsh- 
field  were  all  that  existed  in  the  country.  In  1639,  with  a  majority  of  his  people  and 
twenty-two  male  members  of  his  church,  he  removed  to  Barnstable  and  commenced 
its  settlement." 

"  A  large  rock  is  said  to  lie  near  the  place,  around  which  this  colony  used  to  transact 
their  civil  business  and  hold  their  public  religious  meetings.  On  that  venerable  and 
consecrated  rock  is  believed  to  have  been  preached  the  first  gospel  sermon  in  this  town  ; 
and  here  the  ordinances  were  first  administered.  ***####*** 
The  first  public  house  of -worship,  it  is  supposed,  was  built  soon  after  thf;  settlement 
was  commenced,  and  near  the  consecrated  rock.  This  rock  may  be  now  seen  lying 
by  the  side  of  the  road  betxveen  west  and  east  parishes.'-'  *  *  *  *  "  It  is  a  fact 
probably  known  to  but  lew  in  this  country,  that  the  first  Baptist  church  in  England 
under  that  name  spnt/tz  up  in.  the  original  Congregational  church  of  West  Barnstable! 
From  the  researches  of  Mr.  Pratt,  it  seems  that  "one  of  the  members  of  Mr.  Lothrop's 
church,  before  they  left  England,  and  probably  before  Mr.  L.'s  imprisonment  in  1632, 
brought  a  child  to  be  re-baptized.  A  lew  of  the  church  insisted  on  having  it  done,  as- 
signing as  a  reason,  their  belief  that  the  infant  baptism  of  the  child  was- not  valid  ;  but 
when  the  vote  was  taken,  a  large  majority  voted  against  the  innovation.  Upon  this, 
some  of  the  more  rigid,  and  a  few  others  who  had  become  dissatisfied  about  infant 
baptism,  requested  to  be  dismissed,  that  they  might  organize  a  separate  church.  They 
were  accordingly  dismissed  ;  and  they  chose  Mr.  Jacie  as  their  minister.  These  two 
churches  were  on  terms  of  Christian  fellowship,  and  continued  to  commune  together 
at  the  table  of  their  common  Lord." — Boston  Recorder,  Jan.  26,  1838. 

James  Otis,  a  distinguished  patriot  and  statesman,  was  bom  in 
this  town,  (West  Barnstable)  Feb.  5th  1725,  and  graduated  at  Har- 
vard college  in  1743. 


After  pursuing  the  study  of  the  law  under  Mr.  Gridley,  the  first  lawyer  and  civilian 
of  his  time,  at  the  age  of  twenty -one  he  began  the  practice  at  Plymouth.  In  about  two 
years  he  removed  from  this  town  to  Boston,  where  he  soon  gained  so  high  a  reputation 
for  integrity  and  talents,  that  his  services  were  required  in  the  most  important  causes. 
In  1761  he  distinguished  himself  by  pleading  against  the  writs  of  assistance,  which  the 
officers  of  the  customs  had  applied  for  to  the  judges  of  the  supreme  court.  His  anta- 
gonist was  Mr.  Gridley.  He  was  in  this  or  the  following  year  chosen  a  member  of  the 
legislature  of  Massachusetts,  in  which  body  the  powers  of  his  eloquence,  the  keenness 
of  his  wit.  the  force  of  his  arguments,  and  the  resources  of  his  intellect,  gave  him  a 
most  commanding  influence.  When  the  arbitrary  claims  of  Great  Britain  were  ad- 
vanced, he  warmly  engaged  in  defence  of  the  colonies,  and  was  the  first  champion  of 
American  freedom  who  had  the  courage  to  affix  his  name  to  a  production  that  stood 
forth  against  the  pretensions  of  the  parent  state.  He  was  a  member  of  the  congress 
which  was  held  at  New  York  in  1765,  in  which  year  his  Rights  of  the  Colonies  Vin- 
dicated, a  pamphlet,  occasioned  by  the  stamp  act,  and  which  was  considered  as  a  master- 
piece both  of  good  writing  and  of  argument,  was  published  in  London.  For  the  bold- 
ness of  his  opinions  he  was  threatened  with  an  arrest ;  yet  he  continued  to  support  the 
rights  of  his  fellow-citizens.  He  resigned  the  office  of  judge  advocate  in  1767,  and 
renounced  all  employment  under  an  administration  which  had  encroached  upon  the 
liberties  of  his  country.  His  warm  passions  sometimes  betrayed  him  into  unguarded 
epithets,  that  gave  his  enemies  an  advantage,  without  benefit  to  the  cause  which  lay 
nearest  his  heart.  Being  vilified  in  the  public  papers,  he  in  return  published  some 
severe  strictures  on  the  conduct  of  the  commissioners  of  the  customs,  and  others  of  the 
ministerial  party.  A  short  time  afterwards,  on  the  evening  of  the  fifth  of  September. 
1769,  he  met  Mr.  John  Robinson,  one  of  the  commissioners,  in  a  public  room,  and  an 
affray  followed,  in  which  he  was  assaulted  by  a  number  of  ruffians,  who  left  him  and 
a  young  gentleman,  who  interposed  in  his  defence,  covered  with  wounds.  The  wounds 
were  not  mortal,  but  his  usefulness  was  destroyed,  for  his  reason  was  shaken  from  its 
throne,  and  the  great  man  in  ruins  lived  several  years,  the  grief  of  his  friends.  In  an 
interval  of  reason  he  forgave  the  men  who  had  done  him  an  irreparable  injury,  arid 
relinquished  the  sum  of  five  thousand  pounds  sterling,  which  Mr.  Robinson  had  been 
by  a  civil  process  adjudged  to  pay,  on  his  signing  a  humble  acknowledgment.  He 
lived  to  see,  but  not  fully  to  enjoy,  the  independence  of  America,  an  event  towards 
which  his  efforts  had  greatly  contributed.  At  length,  on  the.  twenty-third  of  May,  1783, 
as  he  was  leaning  on  his  cane  at  the  door  of  Mr.  Osgood's  house  in  Andover,  he  was 
struck  by  a  flash  of  lightning  ;  his  soul  was  instantly  liberated  from  its  shattered  tene- 
ment, and  sent  into  eternity.  President  Adams,  then  minister  in  France,  wrote 
respecting  him,  a  It  was  with  very  afflicting  sentiments  I  learned  the  death  of  Mr. 
Otis,  my  worthy  master.  Extraordinary  in  death  as  in  life,  he  has  left  a  character 
that  will  never  die,  while  the  memory  of  the  American  revolution  remains  ;  whose 
foundation  he  laid  with  an  energy,  and  with  those  masterly  abilities,  which  no  other 
man  possessed."  He  was  highly  distinguished  by  genius,  eloquence,  and  learning, 
and  no  American,  perhaps,  had  possessed  more  extensive  information.  Besides  his 
legal  and  political  knowledge,  he  was  a  complete  master  of  classical  literature.  He 
published  Rudiments  of  Latin  Prosody,  with  a  Dissertation  on  Letters,  and  the  Power 
of  Harmony  in  Poetic  and  Prosaic  Composition,  12mo,  1760,  which  has  been  con- 
sidered the  most  clear  and  masterly  treatise  on  the  subject  ;  Vindication  of  the  Con- 
duct of  the  House  of  Representatives  of  Massachusetts,  1762  ;  The  Rights  of  the  Brit- 
ish Colonies  Asserted,  1764  ;  Considerations  on  behalf  of  the  Colonists,  1765. — Allen's 
Biog.  Dictionary. 

The  following  inscriptions  are  copied  from  monuments  in  the 

Here  lieth  the  body  of  Mr.  Joseph  Green,  the  worthy  pastor  of  this  church.  As  a 
gentleman,  a  friend,  a  Christian,  and  minister,  his  character  was  greatly  distinguished. 
His  natural  abilities  were  conspicuous,  and  much  improved  by  study  and  application. 
In  human  and  sacred  literature  he  greatly  excelled.  His  principles  were  evangelical 
and  candid.  In  prayer  and  preaching  liis  gifts  were  generally  and  justly  admired. 
Temperance,  purity,  prudence,  benevolence,  resignation,  devotion,  and  exemplary 
diligence  in  his  Master's  service,  adorned  his  character.  His  mind  was  sedate,  his 
temper  placid,  his  affections  and  passions  regulated  by  reason  and  religion  ;  his  man- 
ner courteous,  generous,  and  hospitable ;  his  conversation  entertaining,  instructive,  and 
serious  ;  a  dutiful  son,  an  affectionate  husband,  and  a  tender  parent ;  a  sincere  friend 
and  faithful  minister ;  greatly,  and  to  the  last,  beloved  and  honored  by  his  people. 



Born  at  Boston,  21  June,  0.  S.  1704  ;  graduated  at  Harvard  College,  1720  ;  ordained 
12  May,  0.  S.  1725  ;  departed  this  life,  in  assured  hope  of  a  better,  4  October,  N.  S., 
1770,  in  the  70  year  of  his  age,  and  46  of  his  ministry. 

Think  what  the  Christian  minister  should  be, 
You've  then  his  character,  for  such  was  he. 

Rev.  Oakes  Shaw,  born  at  Bridgewater,  1736,  graduated  at  Harvard  College  1758, 
ordained  in  this  place  1760,  died  llth  February,  1807.  Benevolence,  affection,  and 
sincerity  characterize' 1  and  endeared  him  in  all  the  relations  of  social  life.  With 
irnaffected  piety  and  zeal,  with  unshaken  constancy  and  fidelity,  he  discharged  the 
various  duties  of  the  pastoral  office.-  To  perpetuate  the  remembrance  of  his  virtues  and 
talents,  to  prolong  the  influence  of  his  character,  and  to  testify  their  respect  for  his 
memory,  this  monument  is  gratefully  erected  by  a  bereaved  and  affectionate  people. 


South-eastern  view  of  Brervster,  (central  part). 

BREWSTER,  formerly  the  first  or  North  parish  of  Harwich,  was  in- 
corporated as  a  town  in  1803,  by  the  name  of  Brewster^  in  honora- 
ble remembrance  of  Elder  Brewster,  distinguished  for  his  virtues 
among  the  first  settlers  of  Plymouth  colony.  The  first  church 
gathered  here  Oct.  16,  1700,  and  Rev.  Nathaniel  Stone  was  ordained 
their  pastor  on  the  same  day.  Mr.  Stone  died  in  1755,  and  was 
succeeded  by  Rev.  Isaiah  Dunster.  Mr.  Dunster  died  in  1791,  and 
was  succeeded  by  Rev.  John  Simkins,  who  was  ordained  the  same 
year.  The  first  meeting-house  built  in  this  place  stood  about  half 
a  mile  from  the  north  shore. 

The  above  is  a  south-eastern  view  of  the  central  part  6f  Brewster, 
showing  the  Congregational  church,  town-house,  and  some  other 
buildings  in  the  immediate  vicinity.  There  are  about  ninety  dwell- 
ing-houses within  a  mile  from  the  Congregational  church  seen  in 
the  engraving.  Besides  the  Congregational,  there  are  two  other 
churches  in  the  village,  one  for  Baptists,  the  other  for  Universalists ; 
a  Methodist  church  is  situated  in  the  western  part  of  the  town. 
The  factory  village  is  situated  about  two  miles  westward  of  this 


place ;  it  contains  a  cotton  and  several  other  mills,  and,  what  is 
unusual  on  the  Cape,  are  moved  by  water. 

This  town  holds  a  central  position  with  regard  to  the  peninsula 
of  Cape  Cod,  being  about  36  miles  from  Provincetown  at  the  lower 
or  north  end,  and  the  same  distance  from  Falmouth  the  S.  W.  ex- 
tremity. The  face  of  the  township  is  diversified  by  a  mixture  of 
hilly  and  level  land.  On  some  of  these  elevations  over  which  the 
county  road  passes,  the  traveller  has  a  fair  view  of  the  ocean  on 
each  side  of  the  peninsula;  to  the  northward  he  can  discern  the 
buildings  in  Easthara  at  the  distance  of  8  or  10  miles,  and  at.  cer- 
tain seasons  the  reflection  of  the  sun  upon  the  windows  of  the 
houses  in  Wellfleet  and  Truro  is  discernible,  by  the  naked  eye,  at 
a  distance  of  eighteen  miles  and  upwards  on  the  county  road. 
North  of  the  county  road  and  bordering  on  the  bay,  which  is  the 
north  boundary  of  the  town,  the  soil  may  be  considered  in  this 
region  as  good  land ;  the  other  part  of  the  town  the  soil  is  light  and 
sandy.  This  town  has  6  or  8  fishing  and  coasting  vessels,  and 
does  something  at  the  manufacture  of  salt.  A  large  number  of 
ship-masters  (in  common  with  other  towns  on  Cape  Cod)  sailing  to 
foreign  ports  belong  here.  From  a  number  of  ponds  in  this  town, 
a  never-failing  stream  of  water  is  produced,  on  which  are  a  cotton 
mill,  carding  mill,  and  several  other  manufacturing  establishments. 
Population  1,534.  Distance  easterly  from  Barnstable  16  miles,  6 
northerly  from  Chatham,  and  from  Boston,  by  water,  twenty-three 


THE  Indian  name  for  Chatham  appears  to  have  been  Monnamoiet 
or  Monamoy.  In  1665  William  Nickerson  bought  of  the  sachem 
of  Monamoy  a  tract  of  land  near  Potannmaquut,  bounded  east  by 
the  Great  Harbor.  Nickerson  also  made  other  purchases  of  the 
natives  of  lands  in  the  vicinity  at  various  times.  In  1665,  Thomas 
Hinckley,  John  Freeman,  Nathaniel  Bacon,  and  their  partners, 
obtained  from  the  Plymouth  colony  court  the  grant  of  a  right  to 
purchase  of  the  natives  land  at  Monnamoit  and  places  adjacent. 
This  interfered  with  the  property  of  Nickerson,  who  had  made 
several  of  his  purchases  without  authority  from  the  court,  which 
was  necessary  to  make  his  title  valid.  Hinckley  and  his  associates, 
however,  in  1672,  for  a  valuable  consideration,  conveyed  to  Nick- 
erson their  grant,  which  made  his  title  good,  and  was  confirmed  to 
his  heirs  by  the  legislature.  The  settlement  of  the  village,  or  dis- 
trict of  Monamoy,  appears  to  have  been  made  not  long  after  the 
purchase  was  made.  It  was  incorporated  into  a  township  by  the 
legislature,  by  the  name  of  Chatham,  in  1712.  In  1720  the  church 
was  first  gathered,  and  Rev.  Joseph  Lord  ordained ;  he  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  Stephen  Emery  in  1749.  Mr.  Emery  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  Thomas  Roby,  who  was  ordained  in  1783,  and 
dismissed  by  his  request  in  1795;  the  Rev.  Ephraim  Briggs  was 
ordained  the  next  year. 



The  township  consists  of  sand  hills  and  ridges,  with  narrow  val- 
leys, small  depressions,  ponds  and  swamps  between  them.  The 
soil  is  rather  better  than  most  of  the  towns  in  this  part  of  the  Cape. 
Great  Hill,  in  this  town,  is  the  first  land  made  by  seamen  coming 
on  this  part  of  the  coast ;  and  from  this  place  Nantucket  is  some- 
times seen.  There  are  4  churches  in  the  town,  1  Orthodox,  1  Uni- 
versalist,  1  Baptist,  and  1  Methodist. 

North-western  view  in  Chatham. 

The  above  shows  the  appearance  of  the  principal  village  in 
Chatham,  as  it  is  seen  from  the  ancient  burying-ground,  about  two 
and  a  half  miles  distant.  Immediately  beyond  the  monuments  is 
seen  one  of  the  numerous  fresh-water  ponds  in  this  town.  They 
are  said  to  be  about  thirty  in  number.  By  a  beneficent  arrange- 
ment of  Providence,  these  ponds,  containing  an  article  so  necessary  to 
life,  are  found  in  almost  every  part  of  the  Cape.  The  Old  Harbor 
is  situated  about  two  miles  from  the  two  light-houses  seen  in  the 
engraving.  The  village  at  this  place  is  rather  smaller  than  the 
one  represented,  but  the  houses  are  larger.  Chatham  is  said  to  be 
one  of  the  wealthiest  towns  in  the  county.  A  large  amount  of 
shipping  is  owned  by  the  inhabitants  in  other  places.  Forty  years 
ago,  large  ships  used  to  come  into  the  harbor ;  but  it  now  has 
become  so  injured  by  the  sand  bar  which  has  been  making,  that 
only  small  craft  enter.  A  large  proportion  of  the  people  are 
engaged  in  the  sea-faring  business.  In  1837,  there  were  22 
vessels  employed  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery :  15,500 
quintals  of  cod-fish  were  caught,  valued  at  $46,500.  Twelve  hun- 
dred barrels  of  mackerel,  valued  at  $9,600,  were  taken.  There 
were  80  establishments  for  the  manufacture  of  salt,  and  27,400 
bushels,  valued  at  $8,220,  were  made.  The  central  part  of  the 
town  is  about  22  miles  easterly  from  Barnstable  court-house,  and 
40  to  Provincetown.  Population  2.271. 

The  following,  extracted  from  a  description  of  Chatham  pub- 
lished in  1S02,  shows  the  "bill  of  fare"  of  the  inhabitants  of  that 

"  Food  can  so  easily  be  procured,  either  on  the  shores  or  in  the  sea,  that,  with  the 
profit  which  arises  from  their  voyages,  in  which  it  must  be  confessed  they  labor  very 

•lU  r>  E  N  N  1  S  . 

hard,  the  people  are  enabled  to  cover  their  tables  well  with  provisions.  A  break- 
fast  among  the  inhabitants,  and  even  among  those  who  are  called  the  poorest,  for 
there  are  none  which  may  be  called  really  poor,  consists  of  tea  or  coffee,  brown  bread, 
generally  with  butter,  sometimes  without,  and  salt  or  fresh  fish,  fried  or  broiled.  A 
dinner  affords  one  or  more  of  the  following  dishes :  roots  and  herbs  j  salted  beef  or 
pork  boiled ;  fresh  butcher's  meat  not  more  than  twelve  times  a  year ;  wild  fowl 
frequently  in  the  autumn  and  winter,-  fresh  fish  boiled  or  fried  with  pork;  shejl- 
fish  ;  salt  fish  boiled  ;  Indian  pudding  ;  pork  baked  with  beans.  Tea  or  coffee  also 
frequently  constitutes  part  of  the  dinner.  A  supper  consists  of  tea  or  coffee,  and  fish, 
as  at  breakfast ;  cheese,  cakes  made  of  flour,  gingerbread,  and  pies  of  several  sorts. 
This  bill  of  fare  will  serve,  with  little  variation,  for  all  the  fishing  towns  in  the  county. 
In  many  families  there  is  no  difference  between  the  breakfast  and  supper  ;  cheese, 
cakes,  and  pies  being  common  at  the  one  as  at  the  other.' 


THIS  town  was  formerly  the  eastern  part  of  Yarmouth.  It  was 
set  off  as  a  distinct  parish  in  that  town  in  1721 ;  and  was  incorpo- 
rated into  a  town  in  1793.  The  church  was  gathered,  and  the 
first  pastor,  Rev.  Josiah  Dennis,  was  ordained,  in  1727.  Mr.  Den- 
nis died  in  1763,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Nathan  Stone,  who 
was  ordained  in  1764.  The  inhabitants  have  manifested  their 
respect  for  Mr.  Dennis,  their  first  minister,  by  naming  the  town 
after  him. 

The  soil  of  this  town,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  small  spots, 
is  sandy  and  unproductive.  Scargo  Hill,  in  the  north  part  of  the 
township,  is  the  highest  land  in  the  county,  and  is  the  first  which 
is  made  by  seamen  when  approaching  the  south  shore. 

In  1837,  the  number  of  "  vessels  employed  in  the  cod  and  mack- 
erel fishery,  18:  tonnage  of  the  same,  1,037;  codfish  caught,  9,141 
quintals;  value  of  the  same,  $25,137;  mackerel  caught,  4,684 
barrels;  value  of  the  same,  $25,762;  salt  used,  16.691  bushels; 
hands  employed,  247;  capital  invested,  $29,682."  It  is  stated 
that  there  is  more  navigation  owned  in  Dennis,  than  in  any  other 
town  in  the  county;  and  a  large  portion  of  it  is  owned  on  the 
south  side.  North  Dennis,  on  the  north  side,  was  first  settled,  but 
within  the  last  twenty  years  the  south  side  has  become  much  the 
largest.  There  are  two  organized  societies  in  this  part  of  the  town, 
one  Methodist  and  one  Congregationalist.  The  Congregationalist 
society  was  organized  with  twenty  members,  in  1817,  under 
the  ministry  of  Rev.  John  Sanford,  the  present  pastor.  Distance, 
8  miles  easterly  from  Barnstable,  and  by  water  about  60  miles 
S.  E.  of  Boston.  Population  2,750. 

About  60,000  bushels  of  salt,  and  500  barrels  of  Epsom  salts,  are 
annually  made  in  this  town.  The  first  salt  produced  by  solar  eva- 
poration in  this  country  appears  to  have  been  made  by  Capt.  John 
Sears,  of  this  place,  in  1776.  During  the  revolutionary  war, 
many  persons  here  and  elsewhere  on  the  coast,  applied  themselves 
to  the  business  of  making  salt.  The  process  consisted  in  evapo- 
rating sea  water  from  large  boilers  by  fire.  The  quantity  obtained 
in  this  manner  was  necessarily  small,  and  the  consumption  of  fuel 



The  cut  shows  the  appearance  of  the  salt  vats  which  are  so 
numerous  on  Cape  Cod.  It  will  be  perceived  the  covers  or  roofs 
of  two  of  these  vats  are  connected  by  a  beam  or  crane.  Dr. 
D wight,  who  visited  the  Cape  in  1800,  says,  "  A  Mr.  Kelly,  hav- 
ing professedly  made  several  improvements  in  the  means  of  accom- 
plishing this  business,  obtained  a  patent,  about  two  years  before 
this  journey  was  taken,  for  making  salt-works  on  the  plan  gene- 
rally adopted  in  this  region.  Of  these  the  following  is  a  descrip- 
tion. Vats,  of  a  number  suited  to  the  owner's  design,  20  feet 

Apparatus  used  in  making  Salt. 

square,  and  10  or  12  inches  in  depth,  are  formed  of  pine  planks,  an 
inch  and  a  half  thick,  and  so  nicely  joined  as  to  be  water-tight. 
These  are  arranged  into  four  classes.  The  first  class,  or  that  next 
to  the  ocean,  is  called  the  water  room ;  the  second,  the  pickle  room ; 
the  third,  the  lime  room ;  and  the  fourth,  the  salt  room.  Each  of 
these  rooms,  except  the  first,  is  placed  so  much  lower  than  the 
preceding,  that  the  water  flows  readily  from  it  to  another,  in  the 
order  specified.  The  water  room  is  filled  from  the  ocean  by  a 
pump  furnished  with  vans  or  sails,  and  turned  by  the  wind.  Here 
it  continues  until  of  the  proper  strength  to  be  drawn  into  the  pickle 
room,  and  thus  successively  into  those  which  remain.  The  lime, 
with  which  the  water  of  the  ocean  abounds,  is  deposited  in  the 
lime  room.  The  salt  is  formed  into  small  crystals  in  the  salt 
room,  very  white  and  pure,  and  weighs  from  70  to  75  pounds  a 
bushel.  The  process  is  carried  on  through  the  warm  season. 
After  the  salt  has  ceased  to  crystallize,  the  remaining  water  is  suf- 
fered to  freeze.  In  this  manner,  a  large  quantity  of  Glauber's  salt 
is  obtained  in  crystals,  which  are  clean  and  good.  The 'residuum 
is  a  strong  brine,  and  yields  a  great  proportion  of  marine  salt,  like 
that  already  described.  To  shelter  the  vats  from  the  dews  and 
rains,  each  is  furnished  with  a  hipped  roof,  large  enough  to  cover 
it  entirely.  The  roofs  of  two  vats  are  connected  by  a  beam  turn- 
ing upon  an  upright  post,  set  firmly  in  the  ground,  and  are  moved 
easily  on  this  pivot  by  a  child  of  fourteen,  or  even  twelve  years. 
To  cover  and  uncover  them,  is  all  the  ordinary  labor." 



THE  original  Indian  name  of  Eastham  was  Nauset.  After  being 
purchased  from  the  natives,  it  was  granted  by  the  court  to  the  set- 
tlers at  Plymouth,  in  1644.  This  included  the  present  town- 
ships of  Eastham,  Wellfleet,  and  Orleans.  Some  of  the  principal 
settlers  were  Thomas  Prince,  John  Doane,  Nicholas  Snow,  Josias 
Cook,  Richard  Higgins,  John  Smalley,  and  Edward  Bangs: 
these  persons  are  said  to  have  been  among  the  most  respectable 
inhabitants  of  Plymouth.  The  settlement  commenced  the  year 
(1644)  the  grant  was  made,  and  was  incorporated  as  a  town  in 
1646.  A  church  was  gathered  soon  after  their  arrival,  but  the 
inhabitants  were  not  sufficiently  numerous  to  support  a  minister 
till  1672,  when  Rev.  Samuel  Treat,  of  Milford,  Con.  was  ordained. 

Ancient  Pear  Tree  in  Eastham. 

The  above  is  a  representation  of  an  ancient  pear  tree,  on  the 
land  now  owned  by  Mr.  Nathan  Kenny,  twenty-one  miles  from 
Barnstable  court-house.  It  was  brought  from  England  by 
Thomas  Prince,  for  many  years  governor  of  Plymouth  colony. 
Governor  Prince  removed  from  Duxbury  to  Eastham  in  1640  or 
1645,  and,  leaving  Eastham,  returned  to  Plymouth  in  1665,  so  that 
this  tree,  planted  by  him,  is  now  probably  about  two  hundred 
years  old.  It  is  still  in  a  vigorous  state.  The  fruit  is  small,  but 
excellent ;  and  it  is  stated  that  it  yields  annually,  upon  an  average, 
fifteen  bushels  of  fruit.  Governor  Prince's  house  stood  about 
thirty  or  forty  rods  eastward  of  this  place.  Mr.  Treat,  the  first 
minister,  lived  about  one  fourth  of  a  mile  to  the  north-east.  The 
house  seen  in  the  engraving  stands  on  the  site  formerly  occupied 
as  a  garrison  house. 

This  town  is  situated  on  a  narrow  part  of  the  peninsula  of  Cape 
Cod,  and  the  soil,  for  the  most  part,  is  but  a  barren  waste  of  sand. 
In  an  account  given  of  the  town  in  1802,  it  is  stated,  "  On  the 
west  side,  a  beach  extends  to  Great  Pond,  where  it  stretches 


across  the  township  almost  to  Town  Cove.  This  barren  tract, 
which  does  not  now  contain  a  particle  of  vegetable  mould,  for- 
merly produced  wheat.  The  soil,  however,  was  light.  The  sand, 
in  some  places,  lodging  against  the  beach  grass,  has  been  raised 
into  hills  fifty  feet  high,  where  twenty-five  years  ago  no  hills 
existed.  In  others,  it  has  filled  up  small  valleys  and  swamps. 
Where  a  strong-rooted  bush  stood,  the  appearance  is  singular :  a 
mass  of  earth  and  sand  adheres  to  it,  resembling  a  small  tower. 
In  several  places,  rocks  which  were  formerly  covered  with 
soil  are  disclosed,  and,  being  lashed  by  the  sand,  driven  against 
them  by  the  wind,  look  as  if  they  were  recently  dug  from  a 
quarry."  There  are  two  churches,  one  Methodist  and  one  Con- 
gregational. Population  1,059.  Distance,  twenty-three  miles 
north-easterly  from  Barnstable,  and,  in  a  straight  line,  sixty-eight 
miles  from  Boston.  In  1837,  there  were  fifty-four  establishments 
for  the  manufacture  of  salt,  which  produced  22,370  bushels; 
thirteen  vessels  employed  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery;  1,200 
quintals  of  cod-fish  and  4,550  barrels  of  mackerel  were  caught. 

Mr.  Treat,  the  first  minister  in  this  town,  was  distinguished  for 
his  evangelical  zeal  and  labors,  not  only  among  his  own  people, 
but  also  among  the  Indians  in  this  vicinity:  and  he  was  the 
instrument  of  converting  many  of  them  to  the  Christian  faith. 
He  learnt  iheir  language,  and  once  a  month  preached  in  their 
villages,  visited  them  at  their  wigwams,  and,  by  his  kindness 
and  affability,  won  their  affections  :  they  venerated  him  as  their 
pastor,  and  loved  him  as  their  father.  In  1693,  Mr.  Treat  states 
that  there  were  four  Indian  villages  in  the  township  under  his 
care.  These  Indians  had  four  teachers  of  their  own  choice  and 
four  schoolmasters.  They  also  had  of  their  own  people  six 
magistrates,  who  regulated  their  civil  affairs;  they  held  stated 
courts  and  punished  criminals.  There  were  five  hundred  adult 
persons  in  the  villages,  all  of  whom  attended  public  worship. 
But  notwithstanding  every  exertion  made  for  the  benefit  of  the 
Indians,  they  wasted  away  by  fatal  diseases  and  other  causes,  so 
that  in  1764  they  were  reduced  to  four  individuals  only.  Mr. 
Treat,  having  passed  near  half  a  century  of  most  active  labor, 
died  soon  after  the  remarkable  storm,  -distinguished  in  the  annals 
of  New  England  by  the  name  of  the  Great  Snow,  in  February, 
1717.  The  wind  blew  with  violence;  and  whilst  the  grounds 
about  his  house  were  left  entirely  bare,  the  snow  was  heaped  up 
in  the  road  to  an  uncommon  height.  It  was  in  vain  to  attempt 
making  a  path.  His  body  was  therefore  kept  several  days,  till  an 
arch  could  be  dug,  through  which  he  was  borne  to  the -grave;  the 
Indians,  at  their  earnest  request,  being  permitted  in  turn  to  carry 
the  corpse,  and  thus  to  pay  the  last  tribute  of  respect  to  the 
remains  of  their  beloved  pastor.  The  second  minister  of  Eastham 
was  the  Rev.  Samuel  Osborn,  who  was  educated  at  the  University 
of  Dublin,  and  ordained  here  in  1718 ;  the  next  year,  the  church 
being  divided  into  two,  Mr.  Osborn  removed  into  the  south  part  of 
the  township,  and  Rev.  Benjamin  Webb  was  ordained  pastor  of 


the  church  that  remained.  Mr.  Webb  died  in  1746,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  Edward  Cheever,  who  was  ordained  in  1751. 
Mr.  Cheever  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Philander  Shaw,  who  was 
ordained  in  1795. 

The  following  is  the  inscription  on  the  monument  of  Mr.  Treat, 
the  first  minister. 

Here  lyes  interred  ye  body  of  ye  late  learned  and  Revd.  Mr.  Samuel  Treat,  ye  pious 
and  faithful  pastor  of  this  church,  who,  after  a  very  zealous  discharge  of  his  ministry  for 
ye  space  of  45  years,  &  a  laborious  travel  for  ye  souls  of  ye  Indian  nativs,  fell  asleep 
in  Christ,  March  ye  18,  1716-17,  in  ye  69  year  of  his  age. 


THIS  town,  forming  the  south-western  extremity  of  the  peninsula 
of  Cape  Cod,  was  incorporated  in  1686.  Mr.  Samuel  Shireick 
labored  in  this  place  as  a  minister  previous  to  1700.  Rev.  Joseph 
Metcalf,  who  graduated  at  Cambridge,  was  chosen  minister.  He 
died  in  1723,  and  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Josiah  Marshall.  Rev. 
Samuel  Palmer  was  ordained  in  1731,  and  was  succeeded  by  Mr. 
Zebulon  Butler,  who  was  ordained  in  1775,  and  dismissed  in 
1778.  The  next  minister,  Rev.  Isaiah  Mann,  was  ordained  in 
1780,  and  died  in  1789.  Rev.  Henry  Lincoln  was  ordained  in 
1790  and  dismissed  in  1823.  His  successor,  Rev.  Benjamin  Wood- 
bury,  was  ordained  in  1824,  and  dismissed  in  1833.  The  next 
minister  was  Rev.  Josiah  Bent,  who  was  installed  in  1834,  and  dis- 
missed in  1837,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Henry  B.  Hooker,  who 
was  installed  the  same  year.  The  Congregational  church  in  East 
Falmouth  was  organized  in  1810,  and  the  one  in  North  Falmouth 
in  1833. 

The  town  is  bounded  on  the  west  by  Blizzard's  Bay,  and  on  the 
south  by  Vineyard  Sound.  A  chain  of  hills,  which  is  continued 
from  Sandwich,  runs  on  the  west  side  of  the  township,  near  Buz- 
zard's Bay,  and  terminates  at  "  Wood's  Hole"  a  harbor  at  the 
south-western  point  of  the  town.  The  rest  of  the  land  in  this 
township  is  remarkably  level.  The  soil  is  thin,  but  superior  in 
quality  to  the  light  lands  in  the  eastern  part  of  the  county.  An 
extensive  pine  forest  is  situated  between  the  villages  of  Falmouth 
and  Sandwich.  There  are  not  less  than  forty  ponds  in  the  town- 
ship, and  give  a  great  variety  to  the  scenery. 

The  engraving  shows  the  appearance  of  Falmouth  village,  as  it 
is  seen  from  an  elevation  to  the  westward,  on  the  road  leading  to 
Wood's  Hole.  The  village,  which  is  one  of  the  handsomest  on 
the  Cape,  consists  of  about  one  hundred  dwelling-houses,  two 
churches,  (one  Congregational  and  one  Methodist,)  an  academy, 
and  the  Falmouth  Bank,  with  a  capital  of  $100,000.  The  village 
is  twenty-two  miles  from  Barnstable,  eighteen  from  Sandwich,  and 
soventy-one  from  Boston.  Wood's  Hole  is  four  miles  to  the  south- 
west ;  at  this  place  there  is  a  village,  and  ships  of  the  largest  class 
can  go  up  to  the  wharf.  The  landing  at  Falmouth  village  is 
about  three  fourths  of  a  mile  from  the  Congregational  church. 



The  mail  is  carried  over  from  this  place  to  Holmes' s  Hole,  on 
Martha's  Vineyard,  three  times  a  week,  in  a  sail-boat.  The  dis- 
tance between  the  two  landings  is  seven  miles. 

West  view  of  Falmouth  Village. 

Two  streams  afford  a  water  power,  on  which  are  two  woollen 
mills,  having  three  sets  of  machinery.  There  are  five  houses  of 
worship :  three  Congregational,  one  for  Friends  or  Quakers,  and 
one  Methodist.  Population  2,580.  In  1837,  there  were  "nine 
vessels  employed  in  the  whale  fishery;  tonnage  of  the  same,  2,823 ; 
sperm  oil  imported,  4,952  barrels,  (148,560  gallons);  whale  oil, 
275  barrels,  (8,250  gallons) ;  hands  employed  in  the  fishery,  250 ; 
capital  invested,  $260,000 ;  salt  manufactured,  35,569  bushels." 

The  following  is  copied  from  monuments  in  the  village  grave- 
yard : — 

Here  lies  interred  the  body  of  the  Rev.  Samuel  Palmer,  who  fell  asleep  April  ye  13th, 
1775,  in  the  68th  year  of  his  age,  and  45th  of  his  ministry. 
His  virtues  would  a  monument  supply, 
But  underneath  these  clods  his  ashes  lie. 

fn  memory  of  Capt.  David  Wood,  who  died  in  his  42d  year,  in  Cape  Francois, 
August  10th,  1802,  of  the  yellow  fever,  with  4  of  his  men. 

He's  gone,  the  voyage  of  human  life  is  o'er, 

And  weeping  friends  shall  see  his  face  no  more. 

Far  from  the  tenderest  objects  of  his  love 

He  dies,  to  find  a  happier  world  above. 

Around  this  monument  his  friends  appear, 

To  embalm  his  precious  memory  with  a  tear. 

His  men  who  died  were  Edward  Butler,  aged  15  years,  and  Prince  Fish,  aged  19 
years,  both  died  August  10 ;  Henry  Green,  aged  20  years,  "Willard  Hatch,  aged  12 
years,  both  died  August  17. 

These  hopeful  youths  with  life  are  called  to  part, 
And  wound  afresh  their  tender  parents'  heart. 


THE  original  town  of  Harwich  extended  across  the  peninsula  of 
Cape  Cod.     What  is  now  called  Harwich,  was  the  second  society 


of  old  Harwich,  being  the  southern  part  of  the  town.  In  1803, 
the  first  society  of  Harwich  was  incorporated  into  a  distinct  town, 
by  the  name  of  Brewster.  The  land  in  this  township  is  generally 
level  and  sandy.  On  Herring  river ^  the  outlet  of  Long  Pond,  are 
a  cotton  mill  and  carding-machine.  There  are  in  the  limits  of  the 
town  four  churches :  one  Baptist,  one  Congregational,  and  two 
Methodist.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Pell  was  the  first  Congregational  minis- 
ter in  this  town;  he  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Mills.  The  third 
minister,  Rev.  Nathan  Underwood,  was  ordained  here  in  1792. 
Population,  2,771.  Distance,  thirteen  miles  easterly  from  Barn- 
stable  court-house,  eight  to  Chatham  Lights,  and  about  eighty 
from  Boston.  "  Vessels  employed  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery, 
20;  tonnage  of  the  same,  1,300;  codfish  caught,  10,000  quintals; 
value  of  the  same,  $30,000 ;  mackerel  caught,  500  barrels ;  value 
of  the  same,  $3,000 ;  salt  used,  9,000  bushels ;  hands  employed, 
200;  capital  invested,  $60,000." 

House  on  Cape  Cod. 

Dr.  D wight,  who  travelled  through  the  whole  length  of  the 
peninsula  of  Cape  Cod,  thus  describes  what  he  says  "  may  be 
called  with  propriety  Cape  Cod  houses."  "  These  have  one  story, 
and  four  rooms  on  the  lower  floor ;  and  are  covered  on  the  sides, 
as  well  as  the  roofs,  with  pine  shingles,  eighteen  inches  in  length. 
The  chimney  is  in  the  middle,  immediately  behind  the  front  door, 
and  on  each  side  of  the  door  are  two  windows.  The  roof  is 
straight ;  under  it  are  two  chambers ;  and  there  are  two  larger  and 
two  smaller  windows  in  the  gable  end.  This  is  the  general  struc- 
ture and  appearance  of  the  great  body  of  houses  from  Yarmouth 
to  Race  Point.  There  are,  however,  several  varieties,  but  of  too 
little  importance  to  be  described.  A  great  proportion  of  them  are 
in  good  repair.  Generally  they  exhibit  a  tidy,  neat  aspect  in 
themselves  and  in  their  appendages,  and  furnish  proofs  of  comfort- 
able living,  by  which  I  was  at  once  disappointed  and  gratified. 
The  barns  are  usually  neat,  but  always  small." 


THIS  ancient  Indian  territory  is  an  incorporated  district  of  the 
commonwealth,  and  contains  10,500  acres,  or  about  sixteen  square 


miles.  This  tract  was  procured  for  the  Indians  by  the  efforts  of 
Mr.  Richard  Bourne,  of  Sandwich.  This  noble-hearted  man,  who 
deserves  to  be  had  in  lasting  remembrance,  was  a  native  of  Eng- 
land, and  soon  after  his  arrival  at  Sandwich  began  his  labors  for 
the  temporal  and  spiritual  good  of  the  Indians.  About  the  year 
1660,  at  his  own  expense,  Mr.  Bourne  obtained  a  deed  of  Marshpee 
from  Quachatisset  and  others  for  the  benefit  of  the  Marshpee,  or, 
as  they  were  then  called,  South  Sea  Indians.  In  order  that  the 
Indians  might  have  a  place  where  they  might  remain  in  peace 
from  generation  to  generation,  Mr.  Bourne  had  the  deed  or  instru- 
ment drawn.  uso  that  no  part  or  parcel  of  them  [the  lands]  could 
be  bought  by  or  sold  to  any  white  person  or  persons,  without  the 
consent  of  all  the  said  Indians,  not  even  with  the  consent  of  the 
general  court."  This  deed,  with  this  condition,  was  ratified  by 
the  Plymouth  court.  Mr.  Bourne,  after  having  obtained  the  above 
deed,  pursued  his  evangelical  work,  and  was  ordained  pastor  of  an 
Indian  church  in  this  place  in  1670,  formed  of  his  own  disciples 
and  converts.  He  died  about  1685,  and  was  succeeded  by  Simon 
Popmonet,  an  Indian  preacher,  who  lived  in  this  character  about 
forty  years,  and  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Joseph  Bourne,  grandson 
of  Richard,  who  was  ordained  over  them  in  1729,  who  resigned 
his  mission  in  1742,  and  was  succeeded  by  Solomon  Briant,  an 
Indian  preacher,  who  was  ordained  pastor.  In  1758,  Rev.  Gideon 
Hawley  was  installed  as  pastor  of  these  people. 

Marshpee  lies  south  of  Sandwich,  and  is  bounded  on  the  south 
by  the  ocean.  It  is  well  fitted  for  an  Indian  residence,  being  indent- 
ed by  two  bays,  and  shoots  into  several  necks  or  points  of  land.  It 
is  also  watered  by  several  streams  and  ponds.  These,  with  the 
ocean,  afford  an  abundant  supply  of  fish  of  various  kinds.  They 
formerly  subsisted  by  agricultural  pursuits,  the  manufacturing  of 
various  articles  of  Indian  ware,  by  the  sale  of  their  wood,  fishing, 
fowling,  and  taking  deer.  Their  land  is  good,  well  wooded,  and 
some  parts  of  it  afford  beautiful  scenery.  There  are  about  three 
hundred  colored  people  on  this  tract,  and  some  whites.  There  are 
but  very  few  of  the  Indians  which  retain  pure  blood  of  their 
ancestors.  They  generally  appear  to  relish  moral  and  religious 
instruction.  The  central  part,  is  about  twelve  miles  S.  E.  of  Barn- 
stable,  nine  S.  of  Sandwich,  and  sixty-five  S.  E.  of  Boston. 

The  following  cut  represents  the  Indian  phurch,  built  under 
the  direction  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Hawley,  the  missionary,  and  is  about 
twelve  miles  from  Barnstable  court-house.  It  stands  a  short  dis- 
tance from  the  main  road,  and  a  forest  has  grown  up  around  it. 
Public  worship  is  kept  up  in  this  house,  which  is  attended  both 
by  the  whites  and  Indians.  Previous  to  1834,  the  government  of 
the  Indians  consisted  of  a  board  of  white  overseers,  a  guardian 
and  treasurer.  The  office  of  the  guardian  was  that  of  a  general 
superintendent,  to  disburse  supplies,  oversee  the  poor,  and  regu- 
late the  getting  of  wood,  &c.  The  Indians  getting  dissatisfied, 
the  government  was  changed,  and  it  now  consists  of  three  select- 
men, a  clerk  of  their  own  number  and  choice,  and  a  white  com- 


missioner  appointed  by  the  governor  and  council.  Many  of  the 
Indians  are  employed  in  the  whale  fisheries,  and  they  are  said  to 
make  the  first-rate  whalemen.  Those  who  remain  at  home  cul- 
tivate their  little  plats  of  ground  and  carry  wood  to  market.  In 
1837,  they  built  a  small  vessel,  "owned  partly  by  some  of  the 
proprietors  of  Marshpee,  and  partly  by  sundry  white  persons,"  and 
commanded  by  a  capable,  enterprising  Indian.  This  vessel  is 
employed  in  carrying  their  wood  to  Nan  tucket.  The  land,  except 
some  small  allotments,  (as  much  as  each  can  enclose  and  cultivate,) 
is  common  stock.  Each  has  a  certain  amount  of  wood  allowed 
for  his  own  use,  and  he  pays  the  Indian  government  one  dollar 
per  cord  for  all  he  cuts  and  carries  to  market. 

South-west  view  of  the  Indian  Church  in  Marshpee. 

The  Indian  grave-yard  is  by  the  side  of  their  church,  represented 
in  the  engraving.  Nearly  all  the  graves  are  without  monuments. 
The  following  inscriptions  are  copied  from  two  monuments  stand- 
ing in  this  place. 

In  memory  of  deacon  Zacheus  Popmunnet  died  22d  Octr.  1770  aged  51  years.  The 
Righteous  is  more  excellent  than  his  neighbor. 

In  memory  of  Flora  Hawley  obit  31st  Jany.  1785  aged  40  years.    A  faithful  servant. 


THIS  town  was  formerly  the  south  part  of  Eastham  ;  it  was  in- 
corporated into  a  township  by  the  name  of  Orleans  in  1797.  Rev. 
Samuel  Osborn,  who  was  ordained  at  Eastham  in  171 8,  was  the  first 
minister  in  this  place,  removing  here  the  next  year  after  his  ordina- 
tion. "  Mr.  Osborn  was  a  man  of  wisdom  and  virtue.  Besides 
teaching  his  people  the  use  of  peat,  he  contributed  much  to  their 
prosperity  by  introducing  new  improvements  in  agriculture,  and 
by  setting  them  the  example  of  economy  and  industry.  But  his 
good  qualities  and  services  did  not  avail  him  ;  for,  embracing  the, 


religion  of  Arminius,  his  parishioners,  who  still  retained  the  faith  of 
Calvin,  thought  proper  to  dismiss  him  about  the  year  1737. 
From  Eastham  he  removed  to  Boston,  where  he  kept  a  private 
grammar-school.  He  died  aged  between  ninety  and  a  hundred." 
Mr.  Osborn  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Joseph  Crocker,  who  was  or- 
dained in  1739.  Mr.  Crocker  died  in  1772,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Rev.  Jonathan  Crocker  the  same  year. 

Orleans  is  of  very  irregular  form,  the  lines  being  deeply  indent- 
ed with  coves  and  creeks.  There  are  several  islands  in  Pleasant 
Bay  which  belong  to  this  town,  the  largest  of  which  is  Pocket,  and 
is  perhaps  the  best  land  in  the  township.  The  face  of  the  land  is 
uneven  ;  but  the  hills  are  not  very  high,  and  the  soil  is  generally 
barren  and  sandy,  and  the  roads  here,  as  in  most  towns  in  this 
vicinity,  are,  on  account  of  the  sand,  tedious  and  heavy.  There 
are  4  churches  in  the  town,  1  Congregational,  1  Baptist,  1  Metho- 
dist, and  1  Universalist.  Population  1,936.  Distance  20  miles 
easterly  from  Barnstable  and  85  S.  E.  from  Boston.  There  were  in 
1837  fifty  establishments  for  the  manufacture  of  salt,  which  manu- 
factured 21,780  bushels  ;  33  vessels  were  employed  in  the  cod  and 
mackerel  fishery ;  20,000  quintals  of  cod-fish  and  6000  barrels  of 
mackerel  were  taken.  In  the  fishery,  264  hands  were  employed. 

The  following  is  from  an  account  of  Orleans  in  the  Collections 
of  the  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.  Sept.  1802  :— 

"  Clams  are  found  on  many  parts  of  the  shores  of  New  England,  but  nowhere  m 
greater  abundance  than  at  Orleans.  Formerly  five  hundred  barrels  were  dug  here  for 
bait ;  but  the  present  year  1000  barrels  have  been  collected.  Between  one  and  two  hun- 
dred of  the  poorest  of  the  inhabitants  are  employed  in  this  business  ;  and  they  receive 
from  their  employers  three  dollars  a  barrel  for  digging  the  clams,  opening,  salting  them, 
and  filling  the  casks.  From  12  to  18  bushels  of  clams  in  the  shell  must  be  dug,  to 
fill,  when  opened,  a  barrel.  A  man  by  this  labor  can  earn  seventy-five  cents  a  day; 
and  women  and  children  are  also  engaged  in  it.  A  barrel  or  clams  are  worth  six  dol- 
lars ;  the  employers,  therefore,  after  deducting  the  expense  of  salt  and  the  casks,  which 
they  supply,  still  obtain  a  handsome  profit.  A  thousand  barrels  of  clams  are  equal  in 
value  to  six  thousand  bushels  of  Indian  corn,  and  are  procured  with  no  more  labor  and 
expense.  When  therefore  the  fishes,  with  which  the  coves  of  Orleans  abound,  are  also 
taken  into  consideration,  they  may  justly  be  regarded  as  more  beneficial  to  the  inha- 
bitants, than  if  the  space  which  they  occupy  was  covered  with  the  most  fertile  soil  " 


"CAPE  COD,  now  Provincetown,  was  originally  a  part  of  Truro. 
In  1714  it  was  made  a  district  or  precinct,  and  put  under  the  con- 
stablerick  of  that  town.'7  It  was  incorporated  into  a  township,  by 
the  name  of  Provincetown,  in  1727,  and  invested  with  peculiar 
privileges — the  inhabitants  being  exempted  from  taxation.  At  that 
time,  and  for  10  or  12  years  after,  it  was  a  flourishing  place,  con- 
taining a  number  of  dwelling-houses  and  stores.  Not  long  after 
this  period  the  inhabitants  began  to  forsake  the  town ;  and  before 
the  year  1748  it  was  reduced  to  two  or  three  families.  In  1755  it 
contained  about  ten  dwelling-houses.  In  1776  there  were  in  it  36 
families,  205  souls,  and  about  20  dwelling-houses.  It  remain- 
ed in  a  state  of  depression  during  the  revolutionary  war,  but  after 


its  close  it  gradually  rose  to  a  state  of  prosperity.  Mr.  Spear  was 
the  first  minister  at  Provincetown,  but  he  was  compelled  to  follow 
the  removal  of  his  congregation.  In  1774,  Rev.  Samuel  Parker 
was  ordained  here,  and  for  twelve  years  received  annually  forty- 
five  pounds  from  the  government.  After  that  period  the  pastor  has 
been  supported  entirely  by  the  inhabitants. 

Provincetown  is  situated  on  the  end  of  the  peninsula  of  Cape 
Cod,  and  lies  in  the  form  of  a  hook.  It  averages  about  three  miles 
and  a  half  in  length  and  two  and  a  half  in  breadth.  The  town- 
ship consists  of  beaches  and  hills  of  sand,  eight  shallow  ponds, 
and  a  great  number  of  swamps.  Cape  Harbor,  in  Cape  Cod  Bay, 
is  formed  by  the  bending  of  the  land  nearly  round  every  point  of 
the  compass,  and  is  completely  landlocked  and  safe.  It  is  of  suf- 
ficient depth  for  ships  of  any  size,  and  it  will  contain  more  than 
three  thousand  vessels  at  once,  and  is  a  place  of  great  importance  to 
navigation  in  this  quarter.  This  was  the  first  harbor  the  Mai/flower 
touched  at  on  her  passage  to  Plymouth  in  1620.  This  place  has 
about  6000  tons  of  fishing  and  400  tons  of  coasting  vessels.  The 
fares  of  fish  in  1834  amounted  to  about  45,000  quintals  of  cod,  and 
17,000  barrels  of  mackerel.  This  place  gives  employment  to  about 
one  thousand  men  and  boys.  There  are  three  houses  of  worship  : 
1  Methodist,  1  Universalist,  and  1  Congregutionalist.  Population 
2,049.  In  1837  there  were  78  establishments  for  making  salt,  48,960 
bushels  manufactured ;  98  vessels  were  employed  in  the  cod  and 
mackerel  fishery;  51,400  quintals  of  cod-fish  and  18,000  bar- 
rels of  mackerel  were  taken,  and  one  thousand  one  hundred  and 
thirteen  hands  were  employed  in  the  fisheries.  Thirty-five  of  this 
number  went  out  in  the  two  whale  ships  sent  from  this  place. 

Provincetown  stands  on  the  north-western  side  of  the  harbor,  on 
the  margin  of  a  beach  of  loose  sand.  The  houses  are  mostly  situated 
on  a  single  street,  about  two  miles  in  length,  passing  round  near  the 
water's  edge.  A  chain  of  sand  hills  rise  immediately  back  from  the 
houses.  These  hills  are  in  some  places  partially  covered  with  tufts 
of  grass  or  shrubs,  which  appear  to  hold  their  existence  by  a  frail 
tenure  on  these  masses  of  loose  sand,  the  light  color  of  which 
strongly  contrasts  with  few  spots  of  deep  verdure  upon  them. 
These  hills,  with  the  numerous  wind  or  salt  mills,  by  which  the  salt 
water  is  raised  for  evaporation,  thickly  studding  the  shore  through- 
out the  whole  extent  of  the  village,  gives  this  place  a  most  singular 
and  novel  appearance. 

The  following  cut  is  from  a  sketch  taken  in  the  village  street, 
and  shows  its  characteristic  appearance.  The  houses  are  mostly 
one  story  in  height,  and,  with  their  out-buildings,  stand  along  on  the 
street,  apparently  without  much  of  an  effort  at  order  or  regularity. 
Interspersed  among  the  houses  and  by  the  side  of  the  street  are  seen 
the  numerous  flakes  or  frames  on  which  the  cod-fish  are  dried. 
These  frames  are  about  two  or  three  feet  in  breadth,  and  stand  up 
from  the  ground  about  two  feet,  having  sticks  or  slats  laid  across 
them,  on  which  the  fish  are  laid.  The  street  is  narrow,  irregular, 



View  in  the  Village  of  Provincetown. 

and  has  scarcely  the  appearance  of  being  a  carriage  road.*  Upon 
stepping  from  the  houses  the  foot  sinks  in  the  sand,  which  is  so  light 
that  it  drifts  about  the  houses,  fences,  &c.,  very  similar  to  snow  in 
a  driving  storm.  Although  near  the  ocean  on  every  side,  the  inha- 
bitants obtain  good  water  by  digging  a  moderate  depth  a  few  feet 
from  the  shore.  Provincetown  is  10  leagues  or  30  miles  N.  E.  of 
Barnstable,  about  9  leagues  or  27  miles  across  to  Plymouth,  and 
about  1 16  miles  by  land  and  50  by  water  to  Boston. 

{From  the  Boston  Post  Boy,  Feb.  19,  1739.] 

We  have  advice  from  Province-Town  on  Cape  Cod,  that  the  whaling  season  is  now 
over  with  them,  in  which  there  has  been  taken  in  that  Harbor  six  small  whales, 
and  one  of  a  larger  size  about  six  foot  bone  :  beside  which  'tis  said  two  small  whales 
have  been  killed  at  Sandwich,  which  is  all  that  has  been  done  in  that  business  in  the 
whole  Bay.  Tis  added,  that  seven  or  eight  families  in  Province-Town,  among  whom 
are  the  principal  inhabitants,  design  to  remove  from  that  place  to  Casco-Bay  in  the 
spring  of  the  year. 

[Boston  Post  Boy,  July  27,  1741.] 

"Province-Town,  July  14. — On  the  4th  of  this  month  one  of  the  town  disco- 
vered  a  considerable  quantity  of  Ice  on  the  north  side  of  a  Swamp,  in  this  place,  who 
broke  off  a  Piece,  and  carried  it  several  miles  undissolved  to  the  Tavern  keeper,  who 
for  his  pains  treated  him  with  a  bowl  of  punch  for  his  pains." 

The  following  inscription  is  copied  from  a  monument  standing  in 
a  deep  depression  among  the  sand  hills  in  the  village  grave-yard. 
It  is  probably  the  oldest  in  the  place,  and  stands  in  one  of  the  few 
verdant  spots  in  the  vicinity  : — 

Here  lies  interred  the  remains  of  Capt.  John  Tallcott  of  Glausenbury  in  Connecticut, 
son  to  Deacon  Benjamin  Tallcott  who  died  here  in  his  return  after  the  victory  obtained 
at  Cape  Breton,  A.  D.  1745,  in  the  41st  year  of  his  age. 


THE  settlement  of  this  town  was  commenced  by  quite  a  number 
of  families,  from  Saugus  or  Lynn,  in  1637.    The  original  grant  of 

*  So  rarely  are  wheel  carriages  seen  in  the  place  that  they  are  a  matter  of  some 
curiosity  to  the  younger  part  of  the  community.  A  lad,  who  understood  navigating  the 
ocean  much  oetter  than  land  carriage,  on  seeing  a  man  driving  z  wagon  in  the 
place,  expressed  his  surprise  at  his  being  able  to  drive  so  straight  withf 
of  a  rudder. 


the  township  was  from  the  Old  Colony  of  Plymouth  the  same 

"  It  is  ordered"  [say  the  Plymouth  Records]  "  that  these  ten  men 
of  Saugus,  namely,  Edmund  Freeman,  Henry  Peake,  Thomas 
Dexter,  Edward  Dillingham,  William  Wood,  John  Carman, 
Richard  Chadwell,  William  Almy,  Thomas  Tupper,  and  George 
Knott,  shall  have  liberty  to  view  a  place  to  sit  down  on,  and  have 
sufficient  land  for  three  score  families,  upon  the  conditions  pro- 
pounded to  them  by  the  governor  arid  Mr.  Winslow.  The  other 
proprietors  were,  George  Allen,  Thomas  Armitage,  Anthony  Besse, 
Mr.  Blackmore,  George  Bliss,  Thomas  Boardman,  Robert  Boote- 
fish,  William  Braybrook,  John  Briggs,  Thomas  Burge,  Richard 
Burne,  George  Burt,  Thomas  Butler,  Thomas  Chillingworth, 
Edmund  Clarke,  George  Cole,  John  Dingley,  Henry  Ewer,  John 
Friend,  John  Fish,  Nathaniel  Fish,  Jonathan  Fish,  Peter  Gaunt, 
Andrew  Hallet,  William  Harlow,  William  Hedge,  Joseph  Holway, 
William  Hurst,  John  Joyce,  Richard  Kirby,  Thomas  Lander,  John 
Miller,  William  Newland,  Benjamin  Noye,  Mr.  Potter,  James 
Skippe,  George  Slawson,  Michael  Turner,  John  Vincent,  Peter 
Wright,  Nicholas  Wright,  Richard  Wade,  John  King,  John  Win- 
sor,  Mr.  Wollaston,  and  Thomas  Willis.  Their  minister  was  the 
Rev.  William  Leveridge.  Mr.  Dexter  and  Mr.  Willis  did  not  re- 
move at  this  time." 

The  records  of  the  first  Congregational  church  in  this  town  pre- 
vious to  the  ordination  of  Rev.  Roland  Cotton,  in  1694,  are  lost. 
Mr.  Cotton  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Benjamin  Fessenden,  who  was 
ordained  in  1722,  and  died  in  1746.  Rev.  Abraham  Williams,  the 
next  minister,  was  ordained  in  1749 ;  he  was  succeeded  by  Rev. 
Jonathan  Burr,  who  was  ordained  in  1787.  According  to  tradition 
there  were  among  the  first  settlers  of  Sandwich  two  persons  some- 
what distinguished  for  their  religious  turn  of  mind,  Mr.  Richard 
Bourne  and  Mr.  Thomas  Tupper.  These  men  took  the  lead  in  the 
religious  exercises,  and  officiated  publicly  on  the  Lord's  day,  each 
of  them  having  his  party  ;  but,  as  they  were  in  all  a  small  com- 
pany, they  did  not  separate,  but  agreed  that  the  officer  who  had 
the  most  adherents  at  meeting  for  the  time  being,  should  be  the 
minister  for  the  day.  In  process  of  time  the  congregation  settled 
Mr.  Smith,  a  minister  who  for  a  time  had  officiated  at  Barnstable. 
Religious  matters  being  settled  at  Sandwich,  Mr.  Bourne  and  Mr. 
Tupper  directed  their  attention  towards  christianizing  the  Indians 
in  the  vicinity.  Mr.  Tupper  founded  a  church  near  Herring  river, 
which  was  supplied  with  a  succession  of  ministers  of  his  name  till 
the  decease  of  his  great-grandson,  Rev.  Elisha  Tupper,  who  died  at 
Pokessett,  in  1787.  Mr.  Bourne  turned  his  attention  towards  the 
Marshpee  Indians  to  the  south  and  east. 

Sandwich  is  the  most  agricultural  town  in  the  county ;  the  lands 
however  in  the  extreme  part  of  the  township  are  light  and  un- 

E reductive.     There  are  numerous  ponds,  some  of  which  are  very 
irge,  which  afford  fine  fishing  and  fowling  :  deer  are  also  found  in 
this  vicinity.     There  are  in   the  town  1  cotton  mill,  1  woollen 



factory,  a  furnace,  a  nail  factory,  a  number  of  carding-machines, 
&c.,  with  an  extensive  manufactory  of  glass.  There  are  15  or  20 
sail  of  coasting  or  fishing  vessels  belonging  here,  and  a  considera- 
ble quantity  of  salt  manufactured.  Population  3,579. 

Western  view  of  Sandicich,  (centfttl  part). 

Sandwich  village,  containing  about  100  houses,  is  situated  on  ris- 
ing ground  in  the  northern  section  of  the  town,  near  the  waters  of 
Cape  Cod  Bay,  12  miles  north-westerly  of  Barnstable,  30  east  of 
New  Bedford,  and  53  miles  south-east  of  Boston.  The  engraving 
shows  the  two  Congregational  churches,  town-house,  and  in  the  dis- 
tance some  of  the  buildings  connected  with  the  glass  works.  It 
contains  4  churches  :  1  Orthodox,  1  Unitarian,  1  Methodist,  and  1 
Roman  Catholic.  There  are  in  other  parts  of  the  town  6  churches 
more  :  4  Methodist,  1  for  Friends  or  Quakers,  and  1  Congregational. 
It  has  been  in  contemplation  for  a  long  period  to  unite  Cape  Cod  and 
Buzzard's  Bay  by  a  ship  canal  across  this  town.  The  distance  is 
five  miles,  and  the  land  level.  The  following  is  from  the  statistics 
published  by  the  state  in  1837.  "  Nail  factory,  1 ;  nails  manufactur- 
ed, 500  tons ;  value  of  the  same,  $57,500 ;  hands  employed,  20 ; 
capital  invested,  §13,500 ;  glass  manufactory,  1 ;  value  of  glass 
manufactured,  $300,000 ;  hands  employed,  250  ;  capital  invested, 

Dr.  John  Osborn,  who  was  a  physician  in  Middletown,  in  Con- 
necticut, was  born  in  this  town,  in  1713.  His  father,  an  educated 
Scotchman,  was  then  a  schoolmaster,  but  afterwards  settled  in  the 
ministry  at  Eastham.  At  the  age  of  nineteen,  young  Osborn 
entered  Harvard  College,  where  he  was  noticed  as  a  lively  and 
eccentric  genius.  The  following  whaling  song  of  his  has  obtained 
some  celebrity : — 


When  spring  returns  with  western  gales, 

And  gentle  breezes  sweep 
The  ruffling  seas,  we  spread  our  sails 

To  plough  the  wat'ry  deep. 

For  killing  northern  whales  prepared, 

Our  nimble  boats  on  noard, 
With  craft  and  rum,  (our  chief  regar*,) 

And  good  provisions  stored. 



We  view  the  monsters  of  the  deep, 
Great  whales  in  numerous  swarms ; 

And  creatures  there,  that  play  and  leap 
Of  strange,  unusual  forms. 

Cape  Cod,  our  dearest,  native  land, 

We  leave  astern,  and  lose 
It*  sinking  cliffs  and  lessening  sands, 

While  Zephyr  gently  blows. 

Bold,  hardy  men,  with  blooming  age, 

Our  sandy  shores  produce ; 
With  monstrous  fish  they  dare  engage, 

And  dangerous  callings  choose. 

Now  towards  the  early  dawning  east 

We  speed  our  course  away, 
With  eager  minds,  and  joyful  hearts, 

To  meet  the  rising  day. 

Then  as  we  turn  our  wondering  eyes, 
We  view  one  constant  show ; 

Above,  around,  the  circling  skies, 
The  rolling  seas  below. 

When  eastward,  clear  of  Newfoundland, 

We  stem  the  frozen  pole, 
We  see  the  icy  islands  stand, 

The  northern  billows  roll. 

As  to  the  north  we  make  our  way, 

Surprising  scenes  we  find  ; 
We  lengthen  out  the  tedious  day, 

And  leave  the  night  behind. 

Now  see  the  northern  regions,  where 

Eternal  winter  reigns ; 
One  day  and  night  fills  up  the  year, 

And  endless  cold  maintains. 

When  in  our  station  we  are  placed, 

And  whales  around  us  play, 
We  launch  our  boats  into  the  main 

And  swiftly  chase  our  prey. 

In  haste  we  ply  our  nimble  oars, 

For  an  assault  design'd ; 
The  sea  beneath  us  foams  and  roars, 

And  leaves  a  wake  behind. 

A  mighty  whale  we  rush  upon, 

And  in  our  irons  throw  : 
She  sinks  her  monstrous  body  down 

Among  the  waves  below. 

And  when  she  rises  out  again, 

We  soon  renew  the  fight ; 
Thrust  our  sharp  lances  in  amain, 

And  all  her  rage  excite. 

Enraged  she  makes  a  mighty  bound ; 

Thick  foams  the  whitened  sea  ; 
The  waves  in  circles  rise  around, 

And  widening  roll  away. 

She  thrashes  with  her  tail  around, 
And  blows  her  recld'ning  breath  ; 

She  breaks  the  air,  a  deaf 'ning  sound, 
While  ocean  groans  beneath. 

From  numerous  wounds,  with  crimson  flood 

She  stains  the  frothy  seas, 
And  gasps,  and  blows  her  latest  blood, 

While  quivering  life  decays. 

With  joyful  hearts  we  see  her  die, 

And  on  the  surface  lay  ; 
While  all  with  eager  haste  apply, 

To  save  our  deathful  prey. 


THE  settlement  of  Truro  commenced  about  1700.  Its  Indian 
name  was  Pamet,  and  appears  to  have  been  purchased  in  1697.  In 
1705,  it  was  erected  into  a  town  to  be  called  Dangerfield ;  in  1709 
it  was  incorporated  by  the  name  of  Truro.  The  first  minister,  Rev. 
John  A  very,  was  ordained  in  1711.  He  was  a  physician  as 
well  as  pastor,  and  was  greatly  beloved  by  his  people.  He  died  in 
1754,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Caleb  Upham,  who  died  in  1786. 
Mr.  Upham  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Jude  Damon,  who  was  ordain- 
ed in  1786. 

Truro  is  situated  on  the  northern  extremity  of  the  peninsula  of 
Gape  Cod.  The  length  of  the  township  is  about  14  miles,  and  the 
breadth  in  the  widest  part  three.  Excepting  the  salt  marshes,  the 
soil  is  light,  sandy,  and  free  from  stone.  Hardly  any  part  of  it 
produces  English  grass  fit  for  mowing ;  and  it  can  scarcely  be  said 
to  be  clad  with  verdure  at  any  season  of  the  year.  The  face  of  the 
township  is  composed  of  sand  hills  and  narrow  valleys  between 
them,  running  principally  at  right  angles  with  the  shore.  The  top 
of  some  of  the  hills  spread  into  a  plain  :  from  some  of  these  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  town  but  few  objects  can  be  discerned  but 
the  ocean  and  one  wide  waste  of  sand.  A  traveller  from  the  in- 
terior part  of  the  country,  where  the  soil  is  fertile,  upon  observing 
the  barrenness  of  the  northern  part  of  Truro,  would  at  the  first 

TRURO.  55 

thought  wonder  what  could  induce  any  person  to  remain  in  the 
place ;  he  will,  however,  upon  reflection  and  observation,  find  that 
the  inhabitants  here,  who  derive  their  principal  subsistence  from  the 
sea,  are  as  "  well  off"  as  any  people  in  the  commonwealth. 

There  are  four  houses  of  worship,  all  in  the  south  part  of 
the  town  :  3  Congregational,  one  of  which  is  Unitarian,  and 
1  Methodist.  Population  1,806.  In  1837  there  were  39  esta- 
blishments for  making  salt,  of  which  17,490  bushels  were 
manufactured ;  63  vessels  were  employed  in  the  cod  and  mack- 
erel fishery ;  16,950  quintals  of  cod-fish  and  15,750  barrels  of 
mackerel  were  taken,  and  512  hands  employed. 

Eastern  vierv  of  Pond  Village,  Truro. 

The  above  is  a  representation  of  part  of  what  is  called  the  Pond 
village,  and  is  a  characteristic  specimen  of  the  scenery  of  this  part  of 
the  Cape.  The  hills,  which  rise  in  regular  and  graceful  swells,  are 
of  a  light  gravelly  loam  and  covered  with  short  grass ;  they  are  des- 
titute of  trees  and  shrubbery,  and  are  peculiar  in  their  aspect.  Not- 
withstanding the  general  appearance  of  the  barrenness  of  the  land 
in  Truro,  it  is  believed  that  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  might  be 
sustained  from  the  produce  of  its  soil,  were  proper  attention  paid 
to  its  cultivation.  The  fisheries  however  at  this  time  bring  surer 
and  better  returns  than  the  cultivation  of  the  earth,  throughout 
most  parts  of  the  Cape. 

The  following  engraving  is  a  view  of  the  ancient  church  now 
standing  in  the  central  part  of  Truro,  about  8  miles  from  Province- 
town,  42  from  Barnstable,  and  by  land  109  from  Boston.  The 
"  Clay  Pounds"  a  great  body  of  clay,  forming  the  high  banks  by  the 
light-house,  near  the  residence  of  James  Small,  Esq.,  are  about  a 
mile  northward.  This  church  is  on  one  of  the  highest  elevations  in 
the  town,  a  short  distance  southerly  from  the  Pond  village,  and  is 
seen  at  a  great  distance  from  almost  every  direction.  Provincetown 
with  its  hills  of  sand  is  seen  to  the  north-west ;  and  the  waters  of 
the  wide  Atlantic  on  every  side.  This  building  shows  that — 



Ancient  Church  in  Truro,  (south-eastern  view). 

"  The  dark  brown  years  "  have  passed  over  it.    It  stands  alone,  and  on  the  hill   ol 
storms  !    It  is  seen  afar  by  the  mariner  as  he  passes  by  on  the  dark  rolling  wave ! 

The  following  inscription  is  copied  from  a  monument  standing 
by  the  ancient  church  on  the  elevation  near  the  Pond  village : — 

Here  lie  the  Remains  of  ye  Revd.  Mr.  John  Avery  who  departed  this  life. ye  23d  of 
April  1754  in  the  69th  year  of  his  age  and  44th  of  his  ministry  the  first  pastor  ordained 
in  this  place. 

In  this  dark  cavern,  or  this  lonesome  grave 
Here  lays  the  honest,  pious,  virtuous  Friend 
Him,  kind  Heaven  to  us  as  Priest  &  Doctor  gave 
As  such  he  lived,  as  such  we  mourn  his  end. 


THIS  town  was  incorporated  in  1763.  Before  this,  it  was  called 
the  North  Precinct  in  Eastham,  and  was  originally  included  in  the 
Indian  Skeekeet  and  Pamet.  The  first  inhabitants  of  the  place 
attended  public  worship  at  Eastham.  When  their  numbers  and 
property  were  sufficient,  they  built  a  small  meeting-house,  in 
which  the  Rev.  Josiah  Oaks  preached  a  number  of  years.  The 
Rev.  Isaiah  Lewis  succeeded  Mr.  Oaks,  and  was  ordained  in 
1730;  the  next  minister,  Rev.  Levi  Whitman,  was  ordained  in 

The  town  of  Wellfleet  is  situated  on  the  northern  section  of  the 
peninsula  of  Cape  Cod,  and  is  bounded  on  the  east  and  west  by 
the  ocean.  The  soil  is  a  sandy  barren.  From  the  table  lands  in 
Eastham,  to  Race  Point,  is  a  large  range  of  high  hills,  all  of  them 
sandy,  except  one  large  hill  or  mountain,  which  is  of  solid  clay, 
in  Truro,  called  the  Clay  Pounds,  because  vessels  have  had  the 
misfortune  to  be  pounded  to  pieces  against  it,  in  gales  of  wind. 
Within  these  hills  in  Wellfleet  is  a  range  of  fresh  ponds,  where 
sea-fowl  obtain  fresh  water:  such  as  have  outlets,  receive  ale- 
wives,  which  go  up  in  the  month  of  May.  From  the  harbor 
there  are  many  salt  creeks,  which  are  surrounded  with  salt  marsh. 


The  harbor,  called  the  Deep  Hole,  is  good  for  small  vessels,  and  is 
about  thirty  miles  north-easterly  from  Barnstable. 

Northern  viero  of  Weltfleet  Harbor. 

The  above  shows  the  appearance  of  Wellfleet  Harbor,  as  it  is 
seen  from  the  north.  It  is  surrounded  by  sand  hills  of  different 
sizes,  but  mostly  forming  obtuse  cones,  smooth,  regular,  des- 
titute of  verdure,  and  quite  novel  in  their  general  appearance. 

The  village  of  Wellfleet  contains  two  Congregational  churches, 
and  is  stated  to  be  one  hundred  and  five  miles  from  Boston  by 
land,  and  by  water  twenty  leagues,  and  from  the  Plymouth  light 
eight  leagues.  Population  of  the  town,  2,303.  Most  of  the  inha- 
bitants follow  the  seafaring  business.  In  1837,  there  were  thirty- 
nine  establishments  for  manufacturing  salt,  and  10,000  bushels 
were  made ;  sixty-two  vessels  were  employed  in  the  cod  and 
mackerel  fishery;  3,100  quintals,  and  17,500  barrels  of  mackerel, 
were  taken ;  and  in  this  business  496  hands  were  employed. 

"  No  shipwreck  is  more  remarkable  than  that  of  the  noted  pirate  Bellamy,  men- 
tioned by  Governor  Hutchinson,  in  his  history.  In  the  year  1717,  his  ship,  with  his 
whole  fleet,  were  cast  on  the  shore  of  what  is  now  Wellfleet,  being  led  near  the  shore 
by  the  captain  of  a  snow,  which  was  made  a  prize  the  day  before,  who  had  the  pro- 
mise of  the  snow  as  a  present,  if  he  would  pilot  the  fleet  in  Cape  Cod  harbor ;  the 
captain  suspecting  the  pirate  would  not  keep  his  promise,  and  that,  instead  of  clearing 
his  ship,  as  was  his  pretence,  his  intention  might  be  to  plunder  the  inhabitants 
of  Provincetown.  The  night  being  dark,  a  lantern  was  hung  in  the  §hrouds  of 
the  snow,  the  captain  of  which,  instead  of  piloting  where  he  was  ordered,  approached 
so  near  the  land,  that  the  pirates'  large  ship,  which  followed  him,  struck  on  the  outer 
bar :  the  snow,  being  less,  struck  much  nearer  the  shore.  The  fleet  was  put  in  confu- 
sion ;  a  violent  storm  arose :  and  the  whole  fleet  was  shipwrecked  on  the  shore.  It  is 
said  that  all  in  the  large  ship  perished  in  the  waters  except  two.  Many,  of  the  smaller 
vessels  got  safe  on  shore.  Those  that  were  executed,  were  the  pirates  put  on  board  a 
prize  schooner  before  the  storm,  as  it  is  said.  After  the  storm,  more  than  an  hundred 
dead  bodies  lay  along  the  shore.  At  times,  to  this  day,  there  are  king  William  and 
queen  Mary's  coppers  picked  up,  and  pieces  of  silver,  called  cob-money.  The  violence 
of  the  seas  moves  the  sands  upon  the  outer  bar ;  so 'that  at  times  the  iron  caboose  of 
the  ship,  at  low  ebbs,  has  been  seen." — 3d  vol.  Coll.  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.,  p.  120. 

« For  many  years  after  this  shipwreck,  a  man,  of  a  very  singular  and  frightful 
aspect,  used,  every  spring  and  autumn,  to  be  seen  travelling  on  the  Cape,  who  was 


supposed  to  have  been  one  of  Bellamy's  crew.  The  presumption  is  mat  he  went  to 
some  place  where  money  had  been  secreted  by  the  pirates  to  get  such  a  supply  as 
his  exigences  required.  When  he  died,  many  pieces  of  gold  were  found  in  a  girdle, 
which  he  constantly  wore.  Aged  people  relate  that  this  man  frequently  spent  the 
night  in  private  houses,  and  that,  whenever  the  Bible  or  any  religious  book  was  read, 
or  any  family  devotions  performed,  he  invariably  left  the  room.  This  is  not  impro- 
bable. It  is  also  stated  that,  during  the  night,  it  would  seem  as  if  he  had  in  his  cham- 
ber a  legion  from  the  lower  world  ;  for  much  conversation  was  often  overheard  which 
was  boisterous,  profane,  blasphemous,  and  quarrelsome  in  the  extreme.  This  is  the 
representation.  The  probability  is,  that  his  sleep  was  disturbed  by  a  recollection  of 
the  murderous  scenes  in  which  he  had  been  engaged,  and  that  he,  involuntarily, 
vented  such  exclamations  as,  with  the  aid  of  an  imagination  awake  to  wonders  from 
the  invisible  regions,  gave  rise,  in  those  days,  to  the  current  opinion  that  his  bed- 
chamber was  the  resort  of  infernals." — Alden's  Coll.  Epitaphs,  vol.  iv. 


THE  peninsula  of  Cape  Cod  may  be  well  represented  by  a  man's 
arm  bent  into  a  certain  position.  Yarmouth  is  situated  about  mid- 
way from  the  shoulder  to  the  elbow  of  the  Cape.  It  was  incorpo- 
rated in  1639.  The  early  records  of  this  town  have  been  lost. 
In  Mather's  Magnalia,  it  is  stated  John  Millar  was  a  minister  of 
Yarmouth.  It  is  probable  he  was  the  first,  and  a  Mr.  Mathews 
(of  whom  some  traditions  remain)  was  the  second.  Mr.  Millar  is 
represented  in  the  Magnalia  as  one  of  the  seventy-seven  ministers 
who  had  been  in  the  ministry  previous  to  their  embarkation  to 
America,  and  who  are  represented  as  some  of  the  first  ministers  in 
New  England.  If  the  above  is  correct,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Thorn- 
ton, from  England,  was  the  third  minister  of  Yarmouth ;  his  name 
being  found  in  the  town  records,  which  are  preserved  as  far  back 
as  1677.  He  continued  in  the  ministry  till  about  the  year  1692, 
and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  John  Cotton  in  1693.  Mr.  Cotton  died 
in  1705,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  David  Greenleaf  in  1708. 
The  following  ministers  here  were  ordained  as  follows:  Rev. 
Thomas  Smith,  in  1729;  Rev.  Grindall  Rawson,  in  1755;  Rev. 
Joseph  Green,  in  1762 ;  the  Rev.  Timothy  Alden,  the  ninth  minis- 
ter, was  ordained  in  1769. 

This  township  extends  across  the  Cape,  and  has  a  harbor  both 
on  the  north  and  south  shore,  and  its  soil  is  similar  to  the  other 
towns  in  this  part  of  the  Cape,  mostly  light,  sandy,  and  barren. 
There  are  5  houses  of  worship :  2  Congregational,  1  Methodist,  1 
Baptist,  and  1  for  Friends  or  Quakers.  Population  2,454.  Dis- 
tance, 3  miles  east  of  Barnstable,  and  72  S.  E.  of  Boston. 

The  cut  shows  the  appearance  of  the  eastern  termination  of 
Yarmouth  village.  From  the  church  which  is  seen  in  the  engrav- 
ing, to  Barnstable  court-house,  which  is  upwards  of  four  miles  dis- 
tant, the  road  is  lined  with  houses  on  both  sides.  From  this  spot 
the  peculiar  scenery  of  Cape  Cod  may  be  said  to  commence.  As 
you  proceed  eastward,  much  of  the  land  is  unenclosed,  often  pre- 
senting to  the  view,  a  dreary  and  wide  waste  of  sand.  There  are 


two  churches  in  the  village,  a  Congregational  and  Methodist,  one 
newspaper  establishment,  and  the  "  Barnstable  Bank,"  with  a 
capital  of  $150,000.  South  Yarmouth  is  situated  about  four  miles 
south  of  the  north  village.  In  this  place  the  salt-works  are  very 
extensive,  and  cover  a  tract  of  ground  about  a  mile  in  length  and 
one  fourth  in  width.  In  1837,  there  were  in  the  town  52  esta- 
blishments for  making  salt,  and  365.200  bushels  were  manufac- 
tured; 13  vessels  were  employed  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery; 
4,300  quintals  of  cod-fish,  and  2,287  barrels  of  mackerel  taken. 

Eastern  view  of  Yarmouth. 

As  late  as  the  year  1779,  there  was  a  cluster  of  wigwams  about 
a  mile  from  the  mouth  of  Bass  river,  in  the  south-eastern  part  of 
the  town,  inhabited  by  the  remains  of  the  Pawkunnawkut  Indians. 
About  this  time  the  small-pox  was  prevalent,  and  the  most  of  them 
died.  A  little  to  the  south-west  of  this  Indian  town,  is  a  pond 
called  Swan's  Pond  :  on  its  north-eastern  side,  just  above  a  spring, 
about  eighty  years  ago,  there  stood  an  Indian  meeting-house. 
Some  anecdotes  are  preserved  of  Joseph  Naukaught,  a  very  pious 
and  worthy  Indian  deacon,  of  which  the  following  appears  to  be 
well  authenticated : — 

"  Deacon  Nauhaught  was  once  attacked  by  a  number  of  large  black  snakes.  Being  at 
a  distance  from  any  inhabitants,  he  was,  to  be  sure,  in  a  very  precarious  situation ;  for, 
unfortunately,  he  had  not  even  a  knife  about  him  for  his  defence.  To  outrun  them, 
he  found  utterly  impossible  ;  to  keep  them  off,  without  any  weapon,  was  equally  so. 
He  therefore  came  to  the  determination  to  stand  firm  on  his  feet.  They  began  wind- 
ing themselves  about  him ;  in  a  little  time,  one  of  them  had  made  his  way  up  to  the 
Indian's  neck,  and  was  trying  to  put  his  black  head  into  his  mouth.  Nauhaught 
opened  it  immediately.  The  black  serpent  thrust  in  his  head,  and  Nauhaught,  putting  his 
jams  together,  bit  it  off  in  a  moment !  As  soon  as  the  blood,  streaming  from  the  behead- 
ed, was  discovered  by  the  rest  of  the  snakes,  they  left  their  intended  prey  with  great 
precipitation,  and  Nauhaught  was  liberated  from  the  jaws  of  impending  death." 

Colonel  Joseph  Thacher,  who  died  in  this  town  in  1763,  was  a  popular  character, 
and  through  his  influence  principally  a  company  of  forty,  thirteen  of  which  were 
Indians,  was  raised,  all  except  six  or  eight,  in  Yarmouth,  his  native  town,  to  go  on  the 


Cape  Breton  expedition,  in  1745.  A  condition  of  their  embarking  in  this  bold  enter- 
prise was,  that  Mr.  Thacher  should  be  their  captain.  It  is  remarkable  that  of 
the  Indians,  three  only  lived  to  return,  two  having  been  killed  by  the  enemy, 
and  eight,  probably  in  consequence  of  a  mode  of  living  to  which  they  had  not 
been  accustomed,  dying  of  disease;  and  that  the  rest  of  the  company,  though 
exposed  to  great  hardships,  were  providentially  all  spared  to  see  their  native  places 
again,  and  to  participate  with  their  fellow-countrymen  in  the  joy  which  pervaded  the 
land,  on  the  '•eduction  of  the  strongest  fortress  in  America.  The  following  anecdote 
is  related  of  him,  by  Mr.  David  Matthews,  one  of  Thacher' s  company,  who  is  still 
living.  It  exhibits  the  unfeeling  disposition  of  the  American  savage.  Through  the 
treacherous  conduct  of  a  certain  Frenchman,  a  party  of  twenty  provincial  soldiers  had 
been  ambuscaded,  nineteen  of  which  were  killed.  The  Frenchman  was  taken,  and  at 
first  was  given  up  to  the  Indians,  to  be  destroyed  by  them  as  they  might  see  proper. 
Isaac  Peck,  a  blood-thirsty  Indian,  began  immediately  to  sharpen  his  knife,  and, 
thinking  it  too  good  for  the  traitor  to  die  at  once,  said  he  was  going  to  begin  with  his 
fingers,  and  would  cut  off  one  joint  first,  then  another,  and  so  on  till  he  had  separated 
all  his  bones,  from  head  to  foot.  He  would  probably  have  executed  his  purpose,  had 
not  the  criminal  been  rescued  from  his  hands.  One  of  Thacher's  Indians,  hired  by 
Colonel  Vaughan,  for  a  bottle  of  brandy,  was  the  first  of  the  provincials  who  entered 
the  grand  battery  at  Louisburg.  He  crawled  in  at  an  embrasure,  and  opened 
the  gate,  which  Vaughan  immediately  entered,  the  enemy  having  withdrawn  from 
this  battery,  though,  at  the  time,  this  circumstance  was  not  known." — Alden's  Collec- 


THE  county  of  Berkshire  is  the  western  part  of  the  state  of 
Massachusetts,  and  extends  entirely  across  it  from  north  to  south. 
It  originally  belonged  to  the  county  of  Hampshire,  or  to  what  was 
designated  the  "  Old  county  of  Hampshire"  until  its  divison  in 
1812  into  the  three  counties  of  Franklin,  Hampshire,  and 
Hampden.  It  was  separated,  and  made  a  distinct  county,  by 
an  act  of  the  general  court  of  the  province  at  their  May  ses- 
sion in  1761,  in  the  first  year  of  the  reign  of  George  the  Third. 
According  to  the  report  of  the  survey  of  the  boundary  line 
between  this  state  and  that  of  New  York,  the  west  line  of  the 
county  is  50  miles  41  chains  and  79  links  in  length.  The  width  of 
the  county  on  the  north  is  14  miles,  and  on  the  south  24.  This 
county  is  rough  and  hilly  in  many  parts,  but  there  is  a  considerable 
quantity  of  fine  land,  mostly  in  the  interval  of  the  Housatonic.  It 
produces  much  wool,  and  all  sorts  of  grain,  and  exports  great 
quantities  of  pork,  beef,  butter,  cheese,  (fee.  It  is  the  most  elevated 
county  in  the  state.  The  Green  and  Taconic  mountains  cross  it 
from  N.  to  S.,  the  average  height  of  which  is  about  1200  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea.  The  Housatonic  and  Hoosic  are  the  two  prin- 
cipal rivers  in  the  county  ;  the  former  empties  into  Long  Island, 
between  Milford  and  Stratford,  in  Connecticut,  and  the  latter  into 
the  Hudson,  about  ten  miles  north  of  Troy,  N.  Y. 

The  county  possesses  in  rich  and  inexhaustible  abundance 
three  very  important  articles  of  commerce,  iron,  marble,  and  lime, 
and  its  wood  and  water  power  are  sufficient  to  enable  it  to  fit  them 
for  useful  purposes.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  towns  in  this 
county,  which  are  30  in  number : — 









Great  Harrington, 







Mount  Washington, 

New  Ashford, 

New  Marlborough, 












West  Stockbridge, 



The  population  of  this  county  by  the  census  of  1800  was  33,835 ; 
in  1810  it  was  35,797;  in  1820  it  was  35,720;  in  1830  it  was 
37,825 ;  and  in  the  official  returns  in  1837  it  was  39,101. 


T!  - 

THE  tract  comprehended  in  this  township  was  formerly  called 
East  Hoosic.  It  was  explored  and  surveyed,  and  the  limits 
traced,  by  a  committee  appointed  by  the  general  court  of  Massa- 
chusetts in  1749,  and  was  laid  out  7  miles  in  length  from  north  to 
south  and  five  in  breadth.  In  1750,  Col.  Williams,  the  founder 
of  Williams  College,  obtained  from  the  general  court  a  grant  of 
200  acres,  on  condition  that  he  should  reserve  10  acres  for  the  use 
of  the  fort,  and  build  a  grist  mill  and  saw  mill,  and  keep  them  in 
repair  20  years  for  the  use  of  the  settlers.  On  the  2d  day  of  June, 
1762,  nine  townships  in  the  north-west  comer  of  the  state  were  sold 
at  auction  by  authority  of  the  general  court.  Of  these,  East 
Hoosac  was  No.  1.  It  was  purchased  by  Nathan  Jones,  Esq.,  for 
the  sum  of  £3,200,  who  after  the  purchase  admitted  Col.  Elisha 
Jones  and  John  Murray,  Esq.,  as  joint  proprietors. 

These  proprietors,  in  October  of  the  same  year,  employed  a  sur- 
veyor to  lay  out  48  settling  lots,  containing  100  acres  each.  A 
line  was  drawn  through  the  length  of  the  township,  dividing  the 
best  of  the  land  into  two  equal  parts,  and  on  each  side  of  this  line 
was  laid  out  a  range  of  lots.  Each  lot  was  160  rods  long  from 
west  to  east,  and  100  rods  wide.  These  48  lots,  occupying  the 
valley  through  its  whole  length,  comprised  the  heart  of  the  town- 
ship. Four  years  after,  Isaac  Jones,  Esq.,  who  then  resided  in  the 
township,  was  authorized  to  survey  a  further  number  of  lots,  not 
exceeding  20,  of  100  acres  each,  and,  as  agent  of  the  proprietors, 
to  admit  settlers  to  the  number  of  60.  This  number  was  men- 
tioned because  it  was  required  by  the  conditions  of.  settlement, 
fixed  by  vote  of  the  general  court,  that  when  the  actual  settlers 
should  amount  to  that  number,  they  should  build  a  meeting-house, 
und  settle  a  "  learned  gospel  minister."  The  rest  of  the  land  was 
laid  out  in  1768  into  lots  of  200  acres  each,  and  divided  among  the 
proprietors  according  to  their  shares  in  the  property  of  the  town- 

62  ADAMS. 

During  the  French  wars,  the  Indians  traversed  this  region,  but 
they  appear  to  have  had  no  permanent  habitation  here.  No  remains 
of  Indian  settlements  have  existed  within  the  remembrance  of  the 
earliest  white  inhabitants. 

Most  of  the  first  settlers  of  this  town  were  from  Connecticut.  Of 
these  Abiel  Smith,  Gideon  and  Jacob,  his  sons,  John  Kilbourn, 
his  son-in-law,  and  John  McNeil,  were  from  Litchfield ;  Reuben 
Hinman  and  Jonathan  Smith  came  from  Woodbury.  There  were 
also  the  names  of  Parker,  Cook,  and  Leavenworth  from  Walling- 
ford ;  and  Rev.  Samuel  Todd,  from  Lanesborough,  was  previously 
from  Woodbury.  These  people  settled  in  the  north  village.  The 
first  settlers  mostly  disposed  of  their  lands  to  purchasers  from 
Rhode  Island,  many  of  whom  belonged  to  the  society  of  Friends. 
and  the  population  gradually  changed  till  nearly  all  had  sold  out 
and  removed  from  the  town.  The  settlements  of  Friends  became 
extensive  and  prosperous.  Several  other  families,  also  from  Rhode 
Island,  came  in  about  the  same  time,  and  these  two  classes  of 
inhabitants  and  their  descendants  have  since  occupied  the  greatest 
part  of  the  town. 

The  first  settlers  formed  themselves  into  a  Congregational  church 
and  society.  Their  first  minister  was  the  Rev.  Samuel  Todd,  from 
North  Haven,  Conn.  The  first  meeting-house  was  built  of  logs, 
and  was  situated  near  the  center  of  the  town.  The  Friends' 
society  was  formed  in  the  year  1781.  David  Anthony,  Isaac  Killy, 
Isaac  Upton,  Joshua  Lapham,  George  Lapham,  and  Adam  Hart- 
ness,  with  their  families,  constituted  the  society  at  its  first  organi- 
zation. They  worshipped  in  a  log  dwelling-house  till  about 
the  year  1786,  when  they  erected  a  meeting-house  about  half  a 
mile  north  of  the  south  village.  The  building  lot,  with  land  for 
a  burying-ground,  the  whole  containing  about  four  and  a  half 
acres,  was  given  to  the  society  by  Daniel  Lapham.  In  1819  the 
society  numbered  about  40  families.  A  Baptist  church  of  35  mem- 
bers was  organized  in  1808,  under  the  ministry  of  Elder  George 
Witherel.  About  1785  a  body  of  Methodists  were  located  in  the 
south  part  of  the  town.  The  society  in  the  north  village  construct- 
ed their  meeting-house  in  1828.  A  second  Baptist  church  was 
organized  in  1826,  in  the  south  village,  with  14  members,  under  the 
ministry  of  Elder  Elnathan  Sweet,  of  Cheshire.  The  present 
Congregational  church  was  organized  April  19,  1827.  This  town 
was  incorporated  October  15,  1778,  and  named  Adams,  in  honor  of 
Samuel  Adams,  afterwards  governor  of  the  state. 

The  natural  bridge  on  Hudson's  Brook  in  this  town  is  a  curi- 
osity worthy  the  notice  of  travellers.  The  waters  of  this  brook 
have  worn  a  fissure  from  30  to  60  feet  deep,  and  30  rods  in 
length,  through  a  body  of  white  marble  or  limestone,  and  formed 
a  bridge  of  that  material  50  feet  above  the  surface  of  the  water. 
There  is  a  cavern  in  this  town  containing  a  number  of  rooms,  the 
longest  of  which,  as  far  as  it  has  been  explored,  is  30  feet  long,  20 
high,  and  20  wide. 

The  following  is  a  western  view  of  the  central  part  of  North 

ADAMS.  63 

Adams,  taken  from  the  western  side  of  the  south  branch  of  the 
Hoosic  river.  The  building  appearing  on  the  left,  is  the  principal 
one  connected  with  the  Phenix  factory.  This  manufacturing  vil- 
lage is  the  largest  in  the  county,  containing,  it  is  estimated,  2,000 
inhabitants.  It  is  surrounded  by  lofty  hills  and  mountains  in 
every  direction,  excepting  the  narrow  interval  through  which  the 

Western  view  of  the  Center  of  North  Adams. 

Hoosic  passes.  It  contains  3  churches  :  1  Congregational,  1  Bap- 
tist, and  1  Methodist;  the  "  Adams  Bank,"  with  a  capital  of 
$200,000,  and  a  printing-office.  This  village  is  about  three  miles 
south  from  the  Vermont  line,  27  miles  from  Lenox,  5  from  Wil- 
liamstown,  34  from  Greenfield,  40  from  Troy,  N.  Y.,  and  120  from 
Boston.  The  village  of  South  Adams  is  six  miles  south  of  the 
north  village.  It  has  3  churches :  1  Baptist,  1  for  Friends,  and  1 
for  various  denominations.  This  is  also  a  manufacturing  village, 
having  8  cotton  mills.  In  1837,  there  were  in  the  town,  19  cotton 
mills,  having  20,800  spindles,  which  consumed  799,536  Ibs.  of  cot- 
ton ;  4,752,567  yards  of  cotton  goods,  valued  at  $334,649,  were 
manufactured;  males  employed,  194;  females,  434;  capital 
invested,  $295,725.  Four  woollen  mills,  with  7  sets  of  machinery  ; 
wool  consumed,  175.000  Ibs. ;  cloth  manufactured,  215,000  yards : 
value,  $137,000 :  males  employed,  51 ;  females,  41 ;  capital  invest- 
ed, $86,000.  Two  calico  print  works,  which  printed  4,561,680 
yards  of  calico,  employing  93  hands.  The  population  of  the 
town  exceeds  any  other  in  the  county,  being  4.191. 

The  following  shows  the  appearance  of  Saddle  Mountain,  as 
seen  from  the  Williamstown  road  about  one  and  a  half  miles  from 
North  Adams  village.  The  elevated  peak  seen  on  the  left  is  called 
"  Grey  Lock,"  from  its  hoary  aspect  during  winter.  It  is  stated 
to  be  3,580  feet  above  the  tide  water  at  Albany,  and  is  the  highest 
land  in  the  state.  The  other  peak  of  this  mountain,  seen  on  the 
right,  is  called  the  "  Saddle  Ball."  The  depression  between  the 


64  ADAMS 

two  peaks  is  called  "  the  Notch,"  and  comprises  several  valuable 
dairy  farms.     The  "  Massachusetts  Fort  "  so  famous  during  the 

North-eastern  view  of  Saddle  Mountain,  (Adams'). 

French  wars,  stood  near  the  barn  represented  in  the  fore  part  of 
the  engraving.  The  following  is  from  the  History  of  Adams,  by 
Rev.  John  W.  Yeomans,  in  the  History  of  Berkshire  County. 

About  1741  or  2,  Fort  Massachusetts  was  built  in  a  narrow  part  of  the  valley 
leading  towards  Williamstown.  This  was  a  part  of  the  line  of  defence  erected  to 
protect  the  northern  and  western  settlements  of  New  England  against  French  and 
Indian  hostilities.  The  enemy  directed  their  principal  movements  towards  Connecticut 
river.  In  general,  they  came  down  from  Canada  in  the  direction  of  the  Connecticut, 
and  were  repelled  by  Fort  Constitution,  at  Brattleborough,  Vt.,  Fort  Dummer,  at 
Hinsdale,  N.  H.,  and  Fort  Wentworth,  N.  H.,  further  up  the  Connecticut,  all  in 
connection  with  each  other  on  the  same  line.  But  some  came  down  the  Hudson,  and, 
proceeding  eastward  up  the  Hoosic,  came  upon  this  fortification,  and  several  bloody 
skirmishes  took  place.  They  repeatedly  appeared  in  smaller  or  larger  bodies  about 
the  fort.  The  following  facts  are  taken  principally  from  the  Appendix  to  the 
"  Redeemed  Captive,"  by  the  Rev.  John  Taylor,  formerly  of  Deerfield. 

On  the  6th  of  May,  1746,  as  serjeant  John  Hawks  and  John  Miles  were  riding  out 
from  the  fort,  they  were  fired  upon  by  two  Indians  and  wounded.  Miles  made  his 
escape  to  the.  fort ;  Hawks  fought  for  some  time,  and  might  have  taken  them  both 
prisoners,  had  he  understood  their  language,  as  appeared  afterwards  ;  for  they  asked 
for  quarters  before  he  turned  to  make  his  escape. 

A  party  of  the  enemy  appeared  again  at  the  fort  on  the  llth  of  June  following,  and 
attacked  a  number  of  men  who  were  at  a  distance  from  the  fort;  and  a  skirmish 
ensued.  After  sustaining  the  fire  a  few  moments,  the  enemy  fled,  having  lost  one  of 
their  men.  Elisha  Nims  and  Gershom  Hawks  were  wounded,  and  Benjamin  Tenter 
was  taken  captive. 

On  the  20th  of  August,  in  the  same  year,  an  army  of  about  900  French  and 
Indians,  under  Gen.  De  Vaudreuil,  made  an  attack  upon  the  fort.  Col.  Hawks,  who 
commanded  the  fort  at  that  time,  had  only  22  effective  men  with  him,  and  but  33 
persons,  men,  women,  and  children,  and  was  miserably  supplied  with  ammunition. 
Notwithstanding  these  unfortunate  circumstances,  he  defended  the  fort  28  hours,  and 
probably  would  never  have  given  it  up,  had  not  his  ammunition  failed.  He  was 
finally  necessitated  to  capitulate,  and  offered  such  articles  as  were  accepted.  One 
special  article  was,  that  none  of  the  prisoners  should  be  delivered  into  the  hands  of 
the  Indians.  The  next  day,  however,  Vaudreuil  delivered  one  half  of  them  to  the 
Indians,  on  the  plea  that  there  was  danger  of  mutiny  in  his  army,  the  Indians  being 
irritated  that  they  were  cut  off  from  the  profits  of  the  conquest.  The  savages  imme- 
diately killed  one  of  the  prisoners,  because,  being  sick,  he  was  unable  to  travel.  In 
the  siege  Col.  Hawks  lost  but  one  man  ;  while  the  enemy,  as  near  as  could  be  ascer- 
tained, lost  45,  who  were  either  killed  outright  or  died  of  their  wounds.  The 
prisoners  were  carried  to  Canada,  where  12  of  them  sickened  and  died.  The  residue, 
with  other  prisoners,  were  sent  on  board  a  flag  of  truce  to  Boston,  where  they  arrived 

A  L  F  O  R  D  .  65 

cu  the  16th  of  August,  1747.  The  chaplain  of  the  fort  at  the  time  it  was  taken,  the 
Rev.  John  Norton,  wrote  an  account  of  his  captivity,  which  was  published.  He  after 
wards  settled  in  the  ministry  at  East  Hampton,  a  parish  in  Chatham,  Conn.  Another 
of  the  captives  was  Benjamin  Simonds,  who  afterwards  became  a  distinguished  inha- 
bitant of  Williamstown,  and  a  colonel  of  militia. 

While  the  fort  was  rebuilding,  on  the  25th  of  May,  1747,  there  being  several  hundred 
people  present,  an  army  of  the  enemy  came  with  the  design  of  hindering  the  under- 
taking.  About  100  men  had  been  sent  to  Albany  a  few  days  before  for  stores  of 
provisions  and  ammunition.  As  these  were  approaching  the  fort  on  their  return,  a 
scout  was  sent  forward,  who,  coming  within  sight  of  the  fort,  discovered  the  enemy 
and  began  an  attack,  which  gave  alarm  to  the  people  at  the  fort,  who  had  not  as  yet 
discovered  the  enemy.  A  few  issued  out  and  maintained  a  small  skirmish,  until  the 
enemy  fled.  The  people  remaining  at  the  iort,  and  the  commander  of  the  party  with 
the  wagons,  were  much  blamed  for  not  affording  assistance,  and  were  charged  with 
cowardice.  In  this  action  three  persons  were  wounded,  and  a  friendly  Indian  from 
Stockbridge  was  killed. 

On  the  1st  of  October  following,  Peter  Burvee  was  taken  captive  near  this  fort.  On 
the  2d  of  August,  1748,  about  200  of  the  enemy  appeared  at  the  fort.  It  was  then 
under  the  command  of  Capt.  Ephraim  Williams,  afterwards  Col.  Williams,  whose 
grant  of  200  acres  has  been  already  mentioned.  A  scout  was  fired  upon,  which 
drew  out  Capt.  Williams  with  about  30  men  ;  an  attack  began,  which  continued  some 
time  ;  but,  finding  the  enemy  numerous,  Capt.  Williams  fought  upon  the  retreat,  until 
he  had  again  recovered  the  fort.  The  enemy  soon  withdrew  ;  but  with  what  loss  was 
unknown.  A  man  by  the  name  of  Abbot  was  killed,  and  Lieut.  Hawley  and  Ezekiel 
Wells  were  wounded.  In  1755,  in  the  second  French  war,  Col.  Williams  was  sent  at 
the  head  of  a  regiment  to  join  Gen.  Johnson  at  the  north,  and  was  killed  on  the  8th 
of  September  in  that  year,  near  the  southern  extremity  of  Lake  George, 

After  the  death  of  Col.  Williams,  the  oversight  of  the  fort  was  committed,  it  is 
believed,  to  one  Capt.  Wyman.  He  is  known  to  have  lived  in  the  house  within  the 
pickets,  and  to  have  occupied  the  land  reserved  for  the  use  of  the  fort.  June  7,  1756, 
a  body  of  the  enemy  came  again  to  this  fort,  and  Benjamin  King,  and  a  man  by  the 
name  of  Meacham,  were  killed.  The  Rev.  Stephen  West,  afterwards  Dr.  West, 
minister  of  Stockbridge,  was  chaplain  in  1758,  and  perhaps  in  1757.  The  location  of 
the  fort  is  still  indicated  by  the  print  of  a  cellar,  and  the  horse-radish,  which  was 
planted  by  the  soldiers,  and  still  grows  upon  the  spot. 


THIS  town  is  of  irregular  form.  It  is  about  5  miles  in  length, 
and  its  greatest  breadth  is  a  little  more  than  3  miles.  The  south- 
west part,  bordering  on  Egremont,  called  the  Shawenon  purchase, 
was  bought  of  the  Stockbridge  Indians  about  1736.  The  time 
when  the  settlement  commenced  is  not  exactly  known.  There 
were  not  many  families  here  before  1750  or  55.  Among  the  early 
settlers  were  Dea,  Eleazer  Barret,  Ebenezer  Barret,  Dea.  Robert 
Johnson,  John  and  Simeon  Hurlburt,  and  the  ancestors  of  the 
Sperry,  Wilcox,  Kelsey,  Hamlin,  and  Baker  families ;  most  of  them, 
perhaps  all,  from  Connecticut.  There  were  also  families,  who  were 
early  settlers,  by  the  name  of  Brunson,  Fenton,  Hunger,  and  War- 
ner. This  place  has  been  remarkable  for  changing  its  inhabitants. 
The  first  settlers  were  Congregationalists,  and  a  flourishing  church 
of  that  denomination  formerly  existed  here.  The  Rev.  Joseph 
Avery  was  settled  over  it  about  1780,  but,  owing  to  the  tumults 
which  occurred  in  the  Shay's  rebellion,  he  was  dismissed  in  1787, 
and  the  church  and  society  soon  after  became  extinct.  A  portion 
of  the  people  early  became  Baptists,  and  about  1787  a  number 
became  Methodists.  In  1817,  the  different  denominations  united 

66  ^  K  C  K  K  T  . 

and  built  a  meeting-house  by  subscription,  46  feet  by  34,  which 
they  agreed  to  call  the  "  Union  Meeting-house."  The  Methodists 
were  to  occupy  it  half  of  the  time,  and  the  other  denominations  the 
other  half. 

The  west  part  of  the  town  is  mountainous.  The  soil  of  the  val- 
leys is  generally  good.  The  people  are  mostly  engaged  in  agricul- 
ture. Population  of  the  town,  441.  The  center  of  the  place  is  24 
miles  east  of  Hudson,  14  S.  by  W.  of  Lenox,  and  125  miles  from 


THIS  town  was  granted  to  Joseph  Brigham  and  59  others  in 
1735,  and  a  few  persons  came  into  the  town  for  the  purpose  of  set- 
tling in  it  as  early  as  1740,  but  for  fear  of  the  Indians  soon  return- 
ed, but  not  till  they  had  erected  a  saw-mill  in  the  east  part  of  the 
town,  and  some  other  buildings.  The  first  permanent  settlement 
was  made  in  1755,  by  people  who  emigrated  principally  from  the 
eastern  part  of  Connecticut.  The  first  settlers  were  of  the  name 
of  Birchard,  Goss,  King,  Kingsley,  Messenger,  Wadsworth,  Wait, 
and  Walker.  The  descendants  of  these  men,  except  Goss,  yet  re- 
main in  the  town,  and  those  of  Wadsworth  are,  in  particular, 
numerous.  The  first  white  person  born  in  the  town  was  Jabez 
Wadsworth,  in  Dec.  of  the  year  of  the  settlement,  who,  after  sus- 
taining a  respectable  and  Christian  character,  died  in  April,  1826. 

The  first  church  was  gathered  and  organized  Dec.  28,  1758. 
Mr.  Ebenezer  Martin,  a  graduate  of  Yale  College,  was  ordained 
their  pastor,  Feb.  23,  1759.  He  was  dismissed  Oct.  12,  1764, 
and  succeeded,  by  Mr.  Zadoc  Hunn,  a  native  of  Wethersfield,  Con., 
June  5, 1771.  He  was  dismissed  in  Oct.  1788.  The  first  meeting- 
house of  this  society  was  built  in  1762,  and  stood  about  40  years. 
This  society  have  a  fund,  raised  by  the  subscription  of  60  indi- 
viduals, (who  were  incorporated  as  the  "  First  Congregational  So- 
ciety in  Becket,"  Feb.  17, 1798,)  which  now  amounts  to  upwards  of 
$5,500.  In  1800  the  society  built  a  new  meeting-house,  which  was 
dedicated  Nov.  19.  Rev.  Joseph  L.  Mills  was  ordained  pastor  June 
5,  1806.  The  Baptist  church  was  organized  in  Sept.,  1764.  Their 
first  pastor  was  Elder  Robert  Nesbit.  The  Baptist  meeting-house 
was  erected  in  1815. 

The  town  was  incorporated  by  its  present  name  June  21, 1765,  and 
the  first  town  meeting  was  held  on  the  5th  of  the  succeeding  month. 
The  town  lies  on  the  Green  mountain  range.  The  surface  is  hilly, 
broken,  and  rocky,  the  soil  hard  and  cold ;  very  little  clay  or  sand 
is  found.  When  well  cultivated  the  ground  yields  rye  and  corn  in 
moderate  quantities,  but  wheat  will  not  succeed.  The  winters  in 
that  town  are  usually  very  severe,  during  which  season,  high 
piercing  winds  prevail,  yet  it  is  generally  healthy,  and  the  lon- 
gevity of  the  inhabitants  is  uncommon  even  in  New  England.  The 
center  of  this  town  is  15  miles  E.  S.  E.  of  Lenox  and  110  W.  of 
Boston.  Population,  957. 



THIS  town  was  originally  included  in  the  towns  of  Lanesbo- 
rough,  New  Ashford,  Adams,  and  Windsor.  The  form  is  very 
irregular,  as  the  line  in  passing  round  it  takes  21  different  courses. 
It  was  incorporated  by  its  present  name  March  14,  1793.  The 
settlement  of  the  town  commenced  in  1767.  Some  of  the  principal 
settlers  were  Joseph  Bennet,  Esq.,  Col.  Joab  Stafford,  John  Buck- 
land,  Esq.,  John  Lippet,  Samuel  Low,  Simon  Smith,  Amos  Smith, 
Stephen  Carpenter,  Shubael  Wilmarth  and  John  Wilmarth,  from 
Rhode  Island ;  Jonathan  Richardson,  Isaac  Warren,  and  Charles 
Saben  from  Con.  The  inhabitants  from  the  beginning  have  been 
generally  of  the  Baptist  denomination.  There  are  two  houses  for 
public  worship  belonging  to  them  in  the  town ;  one  at  Stafford's 
Hill,  and  one  at  the  Four  Corners.  The  first  Baptist  church  was 
formed  at  Stafford's  Hill,  Aug.  28,  1769.  Elder  Peter  Werden  was 
the  first  pastor,  from  Warwick,  R.  I.  The  second  Baptist  church 
was  formed  at  the  Four  Corners  of  17  members,  under  the  care  of 
Elder  Nathan  Mason,  from  Nova  Scotia,  Sept.  21, 1771.  From  this 
church  was  formed  a  third,  of  15  members,  under  the  ministry  of 
Elder  Elnathan  Sweet,  Jan.  15, 1824.  There  is  a  society  of  Metho- 
dists in  the  town,  Avhich  was  formed  in  July,  1823. 

The  center  of  the  town  is  a  rich  and  fertile  valley.  To  the  E. 
and  W.  of  this  the  ground  gradually  rises  into  hills  and  moun- 
tains. The  township  is  well  adapted  to  grazing,  to  which  the  atten- 
tion of  the  inhabitants  is  principally  given.  Large  dairies  are  kept, 
and  the  Cheshire  cheeses  are  widely  and  deservedly  celebrated.  The 
famous  Mammoth  Cheese  presented  to  President  Jefferson,  Jan.  1, 
1802,  had  no  small  influence  to  bring  these  into  notice.  On  a  day 
appointed  the  dairy  women  sent  their  curds  to  one  place.  The  quan- 
tity sent  proved  to  be  too  great  to  be  pressed  even  in  a  cider-mill 
press,  so  that  besides  "  the  monster"  three  smaller  ones  were  made 
of  70  Ibs.  weight  each.  The  mammoth  cheese  weighed  about  1450 
Ibs.  Mr.  Jefferson  sent  back  a  good-sized  piece  of  this  cheese  to 
the.  inhabitants,  to  satisfy  them  of  its  excellence ;  and  he  also  sent 
pieces  of  it  to  the  governors  of  the  several  states.  The  town  is 
situated  16  miles  N.  by  E.  of  Lenox  and  120  W.  N.  W.  of  Boston. 
Number  of  inhabitants  924. 


THIS  town  is  seven  miles  in  length  and  about  two  and  a  half  in 
breadth.  It  received  its  name,  it  is  supposed,  from  the  numerous 
families  of  Clarks  who  settled  there.  The  settlement  was  com- 
menced in  1769,  by  Capt.  Matthew  Ketchum,  his  son  Matthew, 
and  his  cousins  Epenetus,  Daniel  and  Samuel.  These  came  from 
Long  Island.  Nicholas  Clark  and  his  brothers  Aaron,  Stephen  and 
Silas  moved  in  about  the  same  time  from  Cumberland,  R.  I.  The 

68  D  A  L  T  CTN  . 

town  was  incorporated  March  2,  1798.  The  petitioners  desired  to 
have  it  incorporated  by  the  name  of  Hudson,  from  a  man  of  that 
name  who  was  supposed  to  have  cut  the  first  tree  in  the  town 
which  was  felled  by  a  white  man.  This  man  continued  in  the 
place  only  two  or  three  months.  Why  the  name  inserted  in  the 
petition  was  changed,  the  inhabitants  never  knew.  Hudson's  brook 
yet  bears  the  name. 

The  surface  of  this  township  is  uneven,  and  the  soil  is  hard  and 
stony.  About  two  thirds  of  the  town  lies  on  the  Bald  and  Hoosic 
mountains.  The  mountain  land  is  cold  and  rocky.  Its  principal 
commodity  is  lumber ;  considerable  quantities  of  spruce  and  hem- 
lock timber  being  annually  carried  to  Adams  and  Williamstown. 
The  people  are  Baptists  and  Methodists,  there  being  about  an 
equal  number  of  each.  Situated  27  miles  N.  by  E.  of  Lenox  and 
125  miles  W.  by  N.  of  Boston.  Population,  386. 


THIS  town  began  to  be  settled  about  1755.  Among  the  first  set- 
tlers were  the  Chamberlains,  the  Cadys,  the  Boardmans,  Gallups, 
Lawrences,  Merrimans,  Parks,  &c.  Dr.  Marsh,  a  graduate  of 
Harvard  College,  and  a  judge  of  the  county  court,  was  also  one 
of  the  early  settlers.  The  venerable  Dea.  Williams  moved  into 
the  town  some  years  after  from  Hatfield.  He  was  a  leader  and 
guide  to  the  people  for  many  years,  and  'an  ornament  and  glory  to 
the  town.  He  was  a  trustee  of  Williamstown  College,  and  a 
senator  in  the  state  legislature.  He  died  March  1,  1808,  aged 
74.  The  town  was  incorporated  in  1784,  and  named  Dalton,  after 
the  Hon.  Tristram  Dalton,  then  speaker  of  the  house  of  repre- 
sentatives. The  length  of  the  township  is  about  9  miles.  The  rich 
and  beautiful  vale  of  Dalton  is  in  the  center  of  the  town.  The 
eastern  branch  of  the  Housatonic  runs  through  it,  and,  by  a  cir- 
cuitous route,  encloses  as  on  three  sides  an  elevation  of  land  of  more 
than  100  acres  in  the  center  of  the  whole  vale.  Here  are  two 
meeting-houses,  1  Congregational  and  1  Methodist,  and  about  25 
dwelling-houses  in  the  vicinity.  From  this  elevation  it  is  esti- 
mated may  be  seen  three  fourths  of  the  houses  in  the  town.  The 
land  is  generally  productive.  Spring  wheat  is  more  easily  raised 
than  in  many  towns  in  the  county,  and  the  soil  is  suitable  for  In- 
dian corn.  The  meadows  on  the  Housatonic  river  are  not  so  ex- 
tensive as  on  many  towns  below.  The  Congregational  church  in 
the  town  was  formed  Feb.  16,  1785.  Rev.  James  Thompson  was 
the  first  minister,  ordained  in  March,  1795.  The  society  have  a 
parsonage-house,  with  70  acres  of  land,  purchased  by  the  avails  of 
lands  lying  in  the  town  devised  them  by  Col.  Israel  Williams  and 
Dea.  Obadiah  Dickinson,  of  Hatfield.  The  present  meeting-house 
was  built  in  1812.  There  are  a  few  Baptist  families  in  the  town, 
and  a  society  of  Methodists.  The  center  of  the  town  is  10  miles 
northerly  of  Lenox,  and  120  miles  W.  of  Boston.  Population  830 


There  is  a  woollen  mill,  and  two  paper-mills,  which  manufacture 
paper  to  the  value  of  between  30  and  40,000  dollars  annually. 


THE  regular  settlement  of  this  town  commenced  about  1730, 
though  it  is  said  some  Dutch  people,  supposing  it  belonged  to  the 
colony  of  New  York,  settled  in  it  at  an  earlier  period.  Between 
1730  and  1756,  many  families  moved  into  the  place  from  New 
York  and  from  the  New  England  colonies.  Among  the  first  set- 
tlers were  Nicholas  Karner,  Jacob  Karner,  Cornelius  Spoor,  Ebe- 
nezer  Baldwin,  Aaron  Loomis,  Josiah  Phelps,  John  Perry,  Timo- 
thy Hopkins,  Elias  Hopkins,  Nehemiah  Messenger,  Benjamin 
Trumain,  Samuel  Colver,  Samuel  Younglove,  William  Webb,  Jon- 
athan Welch,  Samuel  Welch,  Robert  Joyner,  Gideon  Church, 
Ebenezer  Smith,  Aaron  Sheldon,  Israel  Taylor,  William  Roberts, 
Joseph  Hicks,  Edward  Baily,  Abraham  Andrews,  and  John  Fuller. 
The  township  is  about  five  and  a  half  miles  in  length  and  four  and 
a  half  in  breadth.  It  was  incorporated  as  a  district  in  1760,  and 
called  by  its  present  name.  It  was  invested  with  full  town  privi- 
leges, except  the  right  of  sending  a  representative  to  the  general 
court,  which  right  was  to  be  held  in  common  with  the  town  of 
Sheffield :  some  years  after,  this  right  was  granted.  The  soil  of 
the  township  is  various,  out  generally  productive.  Most  of  it  is 
better  adapted  to  tillage  than  grazing.  The  inhabitants  erected  a 
house  for  public  worship  in  1767,  and  raised  money  for  the  support 
of  the  gospel.  Feb.  5,  1770,  they  invited  the  Rev.  Eliphalet 
Steele,  a  native  of  West  Hartford  and  graduate  of  Yale  College,  to 
settle  with  them.  On  the  20th  of  the  same  month,  the  Congrega- 
tional church  was  organized,  and  Mr.  Steele  ordained  on  the  28th 
of  June  following.  The  people  were  generally  united  in  their 
pastor,  until  the  time  of  Shays'  rebellion.  As  he  was  supposed  to 
be  friendly  to  the  government,  the  malcontents  became  his  ene- 
mies and  opposers.  On  one  occasion,  several  armed  ruffians  vio- 
lently entered  his  residence  in  the  night,  and,  after  treating  him  in 
an  insolent  and  abusive  manner,  took  away  his  watch  and  various 
articles  of  clothing.  Difficulties  continuing  to  increase,  Mr.  Steele 
was  dismissed  by  a  council  on  the  29th  of  April,  1794,  and  removed 
into  the  state  of  New  York.  The  church  gradually  decreased  by 
deaths  and  removals  until  1814,  when  it  was  considered  to  be 
extinct.  In  181 6,  the  present  Congregational  church  was  organized. 
It  was  begun  with  14  members.  Rev.  Gardner  Hayden  was  ordain- 
ed their  pastor  Nov.  23, 1820.  A  Baptist  church  was  formed  in  the 
north  part  of  this  town  in  1787;  the  society  obtained  their  act  of 
incorporation  in  1808,  and  in  1817  erected  their  meeting-house. 
There  is  a  Methodist  society  in  the  south-west  part  of  the  town, 
who  hold  their  meetings  in  a  school-house.  This  town  is  15  miles 
southerly  of  Lenox,  and  128  W.  of  Boston.  Population,  968. 



THIS  town  began  to  be  settled  about  1783.  Dr.  Daniel  Nelson 
settled  in  it  in  that  year,  and  in  the  course  of  two  years  he  was 
joined  by  Paul  Knowlton,  Sylvanus  Clark,  Nathan  Drury,  Esq., 
Jesse  King,  Esq.,  and  Stephen  Staples.  Soon  after  1795  there  was 
a  considerable  accession  of  inhabitants.  The  length  of  the  town- 
ship on  an  average  may  be  about  4  miles.  It  was  incorporated  in 
1805.  It  being  situated  on  the  height  of  the  Green  mountain 
range,  the  surface  is  broken  and  the  climate  cold  and  severe.  The 
people  derive  their  support  chiefly  from  their  stock  and  dairies.  A 
Congregational  church  was  formed  May  4,  1814,  consisting  of  11 
members.  A  Baptist  church  was  organized  in  1810,  with  about 
20  members.  Their  meeting-house  was  built  in  1824.  There  are 
a.  few  Methodists  in  the  town,  living  mostly  on  Deerfield  river. 
Situated  27  miles  N.  N.  E.  of  Lenox,  and  120  W.  by  N.  of  Boston. 
Number  of  inhabitants  457. 


THE  settlement  of  this  town  commenced  about  1730.  The 
1'ower  part  of  it  was  settled  in  connection  with  Sheffield.  Some 
families  it  is  said  were  located  above  the  bridge  before  1730.  Of 
these  were  Laurens  and  Sydney  Suydam  (supposed  to  have  been 
brothers),  from  Poughkeepsie,  N.  Y.  Some  of  the  first  settlers  were 
Dutch,  others  were  English.  Among  the  latter  were  Joshua  White, 
Moses  Ingersoll,  Moses  and  William  King,  -Thomas  Dewey,  Heze- 
kiah  Phelps,  Israel  Orton,  and  Joshua  Root. 

This  town  is  formed  of  parts  of  the  upper  and  lower  rlousatonic  townships,  sur- 
veyed by  authority  of  the  general  court  in  1736.  There,  were  30  proprietors  of  the 
upper  Housatonic  township.  House  or  home  lots  were  laid  out  for  them  on  both 
sides  of  the  river  from  the  bridge  to  Monument  mountain.  Here  improvements  were 
begun.  From  the  house  lots,  long  parallel  lots  were  laid  out  to  Tyringham  line. 
The  Hop  lands  (so  called),  in  the  north-east  part  of  the  town,  in  the  region  of  Hop  brook, 
were  laid  out  in  a  similar  manner.  The  land  on  Monument  mountain  and  part  of  the 
north  plain  was  laid  out  in  equalizing  lots,  that  is,  in  lots  so  proportioned  as  to  render 
the  preceding  divisions  equal  to  the  particular  right  of  each  individual.  The  tract  em- 
braced in  the  present  town  was  formed  into  a  parish  about  1740,  and  called  the  second 
parish  of  Sheffield.  In  1761  it  was  selected  as  the  seat  of  justice  for  the  county  of 
Berkshire,  and  in  the  course  of  that  year  it  was  incorporated  a  town  by  the  present 
name.  County  buildings  were  afterwards  erected  in  the  town,  and  courts  held  here  till 
1787,  when  they  were  removed  to  Lenox.  The  town  is  about  7  miles  in  length,  and 
6  in  breadth.  About  1755,  in  the  second  French  war,  a  block-house  was  built,  about 
a  mile  above  the  bridge  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  as  a  place  of  security  to  which 
the  inhabitants  might  flee  in  case  of  an  attack. 

In  1743  (when  there  were  only  30  families  in  the  place)  the 
people  employed  the  Rev.  Samuel  Hopkins,  afterwards  Dr.  Hop- 
kins, to  preach  with  them,  and  after  a  short  trial  settled  him  the 
same  year  in  the  ministry.  He  was  ordained  the  28th  of  Dec.,  on 
which  day  the  church  was  organized.  He  was  dismissed  at  his 
own  request  on  the  18th  of  Jan.  1769. 


He  was  born  at  Waterbury,  Con.,  and  was  a  direct  lineal  descendant  of  Stephen  Hop- 
kins, one  of  the  pilgrims  who  landed  at  Plymouth  in.  Dec.  1620.  He  graduated  at 
Yale  College  in  1741,  and  studied  theology  with  the  first  President  Edwards,  then 
minister  at  Northampton.  His  mental  powers  were  strong,  and  fitted  him  for 
deep  and  thorough  investigation.  While  at  Great  Barrington,  and  Newport,  R.  I., 
(where  he  settled  after  he  left  Mass.)  he  published  a  number  of  sermons  and  books 
on  subjects  of  doctrine  which  excited  considerable  controversy.  In  1793  he  pub- 
lished his  System  of  Divinity,  the  sentiments  advocated  in  which  were  highly  Calvin- 
istic,  and  are  generally  termed  Hopkinsinian. 

The  village  of  Great  Barrington,  which  extends  about  three, 
fourths  of  a  mile  on  the  western  borders  of  the  Housatonic,  con- 
sists of  upwards  of  50  dwelling-houses,  2  churches,  1  Episcopal 
and  1  Congregational ist,  a  printing-office,  and  various  mechanic 
shops.  The  village  is  well  built,  and  deeply  shaded  by  elms  and 
other  trees.  It  is  6  miles  from  Sheffield,  14  south  of  Lenox,  25 
eastward  from  Hudson,  and  125  from  Boston.  In  1837  there  were 
in  the  town  4  cotton  mills,  which  consumed  170,000  Ibs.  of  cotton; 
920,000  yards  of  cotton  goods  manufactured,  valued  at  $64,600; 
there  were  2  woollen  mills,  which  consumed  32,000  Ibs.  of  wool,  and 
52,500  yards  of  cloth  manufactured.  There  were  in  the  town 
2,657  merino  sheep,  which  produced  6>642  Ibs.  of  wool,  the  value  of 
which  was  $3,321 ;  one  furnace  for  the  manufacture  of  pig  iron, 
employing  20  hands ;  180  tons  of  pig  iron  were  made,  valued  at 
$7,200.  Population,  2,440. 

The  Episcopal  society  in  this  town  was  formed  about  the 
year  1760.  The  church  was  instituted  by  the  Rev.  Solomon 
Palmer,  then  a  missionary  at  Litchfield  and  New  Milford,  Con., 
from  the  society  in  England  for  propagating  religion  in  foreign 
parts.  The  society  have  a  parsonage-house  and  lands,  and  besides 
the  church  they  have  a  chapel  in  Van  Deusenville  to  accommodate 
the  people  in  the  north  part  of  the  society.  The  Congregational 
and  Episcopal  societies  were  incorporated  by  the  legislature  in 
1791.  There  are  some  Methodist  people  in  town,  who  mostly 
reside  in  the  east  and  north-east  parts. 

The  most  noted  mountain  in  this  section  of  country  is  Monu- 
ment mountain,  in  the  north  part  of  this  town,  which  rises  up 
directly  from  the  east  bank  of  the  Housatonic,  and  extends  into 
Stockbridge.  The  engraving  shows  the  appearance  of  this,  as  it 
is  seen  from  the  south-east  on  the  road  towards  Stockbridge.  It 
derived  its  name  from  a  rude  monument  of  stones  on  the  south- 
eastern point,  a  short  distance  from  the  county  road,  which  it  is  to 
be  regretted  is  now  demolished.  The  pile  was  six  or  eight  feet  in 
diameter,  circular  at  its  base,  and  raised  in  the  form  of  an  obtuse 
cone  over  the  grave  of  one  of  the  aborigines.  It  was  a  custom  of 
the  Indians  whenever  an  individual  passed  by  the  tomb  of  his 
countryman  to  cast  a  stone  upon  it.  By  this  slow  method  of  accu- 
mulation, the  heap  in  question  rose  in  a  series  of  years  to  the  size 
just  mentioned.  According  to  tradition  "  the  person  buried  here 
was  a  female,  who  had  thrown  herself  from  the  cliffs  of  the  moun- 
tain through  the  influence  of  a  passionate  love  for  a  cousin,  whom 
the  religion  of  the  natives  would  not  allow  her  to  marry,  because 



South-eastern  view  of  Monument  Mountain. 

the  connection  was  deemed  incestuous."  Some  years  since  a  poem 
was  written  on  this  tradition,  entitled  Monument  Mountain,  by 
William  C.  Bryant,  a  native  of  Cummington,  then  an  inhabitant 
of  this  town.  The  following  extract  from  the  first  part  of  the  poem 
correctly  delineates  the  scenery  of  this  mountain,  and  in  most  re- 
spects the  description  is  equally  applicable  to  much  of  the  mountain 
scenery  in  the  western  part  of  the  state. 

Thou  who  wouldst  see  the  lovely  and  the  wild 

Mingled  in  harmony  on  Nature's  face, 

Ascend  our  rocky  mountain.     Let  thy  foot 

Fail  not  with  weariness,  for  on  their  tops 

The  beauty  and  the  majesty  of  earth 

Spread  wide  beneath  shall  make  thee  to  forget 

The  steep  and  toilsome  way.    There  as  thoustand'st, 

The  haunts  of  men  below  thee,  and  above 

The  mountain  summits,  thy  expanded  heart 

Shall  fesl  a  kindred  with  that  loftier  world 

To  which  thou  art  translated,  and  partake 

The  enlarjemetit  of  thy  vision.     Thou  shall  loofc 

Up-m  the  green  and  rolling  forest  tops, 

And  down  into  the  secrets  of  the  glen 

And  streams  that  with  their  bordering  thickets  strive  Over  the  dizzy  depth,  and  hear  the  sound 

To  hide  their  windings.    Thou  shalt  gaze  at  once 

Here  on  white  villages,  and  tilth  and  herds, 

And  swarming  roads,  and  there  on  solitudes, 

That  only  hear  the  torrent  and  the  wind 

And  eagle's  shriek.     There  is  a  precipice 

That  seems  a  fragment  of  some  mighty  wall 

Built  by  the  hand  that  fashioned  the  old  world 

To  separate  its  nations,  and  thrown  down 

When  the  flood  drowned  them.     To  the  north  a  path 

Conducts  you  up  the  narrow  battlement. 

Steep  is  the  western  side,  shaggy  and  wild, 

With  mossy  trees  and  pinnacles  of  flint, 

And  many  a  hanging  crag.     But  to  the  east 

S  ieer  to  the  vale  go  down  the  bare  old  cliflfe,  — 

Huge  pillars,  that  in  middle  heaven  uprear; 

Their  weather-beaten  capitals  here  dark 

With  the  thick  moss  of  centuries,  and  there 

Of  chalky  whiteness,  where  the  thunderbolt 

Has  splinter'd  them.     It  is  a  fearful  thing 

To  stand  upon  a  beetling  verge  and  see 

Where  storms  and  lightning  from  the  huge  gray  wall 

Have  tumbled  down  vast  blocks,  and  at  the  base 

Dashed  them  in  fragments,  and  to  lay  thine  ear 

Of  winds,  that  struggle  with  the  woods  below, 

Come  up  like  ocean  murmurs.     But  the  scene 

Is  lovely  round  ;  a  beautiful  river  there 

Wanders  amid  the  fresh  and  fertile  meads, 

The  paradise  he  made  unto  himself, 

Mining  the  soil  for  ages.     On  each  side 

The  fields  swell  upward  to  the  hills;  beyond, 

Above  the  hill,  in  the  blue  distance,  rise 

The  mighty  columns  with  which  earth  props  heaven. 

That  there  were  anciently  Indian  settlements  in  this  town,  is  evident  from  various 
circumstances.  In  addition  to  utensils  and  weapons  of  Indian  manufacture,  which 
have  been  often  found,  it  is  known  that,  as  early  as  1726,  the  river  used  to  be  crossed 
half  a  mile  below  the  bridge,  at  what  was  then  called  the  "  Great  Wigwam."  This 
place  was  sometimes  called  the  "  Castle,"  or  rather,  perhaps,  the  great  wigwam  stand- 
ing upon  it.  There  is  also  a  tradition  that  there  was  a  considerable  Indian  settlement 
at  this  spot.  Indian  graves  have  also  been  found  three  fourths  of  a  mile  above  the 
bridge,  on  the  east  side  of  the  river.  One  man,  in  digging  thirteen  post-holes  to  secure 
his  barn-yard,  discovered  the  remains  of  six  bodies. 

This  settlement  must  have  been  abandoned  before  the  autumn  of  1734  ;  for  at  that 
time  there  were  no  Indians  in  the  county,  except  at  Stockbridge  and  Sheffield,  and 
perhaps  a  family  or  two  in  New  Marlborough.  But  in  the  two  winters  following,  the 


Indians  were  collected  from  Stockbridge  and  Sheffield,  somewhere  in  this  town,  for  the 
purpose  of  receiving  instruction  more  conveniently  from  the  missionary  and  school- 
master sent  among  them,  previous  to  the  final  establishment  of  the  mission  in  Stock- 
bridge.  They  may  have  been  collected  at  the  Great  Wigwam,  but  were  probably 
further  north. 

The  following  circumstance  is  related  by  Dr.  Dwight  as  having 
occurred  at  the  great  bridge  in  this  town.  It  is  too  remarkable 
not  to  be  introduced  here. 

"  A  Mr.  Van  Rensselaer,  a  young  gentleman  from  Albany,  came  one  evening  info 
an  inn,  kept  by  a  Mr.  Root,  just  at  the  eastern  end  of  the  bridge.  The  inn-keeper, 
who  knew  him,  asked  him  where  he  had  crossed  the  river.  He  answered,  '  On  tne 
bridge.'  Mr.  Root  replied,  that  that  was  impossible,  because  it  had  been  raised  that 
very  day,  and  that  not  a  plank  had  been  laid  on  it.  Mr.  Van  Rensselaer  said  that  it 
could  not  be  true,  because  his  horse  had  come  over  without  any  difficulty  or  reluctance  ; 
that  the  night  was  indeed  so  profoundly  dark  as  to  prevent  him  from  seeing  anything 
distinctly  ;  but  that  it  was  incredible,  if  his  horse  could  see  sufficiently  well  to  keep  his 
footing  anywhere,  that  he  should  not  discern  the  danger,  and  impossible  for  him  to 
pass  over  the  bridge  in  that  condition.  Each  went  to  bed  dissatisfied,  neither  believ- 
ing the  story  of  the  other.  In  the  morning,  Mr.  Van  Rensselaer  went,  at  the  solicita- 
tion of  his  host,  to  view  the  bridge,  and,  finding  it  a  naked  frame,  gazed  for  a  moment 
with  astonishment,  and  fainted." 


THE  first  and  principal  grant  in  this  town  was  made  by  the 
legislature,  in  1760,  to  Asa  Douglass,  Esq.,  and  Timothy  Hurl- 
burt,  of  Canaan,  Con.,  Col.  John^Ashley  of  Sheffield,  and  Josiah 
Dean.  The  first  grantee  became  a  settler  in  April  1762,  with 
whom  were  soon  associated  John  Clothier,  Jesse  Squire,  Amasa 
and  Martin  Johnson,  Benjamin  Davis,  Samuel  Grippen,  David 
Sprague,  Samuel  Hand,  Esq.,  Capt.  Caleb  Gardner,  David 
Vaughan,  Reuben  Ely,  Henry  Hazard  and  Jonathan  Hazard,  Esq. 
They  were  mostly  from  Connecticut  and  Rhode  Island,  and  settled 
about  the  north  village,  and  northward  towards  Williamstown. 

In  1761,  Charles  Goodrich,  Esq.,  of  Pittsfield,  obtained  a  grant  of  land  on  the  south 
end  of  the  town,  and  in  1764  his  nephew  Daniel  Goodrich  settled  upon  it;  and  the 
following  year  Benjamin  Goodrich,  the  father  of  Daniel,  settled  there,  with  all  his  other 
sons,  viz.  Benjamin,  Samuel,  Nathan,  David,  Ezekiel,  Isaiah,  Hezekiah,  Jeremiah, 
and  Enoch.  Jeremiah  and  Hezekiah  Osborn,  father  and  son,  and  Israel  Talcot,  settled 
there  about  the  same  time  The  Goodriches  and  Osborns  were  from  Ridgfield — Talcot 
from  Wethersfield,  Con.  Soon  after  the  grant  to  Charles  Goodrich,  small  grants 
were  made  in  the  north  part  of  the  town  to  Dea.  Samuel  Brown,  of  Stockbridge,  and 
Col.  Farrington.  The  remainder  of  the  town  was  sold  by  a  committee  of  the  general 
court  to  the  actual  settlers  in  1789,  at  different  prices  per  acre,  according  to  the  quality. 
The  place  was  first  called  Jericho,  on  account  of  the  high  natural  walls  on  each  side, 
that  is,  the  mountains.  At  the  time  of  its  incorporation  in  1776,  it  was  named  Hancock 
in  honor  of  John  Hancock,  then  president  of  the  continental  congress,  and  afterwards 
governor  of  the  state.  The  township  is  nearly  16  miles  in  length,  and  about  t\vo  in 
breadth.  It  was  formerly  wider,  but  when  the  line  was  finally  established  between 
Massachusetts  and  New' York,  in  1787,  a  tier  of  fine  lots,  upward  of  half  a  mile  in 
length,  were  thrown  into  the  latter  state.  A  narrow  valley  extends  south  about  1 
miles  from  the  line  of  Williamstown  to  the  north  village  of  Hancock,  along  which  is  a 
succession  of  good  farms  extending  from  the  valley  to  the  right  and  left  on  to  the  sides 
of  the  mountains.  For  several  miles  south  from  this  village,  the  township  is  so 
broken  and  mountainous  that  no  highway  has  been  cut  through  it. 

The  Shakers  have  a  village  in  the  south-east  part  of  the  town, 



which  extends  into  the  edge  of  Pittsfield.  They  sprung  up  in  this 
town  about  1780.  Some  persons  about  that  time  began  to  visit 
mother  Ann  and  the  elders  at  Escuania,  near  Albany.  Approv- 
ing of  the  tenents  of  the  Shakers,  they  immediately  set  up  their 
meetings  according  to  the  customs  of  that  sect.  They  built  their 
meeting-house  in  1784. 

Shaker  Village  in  Hancock. 

The  above  is  a  view  of  some  of  the  principal  buildings  in  the 
Shaker  village,  which  is  4  miles  from  Pittsfield,  7  from  Lenox, 
and  5  from  New  Lebanon  Springs.  The  large  three-story  build- 
ing seen  in  the  central  part  of  the  engraving  is  constructed  of 
brick,  is  102  feet  long,  and  53  feet  wide.  There  are  six  families, 
as  they  are  termed,  in  the  settlement,  containing  in  the  whole 
about  130  or  40  persons.  The  circular  stone  barn  seen  in  the 
engraving  in  distance,  a  short  distance  southerly  from  the  three- 
story  building,  was  built  in  1826,  and  is  something  of  a  curiosity. 
"  It  is  270  feet  in  compass,  with  walls  laid  in  lime,  rising  21  feet 
above  the  underpinning,  and  from  three  and  a  half  to  two  and  a  half 
feet  in  thickness.  The  mast  and  rafters  are  53  feet  in  length,  and 
united  together  at  the  top.  On  the  lower  floor,  immediately  with- 
in the  walls,  are  stables,  8  feet  high,  occupying  12  feet  in  length, 
with  the  manger,  which  is  inwards,  and  into  which  convenient 
places  are  left  for  throwing  hay  and  feed  from  above.  In  these 
stables,  which  open  to  and  from  several  yards,  a  span  of  horses  and 
52  horned  cattle  may  be  stabled.  The  covering  of  the  stables  forms 
the  barn  floor,  on  to  which  from  an  offset  there  is  but  one  large 
doorway  for  teams,  which  make  the  circuit  of  the  floor,  and  pass 
out  at  the  same  place.  Eight  or  ten  can  occupy  the  floor  at  the 
same  time ;  and  the  hay  is  thrown  into  the  large  area  in  the  center. 
For  simply  laying  the  stone  of  this  building  the  masons  were  paid 
500  dollars  and  boarded." 

Most  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  have  ever  been  of  the  Bap- 
tist denomination.  A  congregation  was  early  formed,  which  held 

H  I  N  S  D  A  L  E  .  75 

their  meetings  for  a  time  in  a  log  house  about  a  mile  and  a  quar- 
ter above  the  north  village.  Their  present  meeting-house  was 
built  in  1797.  Elder  Clark  Rogers,  from  R.  L,  was  their  first 
minister,  and  was  settled  over  them  in  about  1770.  The  town  is 
15  miles  N.  by  W.  of  Lenox,  and  129  W.  of  Boston.  Population, 
975.  Agriculture  is  the  principal  business  of  the  inhabitants. 


THE  settlement  of  this  town  was  commenced  about  the  close  of 
the  second  French  war,  probably  in  the  year  1762.  The  first  who 
settled  in  the  town  were  Francis,  David,  and  Thomas  Miller, 
brothers,  from  Middlebury.  Francis  Miller  was  a  man  of  conside- 
rable note.  He  was  employed  as  a  surveyor  by  the  government, 
and  surveyed  the  road  from  Boston  to  Albany,  and  run  the  line 
between  Massachusetts  and  New  York.  Other  of  the  first  settlers 
were  Nathan  and  Wilson  Torrey,  from  Rhode  Island,  and  Joseph 
Watkins  and  5  sons  from  Hopkinton.  About  1771,  Nathan  Fisk, 
who  was  among  the  first  settlers,  built  a  grist  and  saw  mill,  for 
which  he  received  a  premium  from  the  government  of  250  acres 
of  land.  In  1774  and  75  Nathaniel  Tracy,  Abner  Bixbe,  James 
Wing,  and  two  families  by  the  name  of  Frost,  settled  in  the  town. 
In  1781  Richard  Starr,  from  Groton,  Con.,  came  into  the  town,  and 
was  of  great  service  to  the  religious  interests  of  the  people. 

This  town  originally  belonged  to  Peru  on  the  east  and  Dalton  on 
the  west.  In  1795  they  were  incorporated  as  a  parish,  by  the  name 
of  the  west  parish  of  Partridgefield  (now  Peru),  and  in  1804  they 
were  invested  with  town  privileges  and  incorporated  by  the  name 
of  Hinsdale.  In  the  year  first  mentioned  the  Rev.  Theodore  Hins- 
dale,  after  whom  the  town  was  named,  (came  from  Windsor,  Con.) 
and  settled  in  the  part  of  the  town  which  then  belonged  to  Dalton, 
and  was  very  active,  in  connection  with  Dea.  Starr,  in  gathering 
and  organizing  a  Congregational  church.  This  church  was 
formed  in  Dec.  of  that  year,  consisting  of  23  members.  In 
1797  a  Baptist  church  was  formed,  of  which  Elder  Eleazer  Smith 
was  the  first  minister.  They  have  a  meeting-house,  built  in  1818. 
There  are  3  churches  in  the  center  of  the  town,  1  Congregational, 
1  Baptist,  and  1  Methodist. 

This  township  is  situated  on  the  west  side  of  the  Green  moun- 
tain rang*},  and  is  7  miles  in  length,  and  from  3  to  4  in  breadth. 
It  is  15  miles  N.  N.  E.  of  Lenox  and  124  W.  of  Boston.  Population 
832.  In  1837  there  were  2  woollen  mills,  which  consumed  57,000 
Ibs.  of  wool ;  25,000  yards  of  cloth  were  manufactured,  valued  at 
$74,000.  There  were  2,000  Saxony  and  8,920  merino  sheep,  and 
the  value  of  the  wool  produced  in  the  town  was  $19,266. 



Southern  view  of  Lanvsbvfough. 

IN  January,  1741,  Samuel  Jackson,  with  seventy-five  others, 
inhabitants  of  Framingham,  Middlesex  Co.,  petitioned  the  general 
court  to  grant  them  a  tract  of  wilderness  land,  situated  near  an 
Indian  town  on  the  Housatonic  river.  The  grant  was  made,  and 
they  were  authorized  to  survey  and  locate  a  township,  which  was 
done  the  same  year.  The  settlement  was  commenced  about  1754 
or  5,  by  Capt.  Samuel  Martin  and  two  other  families,  which  were 
driven  off  by  the  Indians  in  the  second  French  war.  Of  these, 
Capt.  Martin  was  the  only  one  who  returned.  Among  the  earliest 
settlers  were  Nathaniel  Williams,  Samuel  Tyrrell,  John,  Ephraim, 
Elijah  and  Miles  Powel  (brothers),  Lieut.  Andrew  Squier,  James 
Loomis  and  Ambrose  Hall,  William  Bradley,  James  Goodrich, 
Thaddeus  Curtiss,  Ebenezer  Squier,  Benjamin  and  Joseph  Farnum. 
They  all  settled  here  as  early  as  1760.  A  fort  was  built  for  the 
protection  of  the  settlement  from  Indian  assaults.  On  the  approach 
of  the  Indians,  on  one  occasion,  the  settlers  fled  to  Pittsfield.  A 
scout  was  sent  after  them  from  Massachusetts  fort,  who,  following 
tracks  which  they  found,  discovered  two  Indian  chiefs,  who  were 
stooping  down,  tying  their  moccasons.  Each  of  the  scouts  selected 
one,  and  both  chiefs  were  killed  on  the  spot.  The  scouts  escaped 
to  the  fort,  though  closely  pursued  by  the  Indians.  A  party 
shortly  after  set  out  from  the  fort  in  search  of  the  bodies  of  the 
slain  chiefs,  who  found  them  buried  in  their  war  costume.  The 
town  was  incorporated  on  the  20th  of  June,  1765,  and  then  com- 
prehended a  large  part  of  the  present  town  of  Cheshire.  The  pre- 
sent length  of  the  town  is  6  miles,  and  the  average  breadth  about 
5  miles.  There  are  beds  of  iron  ore  in  the  town,  and  several 
extensive  quarries  of  valuable  marble. 

The  above  shows  the  appearance  of  the  village  of  Lanesborough 
as  it  is  entered  from  the  south.  It  is  situated  on  the  eastern  side 

LEE.  77 

of  a  branch  of  the  Housatonic,  which  passes  through  the  central 
part  of  the  town,  and  runs  through  Lanesborough  Pond,  which  lies 
partly  in  this  town  and  Pittsfield.  The  meadows  on  this  stream 
are  luxuriant  and  beautiful.  There  are  3  churches :  1  Congrega- 
tional, 1  Baptist,  and  1  Episcopal.  The  Congregational  church  is 
the  one  seen  in  the  central  part  of  the  engraving ;  the  Baptist  is 
the  one  standing  a  little  south.  The  Episcopal  church,  a  Gothic 
building,  stands  about  three  fourths  of  a  mile  northward. 

The  Congregational  church  in  this  town  was  organized  March 
28th,  1764,  by  Rev.  Samuel  Hopkins,  of  Great  Barrington,  and 
Rev.  Stephen  West,  of  Stockbridge.  It  consisted  at  first  of  eight 
members.  Their  first  pastor,  Rev.  Daniel  Collins,  was  ordained 
April  17,  1764.  He  was  a  native  of  Guilford,  Con.,  and  a  gra- 
duate of  Yale  College  in  1760.  The  Episcopal  church  (called  St. 
Luke's  church)  was  instituted  by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Andrews,  of 
Wallingford,  Con.,  Oct.  2, 1767,  and  their  first  house  of  worship  was 
built  in  1783.  The  Baptist  church  was  formed  in  1818,  with  12 
members.  Elder  Augustus  C.  Beach  was  their  minister.  Their 
meeting-house  was  built  in  1828.  This  town  is  11  miles  N.  of 
Lenox,  and  125  W.  by  N.  of  Boston.  Number  of  inhabitants,  1,090. 
The  following  is  from  the  "Statistical  Tables,"  1837,  published  by 
the  state:  "Saxony  sheep,  7,814;  merino  sheep,  4.235;  other 
kinds  of  sheep,  284 ;  Saxony  woo]  produced,  28,193  pounds ;  merino 
wool,  13,510  pounds;  other  kinds  of  wool,  786  pounds;  average 
weight  of  fleece,  3  pounds ;  value  of  wool,  $26,100;  capital  invested. 


THIS  town  was  incorporated  in  the  year  1777.  The  eastern  par! 
was  taken  from  the  town  of  Washington,  called  Hartwood ;  thf 
south-western,  called  Hopland,  was  taken  from  Great  Barrington ; 
the  remainder  was  made  up  of  certain  provincial  grants,  as  Glass- 
works grant,  Williams  grant.  &c.  The  town  was  named  in  honor 
of  General  Lee,  then  an  active  officer  in  the  army  of  the  Revolu- 
tion. The  first  white  man  who  settled  in  the  town  was  Mr.  Isaac 
Davif,,  in  the  year  1760,  in  quite  the  south  part  of  the  town,  on  the 
side  of  Hop  brook.  Most  of  the  early  inhabitants  were  from  Tol- 
land,  in  Con.,  and  from  Barnstable,  Sandwich,  Falmouth,  and 
Great  Barrington,  in  Mass.  One  of  the  first  settlers,  Mr.  Jesse 
Bradley,  came  from  .New  Haven,  Con.,  another,  Mr.  Jonathan 
Foot,  from  Colchester.  The  Congregational  church  in  this  town 
was  organized  on  the  25th  of  May,  1780,  by  the  Rev.  Daniel  Col- 
lins, of  Lanesborough,  consisting  of  30  members.  For  the  basis 
of  their  union,  they  adopted  the  same  confession  of  faith  which  is 
acknowledged  by  the  church  at  the  present  time.  On  the  3d  of 
July,  1783,  Mr.  Elisha  Parmelee,  of  Goshen,  Con.,  a  graduate  of 
Harvard  College,  was  ordained  their  pastor. 

78  LEE. 

The  township  is  6  miles  in  length  and  5  in  breadth,  and  pre- 
sents a  very  diversified  appearance.  It  embraces  a  part  of  the 
interval  which  lies  between  the  Taconic  and  Green  mountain 
ranges.  The  Green  mountain  range  runs  partly  within  the  eastern 
limits  of  the  town,  and  presents  much  picturesque  scenery.  These 
mountains  are,  for  the  most  part,  of  gentle  acclivity,  and  in  some 
places  are  cultivated  quite  to  their  summits.  From  the  base 
of  these  mountains  the  surface  is  uneven,  but,  upon  the  whole, 
descending,  until  we  reach  the  plain  on  the  banks  of  the  Housa- 
tonic.  In  this  town  is  good  marble  and  iron  ore.  This  town  is 
5  miles  S.  E.  of  Lenox,  and  120  W.  of  Boston.  Population  2,095 

South-western  view  of  Lee,  (central  part). 

The  above  shows  the  appearance  of  the  central  part  of  the  prin- 
cipal village  in  Lee,  as  seen  from  the  heights  a  few  rods  from  the 
Stockbridge  road.  The  principal  part  of  the  village  is  on  the  east 
side  of  the  Housatonic,  surrounded  by  lofty  hills  and  mountains. 
South  Lee  is  about  three  miles  south-west  from  this  place,  near  the 
Stockbridge  line :  it  is  much  smaller  than  the  central  village,  con- 
taining a  number  of  paper-mills,  a  church,  and  about  thirty 
dwelling-houses.  In  1837,  there  were  12  paper-mills  in  the  limits 
of  the  town,  which  manufactured  1,200  tons  of  stock,  producing 
paper  to  the  value  of  $274,500.  There  was  also  a  woollen  mill, 
cotton  mill,  and  forge  for  manufacturing  bar  iron.  The  first  paper- 
mill  in  the  town  was  built  by  Mr.  Samuel  Church,  in  South  Lee, 
about  thirty  years  since. 

In-  September,  1824,  a  scene  of  most  appalling  desolation  was  exhibited  in  this  town. 
It  was  the  explosion  of  an  extensive  powder  factory,  owned  by  Messrs.  Laflin,  Loomis 
&  Co.  At  the  time,  it  was  estimated  that  there  were  about  5  tons  of  powder  in  the 
different  buildings.  On  a  very  pleasant  morning,  when  the  workmen  thought  all 
things  were  going  on  securely,  in  a  moment  every  building  was  razed  from  its  foun- 
dation with  a  tremendous  explosion.  Three  of  the  unfortunate  workmen  were 
instantly  killed,  and  a  fourth,  who  was  thrown  into  the  river,  lingered  for  a  short 
time,  till  death,  like  a  friend,  relieved  him  from  his  pains.  Every  house  and  building 
in  the  neighborhood  was  more  or  less  injured,  and  every  breast  was  shocked.  Such 

LENOX.  79 

was  the  consternation  produced  in  the  minds  of  the  inhabitants,  that  they  universally 
protested  against  the  rebuilding,  and.  the  feelings  of  the  proprietors  coinciding,  thi» 
site  and  water  privilege  were  soon  after  sold;  and  an  extensive  paper-mill  erected. 


THE  Indian  name  of  the  greater  part  of  the  tract  embraced  in  this 
township  was  Yoknn,  so  called  after  an  Indian  sagamore  of  that 
name.  Some  small  individual  grants  united ;  the  town  was  incor- 
porated in  1767,  and  called  Lenox,  (the  family  name  of  the  Duke 
of  Richmond).  Its  length  is  about  6  miles,  and  its  mean  breadth 
4.  The  first  English  inhabitant  of  this  town  was  Mr.  Jonathan 
Hinsdale,  from  Hartford,  Con.  He  moved  into  the  place  in  1750, 
and  built  a  small  dwelling  about  50  rods  south  of  Court-house  hill, 
on  the  east  side  of  the  county  road.  A  Mr.  Dickinson  soon  after 
built  a  house  just  north  of  Mr.  Hinsdale.  In  1755,  these,  with 
some  other  families  who  had  settled  in  the  vicinity  and  in  Pitts- 
field,  removed  to  Stockbridge,  through  fear  of  the  Indians,  who 
were  instigated  to  hostilities  by  the  French  in  Canada.  While  the 
few  families  north  of  Stockbridge  were  hastening  to  that  place  for 
safety,  a  man  by  the  name  of  Stephens,  while  passing  a  ledge  of 
rocks  in  the  south  part  of  the  town,  was  shot  by  the  Indians,  and 
fell  dead  from  his  horse.  The  horse  was  also  killed,  but  a  young 
woman  by  the  name  of  Percy,  who  was  on  the  horse  with  Mr. 
Stephens,  by  the  aid  of  Mr.  Hinsdale,  escaped  unhurt.  Among  the 
first  permanent  settlers  were  Jacob  Bacon,  Messrs.  Hunt,  McCoy, 
Gleason,  Steel,  Waterman,  Root,  Dewy,  Miller,  Whitlocke,  Parker, 
Richard,  Collins,  Treat,  Andrus,  Wright,  and  others.  A  majority 
of  the  familes  who  first  settled  in  the  town,  moved  from  West 
Hartford  and  Wallingford,  Con.  The  first  town  officers  were 
chosen  March  5,  1767.  The  inhabitants  about  this  time  began  to 
make  preparation  for  the  organization  of  a  church  and  the  settle- 
ment of  a  minister.  The  church  was  formed  in  1769,  by  the  Rev. 
Samuel  Hopkins,  then  of  Great  Harrington.  Rev.  Samuel  Munson, 
of  New  Haven,  a  graduate  of  Yale  College,  was  ordained  pastor 
November  8,  1770.  Soon  after  his  settlement,  a  house  for  public 
worship  was  erected  near  the  place  where  the  present  Congrega- 
tional meeting-house  is  located,  and  was  occupied  till  Jan.  1, 1806, 
when  the  present  one  was  dedicated.  The  first  burying-ground 
was  more  than  a  mile  north  of  the  village,  and  west  of  the  county 
road.  Soon  after  the  first  meeting-house  was  built,  a  piece  of 
ground  near  it  was  marked  out  for  a  grave-yard.  It  has  since 
been  enlarged,  and  is  now  the  principal  burying-place  in  the  town. 
The  land  on  which  the  meeting-house  stands,  and  for  the  burying- 
ground,  was  given  to  the  society  by  a  Mr.  Reynolds.  Mr.  Mun- 
son was  a  man  of  good  abilities,  of  ardent  piety,  sound  in  the  faith, 
and  zealous  in  promoting  the  cause  of  religion,  but  he  lived  in 
times  of  trouble.  The  revolutionary  war  occasioned  very  bitter 
animosities  among  the  people ;  and,  subsequently,  what  is  called 



the  Shays'  insurrection  was  productive  of  much  evil  in  the  town. 
There  has  been  an  incorporated  Episcopal  society  in  the  town 
since  1805.  They  have  a  handsome  church,  standing  a  few  rods 
east  of  the  court-house.  There  are  also  in  this  town  a  few  fami- 
lies of  the  Baptist  and  Methodist  denominations.  Lenox  academy 
was  incorporated  in  1803.  At  the  time  of  the  incorporation,  tjie 
legislature  made  to  it  the  grant  of  half  a  township  of  land  in  the 
state  of  Maine,  which  at  that  time  belonged  to  Massachusetts. 
This  land,  for  a  number  of  years,  was  wholly  unproductive,  but  it 
was  sold  a  few  years  since,  and  produced  a  respectable  fund, 
the  avails  of  which  are  appropriated  to  the  support  of  the  institu- 

Lenox  is  the  shire  town  of  Berkshire  county.  It  is  situated 
130  miles  W.  of  Boston,  6  S.  of  Pittsfield,  42  from  Springfield,  56 
from  Hartford,  30  from  Hudson,  and  34  from  Albany.  Popula- 
tion, 1,275.  The  judicial  courts  have  been  held  here  since  1787. 

Northern  view  of  Lenox. 

The  above  is  a  representation  of  Lenox  village,  as  it  is  seen  from 
near  the  Congregational  church,  which  is  situated  on  an  eminence 
at  the  northern  extremity  of  the  village.  On  this  spot  the  observer 
has  a  fine  prospect  of  the  village ;  beyond  which,  are  seen  various 
ranges  of  lofty  hills  and  mountains,  and,  far  in  the  distance,  is 
seen,  towering  above  all  others,  the  lofty  summit  of  Mount  Wash  • 
ington.  The  village  is  uncommonly  beautiful  in  its  situation  and 
general  appearance :  it  consists  of  about  forty  dwelling-houses,  3 
churches,  (1  Congregational,  1  Episcopal,  and  1  Methodist,)  a 
court-house  constructed  of  brick,  in  a  handsome  style  of  architec- 
ture, a  hotel,  academy,  printing-office,  and  other  public  buildings. 
The  refined  state  of  society  in  this  place,  the  fine  mountain  air 
and  scenery,  and  the  superior  accommodations  at  the  hotel  now 
kept  by  Mr.  Wilson,  all  render  Lenox  a  most  desirable  place  of 
resort  during  the  warm  season  of  the  year. 



The  following,  termed  "  the  Covenant  signed  hi  Lenox,  1774," 
was,  by  a  unanimous  vote  of  the  town,  in  1828,  ordered  to  be  put 
upon  the  town  records,  "  at  the  special  request  of  Hon.  William 
Walker  and  Col.  Elijah  Northrup,  the  only  persons  now  living  in 
the  town  whose  names  are  in  the  following  list." 

Whereas  the  Parliament  of  Great  Britain  have  of  late  undertaken  to  give  and  grant 
away  our  money,  without  our  knowledge  or  consent,  and,  in  order  to  compel  us  to  a 
servile  submission  to  the  above  measures,  have  proceeded  to  block  up  the  harbor  of 
Boston  ;  also  have  or  are  about  to  vacate  the  charter  and  repeal  certain  laws  of  this 
province,  heretofore  enacted  by  the  General  Court,  and  confirmed  to  us  by  the  king 
and  his  predecessors :  therefore,  as  a  means  to  obtain  a  speedy  redress  of  the  above 
grievances,  we  do  solemnly  and  in  good  faith  covenant  and  engage  with  each  other, — 

1st.  That  we  will  not  import,  purchase,  or  consume,  or  suffer  any  person  for,  by, 
or  under  us,  to  import,  purchase,  or  consume  in  any  manner  whatever,  any  goods, 
wares,  or  manufactures  which  shall  arrive  in  America  from  Great  Britain,  from  and 
after  the  first  day  of  October  next,  or  such  other  time  as  shall  be  agreed  upon  by  the 
American  Congress;  nor  any  goods  which  shall  be  ordered  from  thence  from  and 
after  this  day,  until  our  charter  and  constitutional  rights  shall  be  restored,  or  until  it 
shall  be  determined  by  the  major  part  of  our  brethren  in  this  and  the  neighboring 
colonies,  that  a  non-importation  or  non-consumption  agreement  will  not  have  a  ten- 
dency to  effect  the  desired  end,  or  until  it  shall  be  apparent  that  a  non-importation  or 
non-consumption  agreement  will  not  be  entered  into  by  the  majority  of  this  and  the 
neighboring  colonies,  except  such  articles  as  the  said  General  Congress  of  North  Ame- 
rica shall  advise  to  import  and  consume. 

2dly.  We  do  further  covenant  and  agree,  that  we  will  observe  the  most  strict  obe- 
dience to  all  constitutional  laws  and  authority,  and  will  at  all  times  exert  ourselves 
to  the  utmost  for  the  discouragement  of  all  licentiousness,  and  suppressing  all  disor- 
derly mobs  and  riots. 

3dly.  We  will  exert  ourselves,  as  far  as  within  us  lies,  in  promoting  peace,  love, 
and  unanimity  among  each  other,  and  for  that  end  we  engage  to  avoid  all  unnecessary 
lawsuits  whatever. 

4thly.  As  a  strict  and  proper  adherence  to  the  non-importation  and  non-consump- 
tion agreement  will,  if  not  seasonably  provided  against,  involve  us  in  many  difficulties 
and  inconveniences,  we  do  promise  and  agree,  that  we  will  take  the  most  prudent  care 
for  the  raising  of  sheep,  and  for  the  manufacturing  all  such  cloths  as  shall  be  most 
useful  and  necessary,  and  also  for  the  raising  of  flax,  and  the  manufacturing  of  linen  , 
further,  that  we  will,  by  every  prudent  method,  endeavor  to  guard  against  all  those 
inconveniences  which  might  otherwise  arise  from  the  foregoing  agreement. 

5thly.  That  if  any  person  shall  refuse  to  sign  this  or  a  similar  covenant,  or,  after 
having  signed  it,  shall  not  adhere  to  the  real  intent  and  meaning  thereof,  he  or  they 
shall  be  treated  by  us  with  all  the  neglect  they  shall  justly  deserve,  particularly  by 
omitting  all  commercial  dealing  with  them. 

6thly.  That  if  this  or  a  similar  covenant  shall,  after  the  first  day  of  August  next, 
be  offered  to  any  trader  or  shopkeeper,  in  this  county,  and  he  or  they  shall  refuse  to 
sign  the  same,  for  the  space  of  forty-eight  hours,  that  we  will,  from  thenceforth,  pur- 
chase no  article  of  British  manufacture  or  East  India  goods  from  him  or  them,  until 
such  time  as  he  or  they  shall  sign  this  or  a  similar  covenant. 

Witness  our  hands,  dated  at  Lenox,  this  14th  dayof  July,  A.  D.  1774. 

Israel  Dibbell,  Isaiah  Smith,  jr.,  Timothy  Cruttenden,  Reuben  Root, 

Samuel  Guthrie,  Samuel  Northrup,  Isaiah  Smith,  Elijah  Northrup, 

Lazarus  Hollister,  David  Clark,  Titus  Curtiss,  Samuel  JVIimson, 

Moses  Miller,  Joel  Goodrich,  Thomas  Tracy,  David  Clark,  jr., 

Bildad  Clark,  Joseph  Hollister,  Enos  Curtiss,  Eleazer  Barret, 

Jared  Ingersol,  Isaac  Bateman,  Joseph  Dwight,  Rufus  Branch, 

Elisha  Pangs,  John  Root,  Rozel  Ballard,  Solomon  Hollister, 

Moses  Wood,  Prosper  ,  Joel  Blin,  Job  St.  Leonard, 

John  Adams,  Timothy  Steel,  Moses  Hyde,  Uriah  Cross, 

Amos  Stanley,  Noah  Yale,  Charles  Mattoon,  Thomas  Gates, 

Timothy  Way,  Mathias  Hall,  Jehiel  Hollister,  Samuel  Jerome, 

Jcdidiah  Cruttenden,  Silas  Blin,  James  Richards,  Thomas  Benedict, 

Jrsse  Hollister,  Paul  Dewy,  Ephraim  Cary,  Charles  Dibbell, 


Thomas  Steel, 

Elias  Willard,  jr., 

Ebenezer  Turrill, 

Gershom  Martindaie, 

Oliver  Beldin, 

Matthew  Miller, 

David  Root, 

Titus  Parker, 

Caleb  Hyde, 

Ashley  Goodrich, 

Jacob  St.  John, 

Ashbel  Treat, 

John  Patersom, 

Reuben  Sheldon, 

Daniel  Keeler, 

John  Treat, 

Ephraim  Smith, 

James  Guthrie, 

Stephen  Cruttenden, 

James  Richards,  jr.,* 

Edward  Gray, 

Jonathan  Foster, 

David  Hinsdell, 

Stephen  Titus, 

Elias  Willard, 

William  Walker, 

Gorden  Hollister, 

Asa  Bacon, 

Allen  Goodrich, 

Samuel  Whedon, 

Amos  Benton, 

Hopson  Beebe, 

Alexander  Mackay, 

Jonathan  Hinsdale, 

Ephraim  Hollister, 

Caleb  Culver, 

Thomas  Landers, 

William  Martindale, 

Samuel  Wright, 

Samuel  Pond, 

Abraham  Northrup, 

Simon  Willard, 

Jeremiah  Hull, 

Elisha  Osborn, 

Thomas  Bateman, 

Caleb  Bull, 

Nehemiah  Tracy, 

David  Perry, 

William  Maltby, 

Samuel  Bement, 

John  Gray, 

Enos  Stone.} 

Luther  Bateman, 

Lemuel  Collens, 

Samuel  Goodrich, 

Israel  Dewey, 

Thomas  Foster, 

Zenas  Goodrich, 


As  early  as  1753  or  4,  a  few  families  moved  into  the  town. 
George  Robinson,  Joseph  Graves,  Thomas  Wolcott,  and  John  Dib- 
ble, were  among  the  first  settlers.  In  1757,  the  Indian  right  to  the 
land,  whatever  it  might  have  been,  after  the  sale  of  the  two  Hou- 
satonic  townships,  was  purchased  for  £15.  Soon  after  this,  John 
Dibble,  John  King,  Nathan  Benjamine,  Peter  Wooden,  Benjamin 
Osborn,  Charles  Paterson,  and  others,  petitioned  the  legislature  to 
grant  them  a  township  here ;  and  in  1760  the  township  was  actu- 
ally surveyed,  under  the  direction  of  the  legislature,  into  50  lots, 
though  the  grant  prayed  for  was  not  made  until  1774.  The  town 
was  incorporated  in  1779.  The  form  of  the  township  is  irregular ; 
its  length  is  about  six  miles,  and  its  average  breadth  three  and  a 
half.  It  was  formerly  called  Tagonic  or  Taconic  Mountain.  Its 
surface  is  uneven,  and  is  very  elevated,  the  center  being  nearly 
2,000  feet  above  the  neighboring  towns,  while  a  mountain  ridge 
around  this  center  rises  nearly  1,000  feet  higher.  This  ridge  con- 
sists mostly  of  broken  ledges  of  rocks,  and  but  few  trees  of  much 
size  grow  upon  it.  There  is  only  soil  enough  intermingled  with 
the  rocks  to  support  shrubs  from  one  to  four  feet  high.  The 
whortleberry-bush  abounds,  and  the  inhabitants  in  the  vicinity 
resort  to  it  in  the  months  of  August  and  September,  to  gather  the 
fruit.  This  town  is  22  miles  S.  S.  W.  of  Lenox,  and  135  W.  by  S. 
of  Boston.  Population,  377.  In  1835,  it  is  stated  in  the  "  Mas- 
sachusetts Directory,"  that  this  town  "  has  no  minister  of  any 
denomination,  no  doctor,  no  lawyer,  no  postoffice,  and  no  tavern." 
Since  this  period  a  house  of  worship  has  been  erected  in  the  cen- 
tral part  of  the  town. 

*  Mr.  R.  adds  this  to  his  signature :  "  I,  James  Richards,  jr.,  do  sign  the  whole 
of  this  paper,  except  these  words  put  in,  '  particularly  by  omitting  all  commercial 
dealing  with  them  :'  these  words  I  refuse.  J.  R." 

f  One  of  the  first  principal  settlers  of  Rochester,  N.  Y. 



THIS  town  began  to  be  settled  about  1762,  by  emigrants  from  the 
eastern  part  of  the  state,  Rhode  Island,  and  Connecticut.  Among 
the  early  settlers  were  Nathaniel,  Abel,  and  Gideon  Kent,  Uriah, 
Peter,  and  Eli  Mallory,  William  Green,  Jacob  Lyon,  Samuel  Grid- 
ley,  Jonathan  Beach,  Samuel  P.  Tyler,  Abraham  Kirby,  William 
Campbell,  Amariah  Babbit,  Evans  Rice,  Capt.  Martin,  and  a  Mr. 
Mason.  This  place  was  incorporated  as  a  district  Feb.  26,  1781, 
and  enjoyed  all  the  privileges  of  a  town,  except  that  it  could  not  elect 
a  representative  to  the  legislature.  A  small,  neat  house,  for  pub- 
lic worship,  was  erected  here  in  1828,  and  dedicated  in  Jan.,  1829. 
Most  of  the  inhabitants  are  Methodists,  who  enjoy  circuit  preach- 
ing about  half  of  the  time. 

'  This  town  is  about  4  miles  square,  and  is  situated  principally  on 
the  steep  and  rugged  hills  which  make  from  Saddle  mountain  on 
the  east,  and  the  Taconic  range  on  the  west,  and  which  here 
approach  each  other.  In  the  narrow  valley  between  these  hills, 
along  the  rise  of  the  western  branch  of  the  Housatonic  and  the 
eastern  branch  of  Green  river,  are  some  small  tracts  of  more  feasi- 
ble laud.  Valuable  quarries  of  blue  and  white  marble  were  opened 
in  this  town  about  1822,  which  furnish  a  considerable  branch  of 
business.  This  town  is  18  miles  N.  of  Lenox,  and  130  W.  by  N. 
of  Boston.  Population,  253. 


THIS  township  was  originally  called  No.  2,  and  was  granted  in 
1736  to  72  proprietors,  mostly  belonging  to  Marlborough  and  its 
vicinity,  in  the  county  of  Middlesex,  by  "  The  Great  and  General 
Court  or  Assembly  of  his  Majesty's  Province  of  the  Massachusetts 
Bay  in  New  England,  held  at  Boston."  The  proprietors  obtained 
the  township  of  the  Indians  and  took  a  deed,  which  was  confirm- 
ed by  the  general  court.  Among  other  divisions  of  land  into 
which  the  township  was  surveyed,  were  house  lots  consisting  of 
60  acres  each,  to  the  number  of  63,  besides  one  for  each  grantee. 
The  first  improvements  were  made  in  1739,  by  Mr.  Benjamin 
Wheeler,  from  Marlborough.  During  the  hard  winter  of  1739-40, 
he  remained  the  only  white  inhabitant  in  the  town.  The  Indians, 
though  in  most  respects  friendly,  forbade  him  the  use  of  the  gunf 
lest  he  should  kill  the  deer,  and  thus  withheld  from  him  part 
of  the  means  of  his  support.  His  nearest  white  neighbors  were  in 
Sheffield,  a  distance  of  10  miles,  some  of  whom  came  on  snow- 
shoes  to  see  him.  In  the  following  summer  he  visited  Marlborough 
and  returned  with  his  family.  Among  the  other  first  settlers  were 
Noah  Church,  Jabez  Ward,  Thomas  Tatlow,  Elias  Keyes,  Joseph 
Blackmer,  Jesse  Taylor,  John  Taylor,  William  Witt,  Philip 
Brookins  and  Samuel  Bryan,  from  Marlborough  or  the  vicinity,  in 


1741;  Joseph  Adams,  Moses  Cleaveland,  Silas  Freeman,  in  1744; 
and  Charles  Adams,  Solomon  Randsford,  Nathan  Randsford  and 
Jarvis  Pike,  in  1745,  from  Canterbury,  Con.  Families  by  the  name 
of  Sheldon,  Wright  and  Allen,  from  Northampton,  Mass,  and  Shel- 
don, Norton,  and  Harmon,  from  Suffield,  Con.,  moved  in  about  1745, 
and  William  Alexander  and  John  Thompson  the  succeeding  year, 
from  Dedham.  The  first  born  in  town  were  twins,  children  of  Mr. 

The  first  church  in  the  town  was  organized  on  the 31st  of  Oct.  1744,  with  5  members 
On  the  following  day,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Strong,  a  native  of  Northampton  and  graduate 
of  Yale  College,  was  ordained  pastor  of  this  church.  His  salary  was  £50.  The  first 
meeting-house  was  erected  in  1743.  The  expense  of  building  it  was  defrayed  by  the 
proprietors  of  the  town.  The  second  meeting-house  of  this  society  was  built  in  1793 
In  consequence  of  some  disagreement  concerning  the  location  of  this  house,  anothei 
house  was  built  the  same  year,  and  in  1794  the  town  was  divided  by  the  legislature, 
and  a  new  parish,  called  the  south  parish,  incorporated.  On  the  25th  of  April,  1794,  the 
second  or  South  church  was  formed,  of  21  members,  from  the  first  church.  The  first 
pastor  of  this  church,  Rev.  John  Stevens,  a  native  of  Danbury,  Con.,  and  graduate  of 
Yale  College,  was  settled  over  the  society  Oct.  22,  1794.  This  parish  has  a  ministerial 
fund,  obtained  by  subscription  in  1794,  amounting  to  about  $3,150. 

This  town  was  incorporated  in  1759,  is  eight  and  a  half  miles 
in  length  and  5  in  breadth.  The  surface  is  generally  uneven  and 
hilly,  and,  like  most  of  the  more  elevated  towns  in  the  county,  stony ; 
though  at  the  time  of  the  settlement,  the  stones  were  so  deeply 
covered  with  vegetable  mould  that  the  first  inhabitants  are  said  to 
have  expressed  their  fears  that  they  should  not  find  stone  enough 
to  answer  the  purposes  of  building.  Their  fears  were  removed  by 
finding  a  quarry  of  white  stone,  split  by  nature  into  blocks  of  dif- 
ferent sizes  nearly  square,  on  an  elevation  called  Dry  Hill.  In  the 
north-west  part  of  the  town  is  Six-mile  pond,  first  so  called  by  some 
Indians  who  lived  six  miles  distant  from  it  in  Great  Harrington, 
and  who  resorted  to  it,  for  the  purpose  of  fishing.  The  outlet  from 
this  pond  is  called  Konkapot,  from  the  circumstance  that  an  Indian 
family  of  that  name  lived  by  its  side  in  the  borders  of  Sheffield. 
A  stream  called  Umpachene  rises  in  the  east  part  of  the  town,  and 
passing  by  the  center,  runs  S.  W.  and  empties  in  the  Konkapot. 
This  stream  also  derives  its  name  from  an  Indian.  In  the  S.  E. 
part  of  the  township  is  a  pond  nearly  two  miles  in  circumference, 
called  Hermit  pond,  which  is  the  source  of  a  stream,  which  runs 
S.  W.  into  Canaan.  This  pond  derived  its  name  from  the  circum- 
stance that  a  hermit  lived  for  several  years  on  the  south-eastern 

The  name  of  this  hermit  was  Timothy  Leonard.  He  came  from  Fredericksburg, 
Dutchess  county,  N.  Y.,  five  or  six  years  before  the  revolutionary  war  ;  and  though 
he  purchased  a  farm,  he  led  a  solitary  life  till  his  death.  He  died  June  13,  1817,  from 
infirmity  and  old  age,  being,  as  was  supposed,  in  his  70th  year.  Unwilling  that  any 
one  should  remain  with  him  during  a  single  night,  he  died  as  he  lived,  alone  and  un 
attended.  The  cause  of  his  leading  a  solitary  life  is  supposed  to  be  explained  by  the 
fact  that  he  was  an  inveterate  hater  of  woman.  His  description  of  them  was, 

"  They  say  they  will,  and  they  won't ; 
What  they  promise  to  do  they  don't." 

"  Let  none  smile  at  the  history  of  Timothy  Leonard,  for  he  is  not  a  solitary  instance 
in  which  disappointed  hope  and  mortified  pride  have  been  suffered  tc  blot  out  the  social 
affections,  and  produce  uselessness,  wretchedness  and  ruin." 

OTIS.  85 

In  the  west  part  of  the  town  is  a  cave  of  some  little  note.  It 
has  several  apartments  of  various  dimensions,  whose  sides  and 
roofs  are  limestone,  on  which  stalactites  are  continually  forming. 
About  one  fourth  of  a  mile  S.  W.  of  the  south  meeting-house  is  a 
rock  judged  to  weigh  30  or  40  tons,  so  equally  balanced  on  another 
rock,  that  a  man  may  move  it  with  one  finger.  This  town  is  20 
miles  S.  by  E.  of  Lenox,  and  130  S.  W.  by  W.  of  Boston.  Popu- 
lation, 1,570. 


THIS  town  consists  of  the  former  town  of  London  and  the  dis- 
trict of  Bethlehem.  London  was  incorporated  in  1773.  Previously 
it  was  called  Tyringham  Equivalent,  because  it  had  been  granted 
to  the  proprietors  of  that  town  to  compensate  them  for  some  losses 
which  they  had  sustained.  Bethlehem  was  incorporated  in  1789. 
This  was  originally  called  the  north  eleven  thousand  acres,  in  refer- 
ence to  Southfield,  which  was  called  the  south  eleven  thousand  acres. 
The  settlement  of  London  commenced  probably  about  1750  or  55. 
Some  of  the  earliest  inhabitants  whose  names  can  be  ascertained 
were  David  Kibbe,  Stephen  Kibbe,  Isaac  Kibbe,  Dan.  Gregory, 

Larkeom  from  Enfield,  Con.,  Jeremy  Stow,  Eldad  Bower,  E. 

Pel  ton,  George  Troop,  Ebenezer  Trumbull,  Jacob  Cook,  Timothy 
Whitney,  Jonathan  Norton  and  Samuel  Marcy.  The  vote  to 
build  the  first  school-house  was  passed  in  1774.  The  town  settled 
but  very  slowly.  Bethlehem  began  to  be  settled  several  years  after 
London.  The  names  of  some  of  the  first  settlers  were  Thomas 
Ward,  Daniel  Sumner,  Phineas  Kingsbury,  John  Plumbe,  Adonijah 
Jones,  Ebenezer  Jones,  Miles  Jones,  James  Brackenridge,  John 
Spear,  and  Robert  Hunter.  Most  of  these,  and  the  subsequent  in- 
habitants who  moved  into  the  district,  came  principally  from  Con. 
In  June  1809  the  district  of  Bethlehem  was  united  with  the  town 
of  London,  the  town  still  bearing  the  name  of  London.  At  a  town 
meeting  held  in  May  1810  it  was  proposed  to  have  the  name  of  the 
town  altered  at  the  discretion  of  P.  Larkeom,  Esq.,  then  representa- 
tive at  the  general  court ;  and  in  June  he  obtained  for  it  the  name 
of  Otis,  in  honor  of  the  speaker  of  the  house  of  representatives,  the 
Hon.  H.  G.  Otis  of  Boston. 

It  appears  from  the  records  of  the  town  that  money  was  voted  from  year  to  year  to 
hire  preaching.  About  1772,  before  the  incorporation  of  the  town,  a  person  came  into 
it  by  the  name  of  George  Troop,  who  asserted  himself  to  be  a  candidate  for  the  minis- 
try, whom  the  inhabitants  employed  several  years  ;  though  it  appeared  finally  that 
he  had  no  license  to  preach.  On  a  time  appointed  some  of  his  hearers  undertook  to 
ordain  him,  and  he  on  his  part  to  form  them  into  a  church,  after  which  he  led  them  to 
the  choice  of  deacons.  The  people  at  length  becoming  dissatisfied  with  him,  an  eccle- 
siastical council,  convened  in  1775,  decided  that  he  had  no  authority  to  preach  or  to 
organize  a  church,  and  that  his  church  was  not  a  regular  church  of  Christ.  He  left 
the  town  in  1776  and  joined  the  United  States  army  in  the  character  of  chaplain,  ami 
his  church  separated  and  dissolved.  On  the  2d  of  Feb.  1779  a  regular  church  was 
formed  of  7  members.  The  Bethlehem  church  was  organized  Sept.  14,  1795,  of  8 
members.  At  a  conference  of  these  churches,  held  June  5th,  1810,  it  was  mutually 
agreed  to  become  one  church.  No  house  of  worship  was  ever  built  in  Loudon,  though 
different  attempts  were  made  for  the  purpose.  Before  the  union  of  the  town  and  dis- 
trict in  1809,the  united  society  agreed  to  erect  a  meeting-house,  and  procured  timber  and 

b6  PERU. 

fixed  upon  a  place  to  set  it.  This  house  was  built  by  subscription,  and  was  dedicated 
in  the  autumn  of  1813.  For  a  while  after,  the  society  had  the  services  of  Rev.  Aaron 
Kinne,  and  some  other  clergymen.  In  Nov.  1814,  the  Rev.  Jonathan  Lee  was  invited 
to  preach  in  the  place,  and  was  ordained  pastor  June  28,  1815. 

When  Shays'  insurrection  broke  out  in  1786,  a  number  of  people  who  lived  in  the 
north  part  of  the  town,  and  attended  meeting  at  Sandisfield,  became  alienated  from 
their  minister,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Storrs,  on  account  of  his  opposition  to  the  party  of  Shays. 
They  withdrew  from  his  ministry  and  professed  themselves  Baptists,  and  united  with 
some  inhabitants  in  the  western  part  of  Bethlehem  in  forming  a  Baptist  church.  They 
built  a  meeting-house,  which  stands  in  the  south-western  corner  of  this  town.  In  the 
sjouth-eastern  section  is  a  Methodist  society,  who  have  a  meeting-house,  which  was 
erected  by  subscription  in  1816.  There  is  an  Episcopal  society  in  the  center  of  the 
lown,  which  was  organized  on  the  1st  of  Jan.  1828. 

The  general  aspect  of  this  town  is  uneven  and  broken.  It 
abounds  with  granite  rock,  which  renders  the  tillage  difficult  and 
expensive.  At  the  distance  of  half  a  mile  west  of  the  center  is  a 
rock,  with  an  opening  or  cavity  in  it,  near  the  surface  of  the  ground, 
where  crystals  of  quartz  and  iron  pyrites  have  been  found.  In 
the  early  settlement  of  Bethlehem,  Daniel  Sumner,  while  hunting 
for  deer  near  by  this  rock,  heard  a  sudden  loud  explosion,  which 
much  surprised  and  alarmed  him.  Curiosity  leading  him  to  exam- 
ine from  what  source  it  proceeded,  he  found  an  unusual  appear- 
ance of  the  rock,  which  was  discolored,  where  a  fissure  had  been 
made,  from  which  he  concluded  that  the  sound  had  proceeded 
from  that  place.  It  was  probably  produced  by  the  combustion  of 
hydrogen  gas.  This  town  is  15  miles  S.  E.  of  Lenox,  and  120  W. 
by  S.  of  Boston.  Population,  1,077. 


THIS  township  included  the  greater  part  ol  Hinsdale  until  1804. 
The  whole  was  purchased  at  auction,  at  Boston,  June  2,  1762,  for 
£1,460.  This  was  denominated  No.  2  of  the  nine  townships  which 
were  sold  at  that  time.  It  went  into  the  hands  of  Oliver  Partridge 
and  Elisha  Jones,  and,  in  honor  of  the  former  gentleman,  was  called 
Partridgefield  from  its  incorporation  in  1771  until  1806,  when  it 
received  its  present  name.  It  is  about  6  miles  long  and  four  and  a 
half  broad.  Within  these  limits  the  settlement  commenced  about 
1764.  Between  this  time  and  1768,  Henry  Badger,  from  New 
Jersey,  Nathaniel  Stowell,  from  Connecticut,  Peter,  Daniel,  and 
Nathan  Thompson,  brothers,  from  the  eastern  part  of  this  state,  set- 
tled in  it,  and  Ebenezer  Pierce  shortly  after.  This  town,  occupying 
the  height  of  land  on  the  Green  mountain  range,  has  a  cold,  severe 
climate.  The  surface  is  uneven,  and  the  soil  hard  and  stony,  and] 
best  adapted  to  grazing.  There  is  a  limestone  quarry,  from  which 
lime  is  made  of  the  best  quality.  The  first  team  is  said  to  have 
crossed  the  mountain  in  this  town  in  1767,  over  which  a  turnpike 
road  now  passes. 

The  inhabitants  of  this  place  have  been  distinguished  for  their 
zeal  in  supporting  the  institutions  of  the  gospel.  They  are  mostly 
Congregationalists,  though  there  are  some  Baptists  and  Methodists 

V  * 



belonging  to  societies  in  the  adjoining  towns.  The  church  was 
organized  with  about  35  members,  in  1770,  and  the  Rev.  Stephen 
Tracy,  from  Norwich,  Connecticut,  was  ordained  their  pastor  in 
April,  1772.  The  first  meeting-house  was  erected  in  1780,  arid 
the  present  one  July  18,  1807.  It  is  a  remarkable  fact,  that  the 
rain  from  the  east  roof  of  this  house  flows  into  Connecticut  river, 
and  from  the  west  into  the  Housatonic.  This  town  is  about  15 
miles  N.  E.  of  Lenox,  and  111  W.  of  Boston.  Population,  656. 


THE  settlement  of  this  town  was  commenced  in  1752,  by  Solo- 
mon Deming,  who  moved  with  his  family  from  Wethersfield,  Con., 
and  settled  in  the  east  part  of  the  town.  Charles  Goodrich  and  a 
number  of  others  soon  followed.  Mrs.  Deming  was  the  first  white 
female  who  came  into  the  town,  and  was  often  left  alone  through 
the  night  by  the  necessary  absence  of  her  husband,  when  there 
was  not  another  white  inhabitant  in  the  town,  and  the  wilderness 
was  filled  with  Indians.  She  was  the  last,  as  well  as  the  first,  of 
the  settlers,  and  died  in  March,  1818,  aged  92.  Mr.  Goodrich 
(who  died  in  1815,  in  the  96th  year  of  his  age,)  drove  the  first  cart 
and  team  into  the  town  from  Wethersfield,  and  was  obliged  to  cut 
his  way  through  the  woods  a  number  of  miles.  In  the  year  1753, 
Simeon  Crofoot,  Charles  Goodrich,  Jacob  Ensign,  Solomon  Deming, 
Stephen  Crofoot,  Samuel  Taylor,  and  Elias  Willard,  obtained  an 
act  from  the  general  court,  incorporating  them  by  the  name  of 
"  The  proprietors  of  the  settling  lots  in  the  township  of  Poontoo- 
suck."  This  was  the  Indian  name  of  the  place,  which  was  retained 
until  1761,  when  the  town  was  incorporated  by  the  name  of  Pitts- 
field,  in  honor  of  the  celebrated  statesman  William  Pitt.  The  pro- 
prietors were  driven  off  once  or  twice  by  the  Indians  in  the  time 
of  the  second  French  war.  Three  small  forts  were  erected  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  town,  as  places  of  safety  against  the  Indians. 

The  first  meeting-house  was  erected  a  little  south  of  the  present 
Congregational  church.  The  Rev.  Thomas  Allen  was  ordained 
the  first  pastor,  April  18,  1764.  He  continued  in  that  relation  till 
his  death,  which  occurred  Feb.  11,  1810.  Owing  to  political  differ- 
ences this  church  was  divided  from  1808  till  1817,  during  which 
time  the  minority  were  a  separate  church,  and  settled  Mr.  Thomas 
Punderson  their  minister,  but  were  again  united  in  the  last-men- 
tioned year,  and  Rev.  Heman  Humphrey  installed  their  pastor. 

Pittsfield  is  finely  situated  at  the  junction  of  the  principal  branches 
of  the  Housatonic  river,  and  occupies  a  beautiful  expansion  of  the 
valley  between  the  Taconic  and  Green  mountain  range.  The 
soil  of  this  township  is  of  a  superior  quality,  and  is  divided  into 
farms  exhibiting  fine  specimens  of  agriculture.  The  village  in  the 
central  part  of  the  town  is  one  of  the  largest  and  best  built  in  the 
county.  There  is  a  public  square  in  the  center,  containing  about 


four  acres:  in  the  center  of  this  square  is  a  large  elm,  which 
was  left  standing  when  the  original  forest  was  cleared  away.  It 
is  126  feet  in  height,  and  90  feet  to  the  limbs.  It  is  a  striking 
object,  and  never  fails  to  attract  the  notice  of  strangers.  There  are 
in  the  village  4  churches :  1  Congregational,  1  Episcopal,  1  Bap- 
tist, and  1  Methodist;  the  Berkshire  Medical  Institution,  and  a 
number  of  other  public  buildings.  There  is  also  a  bank,  the 
"  Agricultural  Bank,"  incorporated  in  1818,  with  a  capital  of  $100,- 
000 ;  a  printing-office,  an  academy,  and  other  seminaries  of  learn- 
ing. The  Berkshire  Medical  Institution  waa  incorporated  in  1823, 
and  is  connected  with  Williams  College,  at  Williamstown.  There 
is  a  Lyceum  of  Natural  History  connected  with  this  institution, 
formed  by  its  trustees,  according  to  act  of  the  legislature.  Pitts- 
field  is  6  miles  from  Lenox,  33  E.  S.  E.  from  Albany,  and  125  W. 
from  Boston.  Population,  3,575. 

In  1837,  there  were  in  the  town  2  cotton  mills,  consuming  125,- 
000  Ibs.  of  cotton ;  500,000  yards  of  cotton  manufactured ;  6  woollen 
mills,  consuming  315,000  Ibs.  of  wool;  233,000  yards  of  cloth 
manufactured,  valued  at  $547,000.  There  were  2,135  Saxony 
sheep ;  10,534  merino  sheep ;  other  kinds  of  sheep,  293  ;  the  value 
of  the  wool  produced,  $19,443 ;  capital  invested,  $349,974.  The 
value  of  muskets  manufactured,  $24,000 ;  and  30  hands  employed. 
Value  of  carriages  manufactured,  $20,000 ;  hands  employed,  30. 
Beside  the  above,  various  other  articles  are  manufactured,  such  as 
buttons,  brooms,  hats,  leather,  chairs,  &c. 


THIS  township  was  first  purchased  of  two  chieftains  of  the  Stock- 
bridge  tribe  of  Indians,  by  the  agency  of  Samuel  Brown,  jr.,  Esq.,  of 
Stockbridge,  in  or  about  the  year  1763.  The  consideration  for  the 
purchase  was  £1,700.  It  appears  that  by  a  resolve  of  the  general 
court,  passed  Feb.  17  of  the  same  year,  the  purchase  was  confirmed 
to  the  several  proprietors  on  condition  of  their  paying  the  stipulated 
sum  of  money  to  the  Indians,  and  that  they  should,  within  five 
years'  time,  have  50  settlers  residing  within  the  limits,  who  should 
each  have  a  good  dwelling-house,  and  that  they  should  have  a 
learned  Protestant  minister  settled  among  them  within  the  time 
specified.  The  settlement  of  the  town  commenced  in  1760.  In 
the  summer  of  that  year,  Capt.  Micah  Mudge  moved  his  family 
into  the  place,  and  in  the  succeeding  autumn  Mr.  Ichabod  Wood, 
from  Rehoboth.  These  two  families  settled  about  3  miles  apart, 
and  remained  alone  in  the  wilderness  through  a  long  and  gloomy 
winter.  In  the  year  1761,  several  families  moved  to  this  place, 
viz.  Elijah  and  Isaac  Brown,  John  Chamberlain,  David  Pixley, 
Joseph  Patterson,  and  Daniel,  Timothy,  and  Aaron  Rowley,  who 
generally  settled  in  the  south  and  west  parts  of  the  town.  In  1762, 
Joseph  and  Paul  Raymond,  and  John  and  Daniel  Slosson,  from 


Kent,  Con.,  moved  in,  and  some  others.  From  that  time,  the  set- 
tlement advanced  rapidly,  until  every  part  of  the  town  was  inha- 
bited. The  most  part  of  the  first  settlers  were  from  Connecticut 
and  Long  Island.  The  church  was  formed  in  Richmond  about 

1765.  In  that  year,  the  Rev.  Job  Swift,  afterwards  the  minister 
of  Bennington,  Vt,  was  settled  as  their  pastor.     He  was  a  native 
of  Sandwich,   Mass.,  and  a  graduate  of  Yale  College  in  1765. 
President  D wight  says,  "  Dr.  Swift  was  one  of  the  best  and  most, 
useful  men  I  ever  knew.     To  the  churches  and  ministers  of  Ver- 
mont he  was  a  patriarch :  and  wherever  he  was  known  he  is 
remembered  with  the  greatest  veneration."     The  present  Congre- 
gational meeting-house  was  built  in  1794,  at  the  cost  of  $4,000. 
The  Methodist  society  have  a  neat  and  convenient  meeting-house, 
which  was  built  in  1825. 

This  town  was  incorporated  on  the  20th  of  June,  1765,  by  the 
name  of  Richmond,  (after  the  Duke  of  Richmond).     In  the  year 

1766,  on  the  26th  of  February,  the  township  was  divided  by  an 
act  of  the  legislature,  and  the  easterly  part  incorporated  by  the 
name  of  Lenox.     The  tract  included  between  the  mountains  is  a 
pleasant  and   fertile  valley,  averaging  about  3  miles  in  width, 
enclosed  by  hills  on  the  east  and  west,  commanding  delightful 
prospects.     An  intelligent  gentleman,  who  had  spent  many  years 
in  foreign  countries,  after  passing  through  this  town,  and  viewing 
the  valley  from  the  hill  on  the  west,  observed  that  in  natural 
scenery  it  excelled  the  view  from  the  famous  Richmond  Hill,  in 
England.     This  town  joins  Lenox :  distance  from  that  place,  5 
miles,  and  135  W.  of  Boston.     Population,  820.     There  is  a  fur- 
nace in  the  town  for  the  manufacture  of  pig  iron,  which  in  1837 
employed  40  hands,  who  manufactured  600  tons,  valued  at  $26,400. 
There  were  4,835  merino  sheep,  whose  fleeces  averaged  3  pounds 
and  valued  at  $8,703;  capital  invested,  $90,000. 


THIS  town,  in  connection  with  others,  was  granted  to  a  company 
who  petitioned  for  the  same  in  1735.  It  was  called  No.  3.  The 
proprietors  mostly  lived  in  the  county  of  Worcester.  The  patent 
of  the  town  was  granted  in  1736,  and  soon  after  the  location  of 
town  lots  was  made.  No  family  moved  into  the  place  till  1750. 
Thomas  Brown  was  the  first.  Soon  after,  his  father,  Daniel 
Brown,  Esq.,  moved  in  with  his  numerous  family.  He  -was  one 
of  the  principal  men ;  was  born  near  Boston,  but  had  lived  for 
some  time  in  Enfield,  Con.  The  settlement  of  the  town  advanced 
rapidly.  A  large  number  of  families  came  in  from  Wethersfield, 
Con.,  and  the  adjoining  towns,  and  also  a  considerable  number  from 
the  towns  below  Plymouth,  on  Cape  Cod.  The  first  white  child  bora 
in  the  town  was  named  Lot  Smith,  Aug.  7,  1757,  because  the  pro- 
prietors, meeting  on  the  day  he  was  born,  proposed  giving  him  a 
lot  of  land.  The  town  enjoyed  the  preaching  of  the  gospel  within 

90  SAVOY. 

6  or  6  years  of  the  first  settlement.  The  first  meeting-house  was 
erected  in  1757,  and  stood  till  1796,  when  a  new  one  was  built. 
The  site  is  nearly  in  the  center  of  the  town,  and  the  house  is  lite- 
rally founded  on  a  rock.  The  church  was  formed  in  1756.  Rev. 
Cornelius  Jones,  a  native  of  Bellingham,  and  a  graduate  of  Har- 
vard College  in  1752,  was  the  first  minister  in  the  place.  He  was 
ordained  at  the  time  the  church  was  organized.  The  place  of  the 
transactions  of  the  day,  for  the  want  of  a  more  convenient  place, 
was  a  barn.  The  first  President  Edwards,  then  settled  over  the 
Stockbridge  Indians,  was  moderator  of  the  council,  and  preached 
the  ordination  sermon.  There  are  two  Baptist  churches  in  this 
town,  though  the  meeting-house  of  the  second  society  is  in  the  N. 
W.  corner  of  Otis.  The  first  was  organized  Aug.  21,  1779.  Their 
first  pastor  was  Elder  Joshua  Morse,  who  was  ordained  Oct.  2,  of 
the  same  year.  The  second  Baptist  church,  consisting  of  19  mem- 
bers, was  constituted  April  25,  1788.  Mr.  Benjamin  Baldwin,  a 
native  of  Otis,  was  ordained  over  this  church  June  9,  1790.  This 
town  was  incorporated  in  1762,  and  now  includes  the  original 
township  of  Sandisfield,  and  the  tract  formerly  called  the  south 
11,000  acres.  This  tract  was  incorporated  as  a  district  in  1797, 
and  annexed  to  Sandisfield  in  1819.  The  length  of  the  township 
is  about  9  miles  and  the  breadth  six.  The  surface  is  hilly ;  the 
hills  rise  to  a  considerable  height,  but  not  abrupt,  they  being 
mostly  large  swells.  A  considerable  mountain  rises,  however,  on 
the  western  bank  of  Farmington  river,  in  the  S.  E.  section  of  the 
town,  known  by  the  name  of  Hanging  mountain.  It  is  450  feet 
in  height  above  the  bank,  and  presents  to  the  S.  E.  a  mural  perpen- 
dicular front.  This  town  was  originally  Indian  hunting-ground. 
In  clearing  a  piece  of  wood-land  a  few  years  ago,  a  large  number 
of  arrow-heads  of  stone  were  found  carefully  deposited  between 
two  rocks,  probably  placed  there  ages  ago.  It  does  not  appear 
that  the  town  was  ever  an  Indian  settlement.  This  town  is  20 
miles  S.  E.  by  E.  of  Lenox,  and  112  W.  by  S.  of  Boston.  Popu- 
lation, 1,493. 


THE  general  court,  in  1770  or  71,  granted  to  Col.  William  Bul- 
lock, of  Rehoboth,  agent  for  the  heirs  of  Capt.  Samuel  Gallop  and 
company,  a  township  of  land  6  miles  square,  in  consideration 
of  the  services  and  sufferings  of  the  said  Gallop  and  com- 
pany in  an  expedition  into  Canada  in  1690,  in  King  William's 
war.  The  greater  part  of  this  grant  composes  the  present  town 
of  Savoy.  The  first  family  settled  in  this  town  in  Sept.,  1777, 
and  within  10  years  from  that  time  35  families  were  located  in 
the  place.  Some  of  these  were  Lemuel  Hatheway,  Daniel 
Wetherell,  William  Wilbore,  Zachariah  Padelford,  and  Joseph, 
William,  Thomas,  and  Joseph  (jr.)  Williams,  fromTaunton,  John 


Bourn,  Joseph  Bishop,  Comfort  Bates,  Abiel  Dunham,  Michael 
Sweet,  and  David  Matthews,  from  Attleborough,  and  families  of 
the  names  of  Babbit,  Shearman,  Reed,  Bennet,  Ingraham,  Nelson, 
Rogers,  Fuller,  Putney,  and  Heath,  from  other  places.  Public 
worship  was  early  established  in  this  town.  Most  of  the  people 
ire  Baptists,  though  there  are  some  Methodists  and  Congregation- 
alists.  The  Baptist  church  was  organized  June  24, 1787.  Their 
first  minister  was  Elder  Nathan  Haskins,  a  native  of  Shutesbury, 
ordained  in  1789.  The  society  built  their  meeting-house  half  a 
mile  north  of  the  hollow,  in  1804.  Savoy  is  a  mountainous  town- 
ship, and  a  large  portion  of  it  too  broken  for  cultivation.  The 
best  lands  are  in  the  north  and  east  parts.  The  inhabitants  are 
mostly  farmers,  who  raise  stock  and  keep  large  dairies.  The  vil- 
lage called  Savoy  village  is  in  the  south  part  of  this  town,  on  the 
north  branch  of  the  Westfield  river.  This  little  village  consists 
of  2  churches,  (1  Baptist,  1  Methodist,)  2  taverns,  2  stores,  and 
about  15  dwelling-houses.  Distance,  25  miles  from  Lenox,  7  from 
South  Adams,  28  to  Northampton,  29  to  Greenfield,  and  44.  to 
Troy,  N.  Y. 


As  early  as  1722,  Joseph  Parsons  and  176  other  persons  within 
the  county  of  Hampshire,  petitioned  the  general  court  of  Massa- 
chusetts for  two  townships  of  land  on  the  river  Housatonic  or 
Westbrook.  This  petition  was  granted  Jan.  30,  1722-3,  and  a 
committee  appointed  for  the  purpose  of  making  the  purchase  of 
the  Indians,  dividing  the  tract,  granting  lots,  admitting  settlers, 
&c.  On  the  25th  of  April,  1724,  the  committee  made  the  pur- 
chase of  the  Indians  and  received  from  them  a  deed,  "in  conside- 
ration of  £460,  three  barrels  of  cider,  and  thirty  quarts  of  rum." 
This  deed  was  signed  and  sealed  by  Konkepot  and  twenty  other 
Indians  at  Westfield,  before  John  Ashley,  justice  of  the  peace.  The 
Indians  in  this  deed  reserved  to  themselves  two  small  tracts,  which 
on  their  removal,  about  10  years  after,  they  exchanged  for  land  in 
Upper  Housatonic,  within  the  present  town  of  Stockbridge.  There 
were  two  or  three  small  Indian  settlements  in  this  town,  though 
but  a  few  traces  of  them  are  now  to  be  found.  On  a  gravelly 
hillock  in  the  north  part  of  the  town,  in  a  tract  which  they  reserved, 
it  is  supposed  was  their  burying-place.  Human  bones  were 
discovered  in  making  the  turnpike  road  through  the  town  two 
and  a  half  miles  south  of  the  meeting-house,  on  the  rise  of  ground 
a  few  rods  south  of  the  turnpike  gate,  which  led*  to  the  conclusion 
that  this  spot  too  was  an  Indian  burying-place. 

In  1725,  Capt.  John  Ashley  and  Capt.  Ebenezer  Pomroy,  two 
of  the  committee,  made  a  general  division  of  the  lower  township, 
especially  of  the  part  lying  upon  the  river ;  and  soon  after  the 
place  began  to  be  settled  by  individuals  from  the  county  of  Hamp- 



shire,  and  mostly  from  the  town  of  Westfield.  In  1726  the  settlers 
were  subjected  to  much  inconvenience  and  vexation  by  some  of 
the  Dutch  inhabitants  of  the  province  of  New  York,  who  con- 
tested the  titles  to  the  lands.  They  were  also  subjected  to  priva- 
tion through  fear  of  the  Indians,  and  were  obliged  for  safety  to 
picket  in  two  or  three  dwellings  in  different  parts  of  the  town,  to 
which  they  resorted  to  spend  the  night. 

Southern  view  of  Sheffield,  (central  part). 

In  1733  the  lower  township  Housatonic  was  set  off  and 
incorporated  as  a  town,  eight  miles  long  on  the  river,  and  wide 
enough  to  include  7  square  miles ;  and  was  named  Sheffield,  pro- 
bably from  Sheffield  in  England.  It  extended  north  to  Great 
Barrington  bridge.  In  1761  the  town  was  reduced  to  its  present 
limits,  8  miles  in  length  and  7  in  breadth.  Among  the  first  settlers 
of  this  town  were  those  of  the  name  of  Noble,  Austin,  Westover. 
Kellogg,  Pell,  Callender,  Corban,  Muggins,  Smith,  Ingersoll,  Dewey, 
Root.  &c.,  in  all  about  60,  who  had  their  lands,  from  250  to  1,000 
acres  each,  confirmed  to  them  by  the  committee.  Mr.  Obadiah 
Noble,  from  Westfield,  was  the  first  white  man  who  resided  in  the 
town.  He  spent  the  first  winter  here  with  no  other  human  being 
than  the  Indians.  In  spring  he  went  back  to  Westfield,  and  in 
June  returned  with  his  daughter.  The  first  church  in  this  town 
was  organized  on  the  22d  of  Oct.,  1735.  Mr.  Jonathan  Hubbard, 
of  Sunderland,  and  a  graduate  of  Yale  College,  was  ordained  their 
pastor  on  the  same  occasion.  The  people  had  built  a  meeting- 
house the  summer  previous.  45  feet  by  35.  This  house  stood  till 
1762.  when  a  new  one  was  erected. 

The  engraving  above  is  a  view  of  the  Congregational  church 
(the  only  church  in  the  town)  and  some  other  buildings  in  the 
central  part  of  the  town,  with  the  east  mountain  in  the  distance. 
The  first  meeting-house  stood  about  half  a  mile  north  of  the  pre- 
sent house,  near  the  house  of  Mr.  Hubbard,  the  first  minister, 
which  is  still  standing  and  occupied  by  his  son.  This  place  is 
20  miles  from  Lenox,  28  from  Hudson,  28  from  Litchfield,  48  from 
Hartford,  and  about  125  from  Boston.  Population,  2,308. 


A  Baptist  church  was  formed  in  this  town  on  the  7th  of  July, 
1825,  with  15  members.  There  are  a  few  Episcopalians  and 
Methodists  in  the  town. 

The  town  includes  an  extensive  vale,  and,  except  on  the  east,  is 
generally  level.  In  that  part  there  is  an  extensive  chain  of  con- 
siderable hills,  extending  from  one  end  of  the  township  to  the 
other.  On  the  west  it  is  mountainous  :  Taconic,  or  Mount  Wash- 
ington, as  this  part  of  the  Taconic  range  is  more  generally  called, 
is  about  2500  feet  in  height,  and  presents  a  magnificent  spectacle. 
A  part  of  this  mountain  is  within  the  limits  of  Sheffield.  This 
town  affords  great  abundance  of  white  marble,  and  much  of  ex- 
cellent quality.  The  soil  of  the  township  is  generally  productive, 
and  in  the  vale  easily  tilled.  Large  quantities  of  hay  are  easily 
obtained  from  the  extensive  intervals  lying  upon  the  river.  The 
Housatonic,  which  passes  through  the  length  of  the  town,  is  here 
a  silent,  sluggish  stream,  from  6  to  8  rods  in  breadth.  From  this 
town  it  passes  into  Connecticut,  and,  flowing  through  the  western 
part  of  the  state,  empties  into  Long  Island  Sound  between  Mil- 
ford  and  Stratford.  13  miles  west  of  New  Haven. 

The  following  singular  occurrences  are  said  to  have  taken  place 
near  the  boundary  line  between  Massachusetts  and  Connecticut. 
Part  of  these  occurrences  took  place  in  this  town,  and  part  in  the 
adjoining  town  of"  Salisbury,  in  Connecticut.  The  relation  of 
these  circumstances  was  obtained  from  Mr.  S.  Sage  and  his  family, 
who  are  still  living  on  the  spot,  (June,  1836,)  and  could  be  corro- 
borated by  great  numbers  of  people  now  living : — 

"  These  occurrences  commenced  Nov.  8th,  1802,  at  a  clothier's  shop.  A  man  and 
two  boys  were  in  the  shop ;  the  boys  had  retired  to  rest,  it  being  between  10  and 
11  o'clock  at  night.  A  block  of  wood  was  thrown  through  the  window  ;  after  that, 
pieces  of  hard  mortar,  till  the  man  arid  boys  became  alarmed,  and  went  to  the  house 
to  call  Mr.  Sage,  who  arose  from  bed  and  went  to  the  shop,  and  could  hear  the  glass 
break  often,  but  could  not  discover  from  whence  it  came,  notwithstanding  the  night 
was  very  light.  He  exerted  himself  to  discover  the  cause  without  success.  It  con- 
tinued constantly  till  day-light,  and  then  ceased  till  the  next  evening  at  8  o'clock, 
when  it  commenced  again,  and  continued  till  midnight ;  then  ceased  till  the  next 
evening  al  dusk,  and  continued  tiH  some  time  in  the  evening,  and  then  ceased.  The 
next  day  it  commenced  about  an  hour  before  sun-down,  and  continued  about  an  hour, 
and  then  it  left  the  shop  and  began  at  the  dwelling-house  of  Mr.  Ezekiel  Landon,  100 
rods  north,  in  the  town  of  Sheffield.  It  continued  several  hours,  and  ceased  till 
the  next  morning:  when  the  family  were  at  breakfast  it  began  again,  and  continued 
two  or  three  hours,  and  ceased  till  evening,  when  it  began  again  and  continued 
several  hours,  and  ceased  till  the  next  morning,  when  it  began  again  and  con- 
tinued all  the  forenoon,  and  then  ceased  altogether.  The  articles  thrown  into  the 
shop  were  pieces  of  wood,  charcoal,  stone,  but  principally  pieces  of  hard  mortar, 
such  as  could  not  be  found  in  the  -neighborhood.  Nothing  but  stones  were  thrown 
into  the  house  of  Mr.  Landon,  the  first  of  which  were  thrown  into  the,dooi.  There 
were  38  panes  of  glass  broke  out  of  the  shop,  and  18  out  of  the  dwelling  houses  : 
in  two  or  three  instances  persons  were  hit  by  the  things  that  were  thrown.  What 
was  remarkable,  nothing  could  be  seen  coming  till  the  glass  broke,  and  whatever 
passed  through,  fell  directly  down  on  the  window-sill,  as  if  it  had  been  put  through 
with  a  person's  fingers,  and  many  pieces  of  mortar  and  coal  were  thrown  through 
the  same  hole  in  the  glass  in  succession.  Many  hundreds  of  people  assembled  to 
witness  the  scene,  among  whom  were  clergymen  and  other  gentlemen,  but  none 
were  able  to  detect  the  source  of  the  mischief.  The  more  credulous  readily 
believed  it  to  be  witchcraft,  but  it  was  generally  thought  to  be  some  slight  of  hand, 
effected  by  a  combination  of  individuals,  as  the  windows  were  broken  on  different 
sides  of  the  buildings  nearly  at  the  same  time." 


The  following  inscriptions  are  taken  from  monuments  in  the 
grave-yards  in  this  place. 

Sacred  to  the  memory  of  Jonathan  Hubbard,  and  Mrs.  Rachel  Hubbard  his  consort, 
this  monument  is  erected.  The  Rev.  J.  Hubbard  was  the  first  pastor  of  the  church  in 
Sheffield.  He  was  blessed  with  a  lively  genius  and  solid  judgment.  His  public  dis- 
cources  were  judicious,  and  his  conversation  instructive.  He  departed  this  life  July 
6th,  1765,  in  the  62d  year  of  his  age. — Our  Fathers  where  are  they  ?  and  do  the  Pro- 
phets live  forever  ? 

Beneath  this  stone  lies  the  body  of  the  Rev.  John  Keep,  A.  M.,  pastor  of  the  church 
in  Sheffield,  who  died  Sept.  3d,  A.  D.  1784,  JEtat.  36,  et  ministerii  13,  calmly  resign- 
ing his  mortal  life  in  hope  of  a  blessed  immortality  thro'  the  atonement  of  Jesus 
Christ.  He  was  blessed  with  natural  genius  improved  by  education,  and  a  benevolent 
heart,  and  was  illustrious  as  a  Divine,  a  Preacher,  a  Friend  and  a  Christian. 

When  Suns  and  Planets  from  their  orbs  be  hurl'd 

And  livid  flames  involve  this  smoking  world  ; 

The  Trump  of  God  announce  the  Savior  nigh 

And  shining  hosts  of  angels  crowd  the  sky 

Then  from  this  tomb  thy  dust  shall  they  convey 

To  happier  regions  of  eternal  day. 

Sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  Rev.  Ephraim  Judson,  Pastor  of  the  church  in  Sheffield. 
He  died  on  the  23d  of  February,  A.  D.  1813,  in  the  76th  year  of  his  age,  and  23d  of  his 
ministry  in  Sheffield,  having  been  previously  the  pastor  of  the  church  in  Norwich, 
and  also  in  Taunion.  Mr.  Judson  was  esteemed  as  a  learned  divine,  an  acute 
logician,  and  an  evangelical  preacher.  He  was  mild,  courteous,  and  hospitable. 
By  his  numerous  friends  he  was  deemed  a  wise  counsellor,  an  active  peace-maker, 
dc  a  sincere  Christian.  "What  he  was  in  Truth,  the  Great  Day  will  disclose. 

Here  lies  deposited  the  body  of  Major  General  John  Ashley,  who  died  Nov.  5, 1799, 
in  the  64th  year  of  his  age. 

Make  the  extended  skies  your  tomb, 
Let  stars  record  your  worth  ; 
Yet  know  vain  mortals  all  must  die, 
As  natures  sickliest  birth. 

This  monument  is  erected  to  perpetuate  the  memory  of  Col.  John  Ashley,  who 
departed  this  life  Sept.  1st,  1802,  in  the  93d  year  of  his  age. 
Virtue  alone  has  majesty  in  death, 
And  triumphs  most  when  most  the  tyrant  frowns  j 
Earth  highest  station  ends  in  Here  he  lies 
And  dust  to  dust  concludes  her  noblest  song. 


THIS  town  was  originally  laid  out  by  the  general  government 
of  the  state  in  1735,  for  the  accommodation  of  the  Indians.  In 
the  year  previous  a  mission  was  commenced  among  the  Housa- 
tonic  Indians  by  Mr.  John  Sergeant,  then  a  candidate  for  the 
ministry,  assisted  by  Mr.  Timothy  Woodbridge  as  schoolmaster, 
under  the  patronage  of  the  board  of  commissioners  for  Indian 
affairs  in  Boston,  of  which  his  excellency  Jonathan  Belcher,  then 
British  governor  of  Massachusetts,  was  an  active  and  influential 
member.  At  that  time  about  half  of  these  Indians  lived  in  the 


great  meadow  on  the  Housatonic  in  this  town,  called  by  them 
Wnahktukook.  Here  Konkapot  the  chieftain  resided,  who  had 
just  before  been  honored  by  Gov.  Belcher  with  a  captain's  com- 
mission. His  cabin  stood  on  a  knoll  a  few  rods  north  of  the 
Konkapot  brook,  on  the  east  side  of  the  county  road.  The  other 
Indians  lived  on  their  reservation  in  Sheffield,  called  by  them 
Skatehook.  For  the  better  improvement  of  their  moral  condition 
it  was  soon  found  desirable  to  have  these  united  and  settled  in  one 
place,  with  such  other  Indians  in  the  vicinity  as  might  be  disposed 
to  join  with  them.  Being  made  acquainted  with  their  situation, 
the  legislature,  on  the  17th  of  March,  1735,  granted  them  a  town- 
ship 6  miles  square,  to  be  laid  out  on  the  Housatonic  river, 
immediately  north  of  Monument  mountain,  provided  the  proprie- 
tors and  settlers  of  the  Upper  Housatonic  could  be  induced  to 
give  up  their  right  to  that  portion  of  their  lands  on  which  the  new 
township  would  partly  fall.  It  was  wished  to  include  the  fine 
alluvial  ground  at  Wnahktukook,  where  the  chieftain  resided,  and, 
which,  to  some  extent,  was  under  cultivation.  The  committee  met 
with  but  little  difficulty  in  performing  the  duties  assigned  them, 
and  in  April,  1736,  they  laid  out  the  town  in  a  square,  which  inclu- 
ded the  present  townships  of  StockbrMge  and  West-Stockbridge. 

Early  in  May  of  that  year  the  Indians  began  to  move  into  their  plantation,  and  by 
the  last  of  June  there  were  more  than  90  persons  in  the  settlement.  In  Jan.,  1737, 
the  subject  being  laid  before  the  legislature  by  the  governor,  they  ordered  that  a 
meeting-house  40  feet  by  30,  together  with  a  school-house,  should  be  built  for  the 
Indians  at  the  charge  of  the  province.  On  the  7th  of  May  in  this  year,  the  grant  of 
the  town  was  confirmed  to  the  Indians,  their  heirs  and  assigns  ;  and  in  1739,  the  town 
was  incorporated  by  the  name  of  Stockbridge,  after  the  town  of  that  name  in  Eng- 
land. Their  meeting-house  was  first  opened  for  public  worship  on  the  29th  of  Nov., 
1739,  the  day  of  thanksgiving  in  the  commonwealth.  It  stood  a  few  rods  north-east 
of  the  site  of  the  present  south  meeting-house.  The  settlement  gradually  increased 
for  many  years,  until  they  numbered,  at  one  time,  nearly  500,  though  it  is  probable 
that  their  average  number,  while  they  remained  in  the  town,  was  about  400.  A  short 
time  before  the  revolutionary  war,  a  township,  6  miles  square,  was  given  them  by 
the  Oneidas,  in  the  state  of  New  York.  After  the  close  of  the  war,  in  1783,  some  of 
them  removed,  a  large  proportion  of  them  in  1785,  and  the  residue  in  1788.  In  1810, 
they  are  represented  to  have  numbered  more  than  600.  In  1822  these  Indians  began 
to  move  to  Green  Bay,  on  the  southern  shore  of  Lake  Michigan,  on  to  a  tract  of 
5,000,000  acres,  purchased  for  them  and  other  Indians  in  the  state  of  New  York,  for 
$500,  of  the  Menominie  and  WLnnebago  tribes.  The  head  of  Green  Bay  is  near  the 
center  of  their  purchase.  The  residence  of  Capt.  Konkapot  has  been  mentioned- 
that  of  King  Ben  [Benjamin  Kokkewenaunaut]  was  on  the  elevated  ground  back  of 
the  Housatonic,  half  a  mile  west  of  the  plain.  In  1771,  being  then  94  years  old, 
this  chieftain  told  his  people  that  they  must  appoint  another  king,  and  king  Solomon 
[Solomon  Unhaunnauwaunnutt]  was  chosen  his  successor.  His  house  was  on  the 
south  bank  of  the  Housatonic,  opposite  Little  Hill.  He  died  in  Feb.,  1777,  aged  50. 
King  Ben  lived  till  April  1781,  being  104  years  old.  Some  of  the  Indians'  houses 
were  on  the  plain,  some  on  the  meadows  near  the  river,  and  a  few  about  Barnum's 
brook.  These  Indians  at  first  were  called  by  the  English  River  Indians,  afterwards 
more  generally  Housatonic.  Indians,  until  the  incorporation  of  this  town  ;  since  which 
they  have  more  generally  been  called  Stockbridge  Indians.  They  have  also  some- 
times, as  well  as  the  tribe  at  Norwich,  Conn.,  been  called  Mohegans,  which  is  a  cor- 
ruption of  their  proper  name  Mahhekaneew  or  Muhhekaneok,  signifying  "the people 
of  the  great  waters,  continually  in  motion.'" 

One  very  important  effect  which  this  mission  produced  was,  that  the  friendship  of 
these  Indians  was  effectually  secured  to  the  English.  They  performed  numerous 
kind  offices  for  the  early  settlers  of  the  county  ;  in  time  of  war  they  were  spies  for 
the  English,  and  often  fought  and  sometimes  shed  their  blood  for  them  in  the  army. 


Though  Fort  Massachusetts  was  repeatedly  attacked  in  the  time  of  the  first  French  war, 
and  terror  was  spread  through  all  this  region,  yet,  in  consequence  of  the  well-known 
friendship  of  the  Muhhekaneews;  no  hostile  Indians  ventured  down  into  the  vicinity 
ol  ihis  place,  and  the  southern  section  of  the  county  was  saved  from  such  calamities 
as  befel  some  of  the  settlements  on  Connecticut  river,  and  others  to  the  west,  in  the 
state  of  New  York.  Though  in  the  second  French  war  a  few  families  in  different 
parts  of  the  county  were  disturbed,  yet  the  mischief  was  small  compared  with  what 
probably  would,  have  been  done,  had  it  not  been  for  the  friendship  of  the  Stockbridge 
tribe.  In  this  war  many  of  the  Indians  were  received  as  soldiers  in  the  service  of 
Massachusetts,  and  showed  their  fidelity  by  fighting  for  the  whites.  In  the  revolu- 
tionary war  a  part  of  the  company  of  minute  men  under  the  command  of  Captain 
Goodrich,  of  this  town,  was  composed  of  these  Indians.  A  company  went  to 
White  Plains  under  Capt.  Daniel  Nimham,  where  some  were  slain,  and  others  died 
with  sickness.  Numbers  served  at  other  places.  At  the  close  of  the  war  General 
Washington  directed  the  contractors  for  supplying  a  division  of  the  army  at  West 
Point  with  provisions,  to  give  the  Indians  a  feast,  in  consideration  of  their  good  conduct 
in  the  service.  An  ox  weighing  1,100  Ibs.  was  roasted  whole ;  the  whole  tribe  partook  of 
it;  the  men  first,  and  then  the  women,  according  to  custom.  The  Rev.  John  Sergeant 
(the  younger)  and  a  Mr.  Deane  presided  at  the  table,  and  the  principal  men  of  the 
place  attended.  The  feast  was  kept  near  the  residence  of  King  Solomon,  and  after 
this  was  over  the  Indians  buried  the  hatchet  in  token  that  the  war  Avas  past,  and 
performed  some  other  ceremonies  in  their  own  style  for  the  gratification  of  the  com- 
pany. The  school  commenced  among  these  Indians  by  Mr.  Woodbridge,  in  the 
autumn  of  1734,  was  kept  by  him  many  years,  and  was  regularly  kept  aftenvards 
(for  some  time  by  Mr.  John  Sergeant,  Jim.)  until  the  Indians  emigrated  to  the  region 
of  the  Oneidas, 

The  following  account  of  Mr.  Sergeant's  labors  is  taken  from 
the  History  of  Stockbridge,  by  the  Rev.  David  D.  Field. 

In  1741,  Mr.  Sergeant  projected  the  plan  of  a  boarding-school,  which  was  summa- 
rily this :  That  a  tract  of  land  of  about  200  acres  should  be  set  aside  for  the  use  of 
the  school,  and  a  house  erected  upon  it ;  that  a  number  of  children  and  youth,  be- 
tween the  ages  of  10  and  20.  should  be  received,  and  placed  under  the  care  of  two 
masters,  one  of  whom  should  take  the  oversight  of  them  in  their  hours  of  labor,  and 
the  other  in  their  hours  of  study,  and  that  their  time  should  be  so  divided  between  the 
hours  of  labor  and  study,  as  to  make  one  the  diversion  of  the  other;  that  the  fruit  of 
their  labors  should  go  towards  their  maintenance,  and  to  carry  on  the  general  design  ; 
and  that  a  stock  of  cattle  should  be  maintained  on  the  place  for  the  same  purpose.  It 
was  also  proposed  to  take  into  the  number,  on  certain  conditions,  children  from  any 
of  the  Indian  tribes  around,  that  by  their  means  the  principles  of  virtue  and  Christian 
knowledge  might  be  spread  as  far  as  possible. 

This  project  was  very  popular  among  the  Indian  and  English  inhabitants  of  this 
place,  and  much  was  eventually  done  by  them,  considering  their  circumstances,  for 
promoting  it.  It  was  also  popular  with  the  commissioners  and  their  friends  in  Boston. 
But  before  much  was  done,  the  first  French  war  commenced,  which  rendered  it  neces- 
sary that  the  actual  establishment  of  the  school  should  be  postponed  for  a  season.  In 
the  mean  while,  as  the  Corporation  for  Indian  Affairs,  under  which  the  commissioners 
acted,  existed  in  London,  the  project  attracted  the  favorable  notice  of  such  blessed 
men  there  as  Dr.  Isaac  Watts  and  Capt.  Thomas  Coram,  who  exerted  themselves  to 
raise  funds  for  the  support  of  the  school.  The  Prince  of  Wales  headed  a  subscription 
with  20  guineas,  and  a  few  others  high  in  rank  and  office  subscribed  for  it.  Mr.  Isaac 
Hollis  made  provision  at  first  for  supporting  12  boys,  and  afterwards  for  supporting 
24.  and  was  so  anxious  that  the  children  should  be  instructed  immediately,  that  Mr. 
Sergeant  took  12  under  his  care  in  the  beginning  of  1748.  But  as  it  was  not  alto- 
gether safe  for  them  to  remain  here  during  the  war,  he  procured  Capt.  Martin  Kel- 
logg, of  Newington,  in  Wethersfield,  Conn.,  to  take  them  in  May,  and  instruct  them 
for  a  year.  In  1749,  the  war  being  closed,  a  house  for  the  boarding-school  was  erected, 
which  stood  on  the  southern  end  of  the  garden  belonging  to  Mr.  Benoni  C.  Wells. 

The  heart  of  Mr.  Sergeant  was  drawn  exceedingly  towards  this  school.  His  suc- 
cessor, President  Edwards,  thought  much  of  it,  and,  directly  after  his  settlement  in 
this  place,  a  large  council  from  the  Six  Nations  sat  here  to  consider  the  subject  of 
sending  their  children  to  the  school.  After  it  was  opened,  the  Rev.  Gideon  Hawley, 
afterwards  missionary  at  Marshpee,  it  is  understood,  instructed  it  for  a  time.  "  He 
taught  a  few  families  of  Mohawks,  Oneidas  and  Tuskaroras."  The  Rev.  Cotton 


Mather  Smith,  who  afterwards  settled  in  Sharon,  Conn.,  also  instructed  it  for  a  season. 
But  arrangements  for  managing  the  school  were  never  very  thoroughly  made  ;  and 
admirable  as  was  the  plan,  and  as  much  as  it  promised,  the  occurrence  of  the  second 
French  war  nearly  destroyed  it. 

Notwithstanding  this  unhappy  issue,  however,  in  this  school,  in  connection  with  the 
common  school,  a  considerable  number  of  Indians  received  a  good  education.  A  few 
also  were  instructed  at  the  Indian  charity  school  at  Hanover,  N.  H.,  and  Peter  Poli- 
quonnoppeet  was  graduated  at  the  college  in  that  town  in  1780.  This  Sir  Peter,  as 
he  was  commonly  called,  was  a  man  of  good  talents  and  character,  and  connected  with 
Joseph  Quanaukaunt,  Capt.  Hendrick  Aupaumut,  and  Capt.  John  Konkapot,  in  a 
council,  which,  after  the  decease  of  King  Solomon,  regulated  the  affairs  of  the  tribe. 
The  regal  power,  it  is  said,  belonged  to  Joseph  Quanaukaunt ;  bur  being  a  very  modest 
and  unassuming,  as  well  as  sensible  man,  he  chose  not  to  be  king,  but  wished  the 
tribe  to  be  governed  by  a  council. 

Many  of  the  Indians  were  fitted  for  the  transaction  of  all  ordinary  business.  A  part 
of  the  town  offices  were  uniformly  sustained  by  them  while  they  remained  in  this 
place.  The  speech  of  one  of  the  chiefs  to  the  Massachusetts  congress  in  1775,  m 
Bingham's  Columbian  Orator,  tendering  his  services  in  the  revolutionary  war,  may 
be  taken  as  a  specimen  of  the  talent  at  oratory  which  some  of  them  possessed. 

As  to  religion,  it  is  evident  that  the  Spirit  of  God  was  poured  forth  under  the  minis- 
try of  Mr.  Sergeant,  and  that  his  labors  were  blessed  to  the  conversion  of  many  souls. 
The  Lord's  supper  was  first  administered  here  on  the  4th  of  June,  1738;  but  as  a 
number  had  made  a  profession  years  before,  the  church  must  be  considered  as  pre 
viously  existing,  although  we  have  no  express  account  of  the  time  and  manner  of  its 
organization.  About  100,  from  first  to  last,  made  a  profession  of  Christianity ;  and 
though  it  is  not  certain  all  these  were  genuine  converts,  yet  we  have  no  authority  for 
restricting  the  operations  of  grace  entirely  to  those  who  became  professors,  nor  indeed 
to  the  members  of  this  tribe  ;  for  considerable  numbers  from  other  tribes  occasionally 
listened  here  to  the  instructions  of  the  gospel. 

But  the  extent  to  which  they  were  civilized  and  christianized,  will  be  more  fully  un 
derstood  by  attending  to  the  labors  of  the  successive  missionaries. 

At  the  time  Mr  Sergeant  received  his  appointment,  he  was  a  tutor  in  Yale  College. 
He  visited  the  Indians  in  the  autumn  of  1734,  and  again  in  the  spring  of  1735,  and 
in  July  in  the  latter  year,  having  relinquished  the  duties  of  the  tutorship,  he  took  up 
his  residence  with  the  Indians  for  life.  On  the  31st  of  August  following  he  was  or- 
dained at  Deerfield,  where  Gov.  Belcher  had  made  an  appointment  to  meet  some  In- 
dian tribes  about  that  time,  for  the  purpose  of  making  a  treaty  with  them.  The  or- 
dination took  place  on  the  Sabbath,  in  the  presence  of  the  congregation  usually  wor- 
shipping there,  of  the  governor  and  a  large  committee  of  both  houses  of  the  legisla- 
ture, of  the  Indians  collected  from  several  tribes,  and  of  some  of  the  Housatonic 
Indians,  who  sat  by  themselves,  and  formally  received  Mr.  Sergeant  as  their  mis- 

In  the  winters  of  1734  and  5,  and  of  1735  and  6,  the  Indians  were  instructed  in 
Great  Barrington,  and  in  the  intermediate  summer  in  Sheffield  and  Stockbridge. 
Upon  their  removal  to  this  town  in  May  in  the  year  last  mentioned,  Mr.  Wood  bridge 
removed  here  and  boarded  with  Capt.  Konkapot.  Mr.  Sergeant  boarded  with  a  fami- 
ly in  Great  Barrington  until  January,  1737,  when  he  moved  into  town,  a"hd  boarded 
with  Mr.  Woodbridge,  who  had  settled  in  a  family  state.  The  first  residence  of  Mr. 
Woodbridge  was  on  the  "  Hill,"  eastward  from  the  house  of  Dea.  Josiah  Jones.  He 
afterwards  built  a  house  on  the  farm  now  owned  by  Mr.  Samuel  Goodrich.  In  the 
course  of  1737,  Mr.  Sergeant  built  the  house  on  the  "  Plain,"  occupied  at  the  present 
time  by  the  widow  of  Gen.  Silas  Pepoon,  and  which  is  now  the  oldest  house  in  town. 
He  afterwards  built  the  house  on  the  Hill,  now  occupied  by  his  grandson,  Maj.  Sewn  11 
Sergeant.  In  this  he  died. 

Ignorant  of  their  language,  Mr.  Sergeant  at  first  instructed  the  Indians,  of  neces- 
sity, by  the  aid  of  an  interpreter.  In  this  way  he  translated  into  their  language  some 
prayers  for  their  daily  use,  and  Watts's  first  catechism  for  the  benefit  of  children.  But 
as  the  disadvantages  of  this  mode  were  many,  he  applied  himself  diligently  to  the 
study  of  the  language,  and  in  August,  1737,  began  to  declare  unto  them  in  their  own 
tongue  the  wonderful  works  of  God.  Afterwards  he  made  such  proficiency  in  it,  that 
the  Indians  were  accustomed  to  say  he  spoke  their  language  better  than  they  did. 

The  effect  of  his  labors  upon  the  Indians  was  very  happy.  From  8  or  10  families 
they  had  increased  to  more  than  50,  during  his  ministry,  had  been  reclaimed  from 
many  errors  and  vices,  had  assumed  a  stable  character  as  a  society,  regularly  attended 
public  worship,  had  20  houses  built  after  the  English  manner,  and  paid  considerable 


attention  to  the  cultivation  of  the  earth.  In  singing  they  were  great  proficients.  Fifty 
or  sixty  who  had  become  hopeful  converts  were  admitted  to  full  communion  by  him  ; 
some  of  whom  died  in  the  faith  before  him :  42  survived  him.  He  baptized  182  na- 
tives, adults  and  infants.  His  services  were  also  greatly  useful  to  the  English  who 
settled  here. 

Ancient  House  in  Stockbridge. 

The  above  is  a  south-eastern  view  of  the  house  of  Mr.  Daniel 
B.  Fenn,  in  the  central  part  of  Stockbridge  village.  It  was  built 
by  Mr.  Sergeant  in  1737,  and  is  the  oldest  house  in  the  town. 
This  house  was  occupied  by  the  Rev.  Jonathan  Edwards  while  he 
resided  in  this  town,  and  within  its  walls  he  completed  his  cele- 
brated production,  "  The  Freedom  of  the  Will,"  which  is  thought 
by  many  to  be  the  greatest  production  of  the  human  mind.  His 
study  was  on  the  lower  floor  in  the  south-west  corner  of  the  build- 
ing, and  was  quite  contracted  in  its  limits,  being  but  about  five  feet 
by  four,  as  it  appears  by  the  marks  of  the  partition  still  remain- 
ing. The  walls  of  the  house  are  lined  with  brick.  After  Presi- 
dent Edwards  left  it  was  occupied  by  Jehiel  Woodbridge,  Esq.,  then 
by  Judge  Sedgwick,  then  Gen.  Silas  Pepoon,  and  now  by  Mr. 

Mr.  Sergeant  was  a  native  of  Newark,  N.  J.,  and  graduate  of 
Yale  College  1729.  In  stature  he  was  rather  small,  but  possessed 
a  very  intelligent,  expressive  countenance.  He  died  on  the  27th 
of  July,  1749,  and  was  succeeded  in  the  labors  of  the  mission  by 
the  Rev.  Jonathan  Edwards.  He  entered  upon  the  same  general 
course  of  instruction  which  his  predecessor  had  pursued,  and  dis- 
charged his  duties  with  his  wonted  faithfulness,  and  to  the  good 
acceptance  of  both  the  people  and  commissioners.  Besides  per- 
forming his  ministerial  duties,  he  here  wrote  some  of  his  greatest 
works.  Mr.  Edwards  continued  here  till  Jan.,  1758,  when  he  was 
dismissed,  to  take  the  presidency  of  Princeton  College.  At  the 
time  of  his  dismission,  the  number  of  Indian  families  were  reduced 
to  42.  Rev.  Stephen  West,  of  Tolland,  Conn.,  and  a  graduate  of 
Yale  College,  was  ordained  the  next  pastor  of  this  church,  June 
13th,  1759,  and  continued  over  them  until  the  removal  of  the 
Indians  to  the  state  of  New  York. 


This  town  was  gradually  settled  by  the  English,  who  bought 
out  the  Indian  rights  one  after  another  before  their  emigration. 
Some  of  the  earliest  white  settlers,  next  to  Mr.  Sergeant  and  Mr. 
Woodbridge,  were  Col.  Williams,  Josiah  Jones,  Joseph  Wood- 
bridge,  Samuel  Brown,  Samuel  Brown  Jr.,  Joshua  Chamberlain, 
David  Pixley,  John  Willard,  John  Taylor,  Jacob  Cooper,  Elisha 
Parsons,  Stephen  Nash,  James  Wilson,  Josiah  Jones  Jun.,  Thomas 
Sherman,  and  Solomon  Glezen.  Families  by  the  name  of  Ball, 
Hamilton,  Cadwell,  and  Lynch  were  in  the  west  part  of  the  town, 
of  Curtis  and  Churchill  in  the  north,  and  of  Bradley  and  Williams 
in  the  east,  at  an  early  period. 

The  great  body  of  the  people  in  this  town  have  ever  been  Con- 
gregationalists ;  though  there  are  some  Episcopalians,  a  few  Bap- 
tists and  Methodists.  The  principal  village,  about  half  a  mile  in 
extent,  is  beautifully  situated  on  the  Plain,  a  tract  of  level  land 
between  tl  the  Hill"  and  the  Housatonic,  moderately  elevated  above 
the  river.  It  consists  of  about  40  dwelling-houses,  a  Congrega- 
tional church,  a  bank,  and  academy.  The  scenery  of  the  town 
has  been  much  admired  by  strangers.  It  is  situated  6  miles  S.  of 
Lenox,  44  from  Springfield,  59  from  Hartford,  32  from  Hudson, 
34  from  Albany,  and  130  W.  of  Boston.  Population,  2,036.  There 
are  in  the  town  a  cotton  mill  with  3,780  spindles,  2  woollen  mills 
with  8  sets  of  machinery,  and  2  furnaces,  one  of  which  is  for  the 
manufacture  of  pig  iron,  of  which  in  1837  thirteen  hundred  arid 
thirty-seven  tons  were  made,  valued  at  $53,480. 

[From  the  Boston  Post  Boy,  Sept.  3,  1739.] 

"In  a  letter  from  a  friend  in  the  country,  dated  Aug.  21,  1739,  we  have  the  follow- 
ing passages.  I  have  lately  been  to  see  my  friends  at  Housatonnoe,  (now  called  Stock- 
bridge,)  and  was  well  pleased  to  find  the  Indians  so  well  improv'd,  particularly  in 
husbandry,  having  good  fields 'of  Indian  corn,  and  beans,  and  oiher  sorts  of  grain,  as 
oats,  &c.  They  have  good  fence  about  their  field,  made  with  their  own  hands.  Some 
of  them  live  in  houses  built  after  the  English  manner,  and  Capt.  Concopot  has  built  a 
barn  that  is  well  shingled,  &c.  They  have  several  horses  among  them,  and  some 
cows,  hogs,  &c.  They  are  many  of  them  grown  industrious  and  diligent  in  busi- 
ness ;  I  observed  several  young  women  sewing  cloth,  making  shirts,  &c.  But  I  was 
in  special  gratify'd  to  find  them  improv'd  in  learning  ;  several  of  them  have  made  good 
proficiency,  can  read  in  their  Testaments  and  Bibles,  and  some  of  them  can  write  a 
good  hand  :  the  children  are  in  general  as  mannerly  as  you  find  in  any  country  town. 
There  are  about  20  families  of  Indians  that  live  there  ;  and  now  the  great  and  general 
court  have  taken  such  effectual  care,  and  put  them  in  possession  of  the  land,  they 
have  designed  for  them,  (which  hitherto  they  have  been  hindered  from  possessing,) 
I  make  no  doubt  but  they  will  greatly  increase  in  number  ;  for  several  Indians  have 
been  with  them,  and  manifested  a  desire  to  tarry  with  them,  could  they  have  land  to 
work  upon.  There  is  a  church  gather d  and  fourteen  Indian  communicants  ;  the 
number  of  the  baptiz'd  is  near  sixty.  While  I  was  at  Stockbridge,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Ser- 
geant (the  minister  there)  was  married  to  Mrs.  Abigail  Williams,  a  virtuous  and 
agreeable  young  gentlewoman,  daughter  of  Ephraim  Williams,  Esq.'  There  were 
ninety  Indians  present  at  the  marriage,  who  behaved  with  great  gravity  while  the 
prayers  were  made,  yea,  during  the  whole  solemnity ;  and  seem'd  exceedingly  well 
pleased  that  their  minister  was  married  ;  they  show  him  great  respect,  &c.  And  1 
hope  he  may  prove  yet  a  great  blessing  among  them,  and  be  instrumental  of  turning 
many  of  them  from  darkness  to  light. 

lam  your's,  fyc." 

The  following  is  the  inscription  on  the  monument  of  Mr.  Ser- 
geant, in  the  grave-yard  near  the  Congregational  church. 



Here  lies  the  body  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  John  Sergeant,  who  dy'd  the  27th  day  of  July, 
A.  D.  1749  in  the  46th  year  of  his  age. 

Where  is  that  pleasing  form  I  ask.  thou  canst  not  show, 
He's  not  within  false  stone,  there's  nought  but  dust  below  ; 
And  where's  that  pious  soul  that  thinking  concious  mind, 
Wilt  thou  pretend  vain  cypher  that's  with  thee  inshrin'd  ? 
Alas,  my  friend's  not  here  with  thee  that  I  can  find, 
Here's  not  a  Sergeant's  body  or  a  Sergeant's  mind: 
I'll  seek  him  hence,  for  all's  a  like  deception  here, 
•  I'll  go  to  Heaven,  and  I  shall  find  my  Sergeant  there. 


THE  settlement  of  this  town  commenced  in  1739.  In  April  of 
that  year  Lieut.  Isaac  Garfield,  Thomas  Slaton,  and  John  Chad- 
wick,  moved  into  the  place.  In  August  following,  Capt,  John 
Brewer,  from  Hopkinton,  moved  into  the  town  and  put  up  a 
house ;  and  erected  mills  for  the  use  of  the  inhabitants,  agreeably 
to  a  contract  with  the  proprietors,  on  the  site  of  the  present  Lang- 
don  mills.  Concerning  Capt.  Brewer,  it  is  worthy  of  notice  that 
he  was  the  father  of  13  children,  and  his  youngest  child,  Col.  Jo- 
siah  Brewer,  (born  in  1744,)  had  exactly  the  same  number.  In 
the  French  war  beginning  in  1744,  several  houses  were  fortified, 
and  the  fortifications  were  rebuilt  upon  the  alarm  produced  by  two 
or  three  murders  in  the  vicinity,  in  August,  1755.  The  first  and 
principal  of  these  fortifications  was  around  the  house  of  Capt. 
Brewer,  at  which  some  soldiers  were  placed  by  the  provincial  gov- 
ernment. Among  thes.e  were  William  Hale,  who  had  assisted  in 
building  Fort  Massachusetts,  in  Adams.  He  became  a  settler  here 
as  early  as  1747,  and  was  afterwards  a  deacon  in  the  church. 
About  1750,  John  Jackson  moved  into  the  town  from  Weston,  and 
persons  by  the  names  of  Thomas  and  Orton ;  and  four  brothers 
by  the  name  of  Warren,  with  their  father  Joshua,  (the  first  person 
born  in  Watertown,)  moved  into  it  about  the  same  time.  The 
south  part  of  the  town,  sometimes  called  South  Tyringham,  was 
generally  settled  at  an  early  period  ;  but  Hopbrook,  or  North  Ty- 
ringham, was  left  as  an  insalubrious  marsh  for  more  than  20  years. 
The  first  log  house  in  this  section  of  the  town  was  erected  by  Dea. 
Thomas  Orton,  about  1762.  The  first  settlers  were  Congregational- 
ists,  and  in  1743  they  erected  a  meeting-house.  The  church  was 
formed  of  S  members,  Sept.  25,  1750,  and  on  the  3d  of  October  fol- 
lowing Rev.  Adonijah  Bidwell,  a  native  of  Hartford,  Con.,  and 
graduate  of  Yale  College  in  1740,  was  ordained  its  pastor.  Iri 
1796,  the  society  built  the  second  meeting-house  near  the  old  one, 
which  was  dedicated  July  4,  1798.  In  1782,  a  portion  of  the  peo- 
ple became  Shakers,  and  set  up  meetings  at  each  other's  houses, 
according  to  the  customs  of  this  sect.  In  1792,  they  collected 
together  in  a  body,  and  formed  themselves  into  what  they 
denominate  church  order.  Their  settlement  is  in  the  north  part 
of  the  town,  at  Hopbrook,  where  they  own  nearly  2,000  acres  of 
land.  The  spiritual  concerns  of  the  three  settlements  at  Tyring- 


ham,  Hancock,  and  Enfield,  in  Con.,  are  superintended  by  a  presid- 
ing elder,  assisted  by  a  subordinate  elder  in  each  settlement.  After 
the  close  of  the  revolutionary  war  some  Baptists  moved  into  the 
town  from  Rhode  Island,  and  there  are  also  some  families  of 
Methodists.  These  denominations  have  meeting-houses  in  the 
north  part  of  the  town. 

This  town  is  7  miles  in  length  and  5  in  width.  It  was  incor- 
porated by  the  general  court  May  18,  1762.  It  is  said  the  name 
was  given  at  the  suggestion  of  Lord  Viscount  Howe,  who  owned 
property  at  Tyringham  in  England,  and  who  passed  through  this 
town  a  few  days  before  he  fell  near  Ticonderoga,  July  6,  1758. 
This  town  is  14  miles  S.  E.  of  Lenox,  and  116  W.  of  Boston. 
Population,  1,288. 


THIS  town  was  purchased  of  the  Indians,  in  1760,  by  a  com- 
pany, most  of  which  lived  in  Hartford  and  Suffield,  Con.  Some  of 
the  proprietors  settled  on  their  lands  the  same  year.  These  were 
George  Sloan,  Andrew  Mumford,  William  Milekan,  Elijah  Crane, 
Amos  Beard,  William  Beard,  Joseph  Knox,  Nathan  Ingraham, 
Joseph  Chaplin,  and  Matthew  DeWolf.  After  the  settlement  was 
commenced,  the  proprietors  met  with  some  difficulty  by  the  pro- 
vince authorities  claiming  a  right  to  the  township;  whereupon 
Nathaniel  Hooker,  John  Townly,  and  Isaac  Sheldon,  of  Hartford, 
in  behalf  of  themselves  and  57  others,  proprietors,  in  the  begin- 
ning of  1762  petitioned  the  general  court  of  Massachusetts  to  grant 
them  the  township.  This  grant  was  made  in  February  of  the 
following  year,  from  which  time  till  1777  it  was  called  Hartwood, 
The  church  in  this  town  was  formed  as  early  as  1772.  After  two 
unsuccessful  efforts  to  settle  a  pastor,  the  Rev.  William  G.  Ballan- 
tine,  of  Westneld,  was  ordained,  June  15,  1774.  The  first  meet- 
ing-house was  built  in  1773,  which  stood  till  1792,  when  a  new 
one  was  erected.  An  Episcopal  church,  called  St.  John's  church, 
was  formed  here  in  1825.  There  are  a  considerable  number  of 
Baptists  and  also  of  Methodists  in  the  town. 

This  town  was  incorporated  by  its  present  name  April  12,  1777. 
It  being  situated  on  the  Green  mountain  range,  the  surface  is 
uneven,  diversified  by  hills  and  valleys.  The  township  is  well 
watered  by  pure  springs  and  brooks,  and  furnishes  in  every  part 
good  farms  for  grazing.  A  few  years  since  a  considerable  number 
of  the  principal  farmers  exchanged  their  improved  farms  in  this 
place  for  new  lands  in  Ohio,  on  the  St.  Lawrence,  in  New  York, 
and  elsewhere,  and  removed,  by  which  the  population  and  prop- 
erty of  the  town  have  been  much  diminished.  This  town  is  situ- 
ated 8  miles  E.  of  Lenox,  and  120  W.  of  Boston.  Population,  7W. 




North-western  view  of  West  Stockbridge  Village. 

THIS  town  originally  belonged  to  the  Stockbridge  Indians,  and 
was  sold  by  them  in  parcels  to  individual  purchasers.  The  first 
person  who  settled  in  the  town  was  Joseph  Bryan,  from  Canaan, 
Conn.,  in  1766.  In  the  fall  of  the  same  year  Col.  Elijah  Williams, 
from  Stockbridge,  settled  in  that  part  of  the  town  now  called 
West  Stockbridge  village.  Between  this  time  and  1774,  about 
40  families  settled  in  the  town,  among  whom  were  the  families  of 
Increase  He  wings,  Elisha  Hooper,  Lemuel  Burghardt,  Christopher 
Brazee,  John  Minkler  and  Samuel  Boynton,  from  different  places 
in  this  state,  and  Ichabod  Miller,  Samuel  Mudge,  Elijah  Slosson, 
Josiah  Arnold,  John  Deming,  Matthew  Benedict,  Roderic  Messen- 
ger, Benjamin  Lewis,  John  Ford,  Ambrose  Collins,  and  Amasa 
and  James  Spencer,  from  Connecticut. 

The  early  settlers  generally  planted  themselves  down  in  the  north  part  of  the  town, 
where  the  lands  are  the  most  feasible  and  productive.  The  first  meeting-house  in  this 
town  was  built  in  1788,  and  the  church  organized  June  4,  1789.  Their  first  minister 
was  the  Rev.  Oliver  Ayres.  The  Baptist  church  was  organized  in  1792,  and  the 
society  incorporated  and  a  meeting-house  built  in  1794.  The  Rev.  Samuel  Whelpley, 
from  Stockbridge,  preached  to  them  for  a  number  of  years  from  the  time  the  society 
was  formed. 

This  town  was  incorporated  in  1774,  and  its  name  was  derived  from  its  relation  to 
Stockbridge.  Before  its  incorporation  it  was  called  Queensborough.  A  collection  of 
rugged  hills  occupy  the  center  of  the  town.  Near  the  south-west  corner  is  a  mountain 
called  Tom  Ball,  extending  into  Great  Barrington  and  Alford,  while  Stockbridge  moun- 
tain is  on  the  eastern  side.  The  south  and  south-eastern  parts  consist  generally  of 
rough,  broken  land.  Lime  quarries  abound.  There  is  much  valuable  marble  in  the 
town,  of  various  colors ;  some  hardly  less  inferior  in  whiteness  to  snow,  some  parti- 
colored, mostly  with  blue ;  some  is  dove-colored,  some  is  gray,  and  some  is  black.  In 
Boynston's  quarry,  near  the  village,  (in  1828,)  an  opening  or  fissure  in  the  rocks, 
about  15  feet  deep  and  from  18  to  4  inches  in  diameter,  was  charged  with  204  pounds 
of  powder.  Upon  firing  it  a  mass  of  marble  was  raised,  about  60  feet  square  on  the 
surface  and  8  feet  thick,  and  at  least  twice  that  quantity  was  loosened. 

West  Stockbridge  village  is  situated  near  the  north  line  of  the  town,  on  Williams' 
river,  a  mill  stream  passing  through  the  whole  extent  of  the  town.  It  consists  of  about 
30  dwelling-houses,  2  churches,  1  Congregational  and  1  Methodist,  (erected  in  1838,) 
and  a  number  of  mills  for  sawing  marble.  Stockbridge  mountain  rises  immediately 
eastward  of  the  village,  and  is  the  boundary  between  the  towns.  This  place  is  5  miles 
from  Lenox,  5  from  Stockbridge,  47  from  Springfield,  63  from  Hartford,  28  from  Hud- 
.son,  30  from  Albany,  and  135  from  Boston.  Population  of  the  town,  1,244. 




THIS  town  is  in  the  north-west  corner  of  the  state.  It  was  ex- 
plored, together  with  the  town  of  Adams,  and  the  limits  traced,  oy 
a  committee  of  the  general  court,  in  1749.  The  committee  con- 
sisted of  Col.  Partridge,  of  Hatfield,  and  Col.  Choate  and  Capt. 
Nathaniel  Dwight,  of  Belchertown.  Both  towns  were  intended  to 
be  6  miles  square,  but  for  some  reasons  they  were  laid  out  7  miles 
in  length  and  5  in  width.  This  township  was  called  West  Hoo- 
sic  and  the  adjoining  one  East  Hoosic.  This  was  the  Indian 
name  of  the  tract  embraced  in  these  towns.  The  first  meeting  of 
the  proprietors  of  which  any  record  is  preserved  was  held  Dec.  5, 
1753,  by  virtue  of  a  warrant  of  William  Williams,  Esq.,  of  Pitts- 
field,  "  issued  in  pursuance  of  a  vote  of  the  general  court  of  Mas- 
sachusetts Bay,"  Sept.  10,1753.  But  "the  house  lots"  in  the 
north  part  of  the  town  were  laid  out  previous  to  this  meeting. 
The  settlement  of  this  town,  like  that  of  others  of  that  day,  was 
retarded  by  Indian  hostilities.  Nehemiah  Smedley,  William  and 
Josiah  Hosford,  and  some  other  young  men,  came  to  prepare  for 
themselves  and  families  a  settlement  here,  it  is  believed,  in  1751  or 
52.  But  they  were  interrupted  by  the  increasing  hostility  of  the 
Indians  in  those  years.  Returning  to  Connecticut,  they  enlisted  in 
a  company  raised  to  protect  the  frontiers,  and  came  again  with 
others  to  this  place  and  garrisoned  a  fort,  which  stood  a  few  rods 
north  of  the  present  meeting-house,  and  also  a  block-house  near 
the  west  college.  A  few  soldiers  were  kept  here  in  garrison  till 
1760.  But  the  inhabitants  were  exposed  to  frequent  alarms.  Some 
were  carried  into  captivity,  and  in  an  attack  July  11,  1756,  Capt. 
Chapin  and  two  persons  by  the  name  of  Chidestree  were  killed. 
The  dangers  nearly  ceased  at  the  close  of  the  French  war.  The 
following  are  most  of  the  early  settlers  from  the  first,  till  about 

Capt.  Nehemiah  Smedley, 

William  Hosford, 

Josiah  Hosford, 

Col.  B.  Simmons, 

Seth  Hudson, 

Richard  Stratton, 

Jonathan  Meacham, 

James  Meacham, 

Thomas  Train, 

Thomas  Dunton, 

Wilson  Webb, 

Derrick  Webb, 

Elkanah  Paris, 

Capt.  Isaac  Searle, 

John  Newbury, 

Elisha  Higgins, 

Dea.  Nathan  Wheeler, 

Mr.  Seely, 

Elisha  Baker  and  Son, 

William  Hine, 

Seth  Lewis, 

David  Nichols, 

Stephen  Davis, 

Titus  Harrison, 
Isaac  Ovitt, 
Thomas  Ovitt, 
Josiah  Wright, 
Jesse  Ryan, 
Samuel  Birchard, 
Joseph  Wheeler, 
Asa  Johnson, 
Robert  Hawkins, 
Derrick  Smith, 
Joseph  Talmadge, 
Elisha  Higgins, 
Stephen  Olmsted, 
Nathan  Smith, 
Isaac  Stratton, 
Daniel  Burbank, 
Robert  McMaster, 
John  McMaster, 
Moses  Rich, 

Bartholomew  Woodcock, 
Nehemiah  Woodcock, 
David  Johnson, 
Samuel  Sloane, 

Alexander  Sloane, 
Thomas  Roe, 
Ichabod  Southwick, 
Jesse  Southwick, 
John  Torrey, 
William  Torrey, 
Capt.  Samuel  Clark, 
Moses  Young, 
Andrew  Young, 
William  Young, 
Zebadiah  Sabin, 
David  Johnson,  2d, 
Asa  Corben, 
Amasa  Corben,' 
Joseph  Corben, 
Samuel  Mills, 
Jonathan  Sherwood, 
Samuel  Sherwood, 
Isaac  Sherwood, 


Lieut.  Sampson  Howe. 

Capt.  Smedley  (at  the  head  of  this  list)  had  five  brothers  who  settled  in  the  place. 


The  town  received  also  a  large  number  of  inhabitants  at  differ- 
ent times,  between  1770  and  1800,  from  Colchester,  Con.,  among 
which  were  all  the  Buckleys,  Bridgeses,  Chamberlains,  Days, 
Fords,  Judds,  Northarns,  Skinners,  Tylers,  Judah  and  Elisha 
Williams,  Elijah,  Thomas,  and  Solomon  Wolcott.  At  a  meeting 
of  the  proprietors,  March  10,  1763,  it  was  voted,  "  that  for  the 
future"  they  u  would  have  preaching,"  and  accordingly  a  call  was 
given  to  llev.  Moses  Warren  to  preach  on  probation.  Two  years 
after  this,  and  immediately  after  the  incorporation  of  the  town,  the 
proprietors  called  Mr.  Whitman  Welch  "  to  the  work  of  the  min- 
istry in  this  town,"  July  26,  1765.  His  settlement  was  £80, 
($267)  to  be  paid  one  half  the  first  year,  the  other  half  the  year 
following.  His  salary  was  at  first  £40,  and  was  to  be  increased 
£3  annually,  until  it  should  amount  to  £70,  and  he  was  to  have 
the  use  of  the  ministry-house  lot.  He  was  ordained  the  latter  part 
of  the  year  1765,  and  continued  the  pastor  of  the  church  nearly  1.2 

Mr.  Welch  was  a  native  of  Milford,  Con.,  and  great-grandson  of  Thomas  "Welch, 
one  of  the  53  "  first  planters"  of  that  town.  His  father  dying  early,  the  care  of  his 
education  devolved  on  an  uncle,  with  whom  he  went  to  reside  in  New  Milford.  He 
graduated  at  Yale  College,  in  1762.  He  was  a  man  of  intelligence,  and  was  social  in 
his  habits,  and  at  suitable  times  gay  and  sportive.  He  was  an  animated  preacher, 
and  attentive  to  the  duties  of  his  office.  In  the  winter  of  1776,  he  went  with  the 
American  army  to  Canada  as  chaplain,  in  a  regiment  to  which  a  party  belonged, 
commanded  by  Lieut.  Zebadiah  Sabin,  of  Williamstown.  Mr.  Welch  died  of  the 
small-pox  in  March  of  the  same  year,  near  Quebec. 

The  first  proposal  to  build  a  meeting-house  was  in  1766,  in  De- 
cember of  which  year  it  was  voted  to  build  a  house  40  feet  by  30, 
and  to  raise  £180  for  this  purpose.  The  house  was  erected  in 
1768,  and  was  occupied  by  the  congregation  for  30  years,  when  it 
was  removed  and  fitted  up  for  a  town-house,  and  a  new  meeting- 
house erected,  76  feet  in  length  and  55  in  width,  at  the  cost  of  about 
$6,000.  The  meeting-house  at  the  south  part  of  the  town  was 
erected  by  subscription  in  1812,  by  the  united  exertions  of  Con- 
gregationa lists  and  Baptists.  There  was  early  a  small  Baptist 
congregation  in  this  town.  In  May,  1791,  the  town  refused  "  to 
incorporate  Matthew  Dunning  and  14  others  into  a  Baptist  socie- 
ty," according  to  their  petition.  The  next  year  "  Isaac  Holmes 
was  chosen  tythingman  for  the  Baptist  society  in  this  town," 
(town  records).  This  church  included  some  members  from  Han- 
cock, but  was  always  small,  and  was  dissolved  in  1811.  In  1814, 
another  Baptist  church  was  organized,  which  is  now  in  a  flourish- 
ing state. 

The  principal  street  in  Williamstown  passes  over  the  highest  part 
of  three  eminences  ;  on  the  first  of  which  stands  the  east  college  and 
the  chapel,  on  the  second  the  west  college,  and  on  the  third  the 
Congregational  church,  from  which  the  drawing  for  the  engraving 
was  taken.  There  are  about  50  dwelling-houses  near  the  colleges, 
standing  compactly  enough  together  to  be  called  a  village.  This 
place  is  20  miles  from  Pittsfield,  45  from  Northampton,  14  from 
Bennington,  34  from  Troy,  and  135  miles  from  Boston. 



Williams  College,  in  Williamstown,  was  founded  in  1790,  was 
incorporated  June  22,  1793,  and  held  its  first  commencement  in 
1795,  on  the  first  Wednesday  in  September,  which  is  still  its  anni- 
versary. It  was  thus  called  in  honor  of  Col.  Ephraim  Williams, 
a  native  of  Newton,  near  Boston,  and  eldest  son  of  Col.  Ephraim 

Western  view  of  Williams  College  and  other  buildings. 

Williams,  who  was  afterwards  one  of  the  first  settlers  of  Stock- 
bridge,  and  a  justice  of  the  court  of  common  pleas  in  the  county 
of  Hampshire.  The  following  account  of  Williams  College,  and 
of  Col.  Williams  its  founder,  is  by  the  Rev.  Chester  Dewey,  and  is 
extracted  from  the  History  of  Berksire  County. 

11  Col.  Williams,  the  younger,  led  for  a  number  of  years~a  seafar- 
ing life,  but  was  induced  to  relinquish  it  by  the  persuasion  of  his 
father.  In  his  several  voyages  to  Europe,  in  which  he  visited 
England,  Spain,  and  Holland,  he  acquired  graceful  manners,  and 
a  considerable  stock  of  useful  knowledge.  In  the  war  between 
England  and  France,  which  continued  from  1744  to  1748,  he  dis- 
tinguished himself  as  commander  of  a  company  in  the  army  rais- 
ed in  New  England  for  the  Canada  service.  After  the  peace,  he 
retired  a  while  to  Hatfield,  but  was  soon  appointed  commander  of 
the  line  of  Massachusetts  forts  on  the  west  side  of  Connecticut 
river,  and  resided  principally  at  Fort  Massachusetts,  which  stood 
not  far  from  the  north-eastern  end  of  Saddle  mountain,  on  the 
north  border  of  the  Hoosic,  in  the  edge  of  "Adams,  three  and  a 
half  miles  from  Williamstown.  Under  the  protection  of  this  fort, 
and  a  small  one  in  Williamstown,  which  stood  a  few  rods  north- 
west of  the  present  site  of  the  meeting-house,  the  settlers  in  this 
section  of  the  county  began  their  improvements.  Col.  Williams, 
who  owned  considerable  land  among  them,  was  much  conversant 
with  them,  witnessed  their  dangers,  difficulties  and  hardships,  and, 
for  the  purpose  of  encouraging  them,  intimated  an  intention  of 
doing  something  liberal  and  handsome  for  them  at  a  future  time. 
In  the  second  French  war,  in  1755,  he  was  colonel  of  a  regiment, 


and  was  ordered  to  join  Gen.  Johnson  at  the  north.  On  his  way 
to  that  station,  on  the  22d  of  July  in  that  year,  he  made  his  will 
at  Albany.  On  the  morning  of  the  8th  of  September  following, 
he  was  ordered  out  at  the  head  of  a  scouting  party,  1,200  strong, 
and  was  shot  through  the  head  by  an  ambush  party  of  French 
and  Indians,  near  French  mountain,  a  little  east  of  that  point  of 
Lake  George  on  which  Fort  George  was  built  in  1759,  in  the  42d 
year  of  his  age.  His  detachment  returned  to  the  main  army, 
which  the  same  day  obtained  a  memorable  victory  over  the 

In  his  will,  after  several  bequests  to  his  relatives  and  friends, 
he  directed,  "  that  the  remainder  of  his  land  should  be  sold,  at  the 
discretion  of  his  executors,  within  five  years  after  an  established 
peace ;  and  that  the  interest  of  the  monies  arising  from  the  sale, 
and  also  the  interest  of  his  notes  and  bonds,  should  be  applied 
to  the  support  of  a  free  school,  in  a  township  west  of  Fort  Mas- 
sachusetts, forever ;  provided  said  township  fall  within  Massachu- 
setts, upon  running  the  line  between  Massachusetts  and  New 
York,  and  provided  the  said  township  when  incorporated  shall  be 
called  Williamstown ;"  otherwise  it  was  to  be  applied  to  certain 
other  pious  and  charitable  uses.  Both  of  these  conditions  took 

The  executors  of  the  will  sold  the  land  agreeably  to  the  direc- 
tions of  the  testator,  and  by  their  provident  and  faithful  manage- 
ment the  fund  was  annually  increased.  In  the  year  1785,  they 
applied  to  the  general  court  for  an  act  to  enable  them  to  carry  into 
effect  the  benevolent  intention  of  the  testator ;  and  an  act  was  ac- 
cordingly passed,  incorporating  a  free  school  in  Williamstown. 
Nine  gentlemen  were  appointed  trustees  of  the  fund  and  of  the 
school,  viz.  William  Williams  of  Dalton,  Theodore  Sedgwick, 
Woodbridge  Little,  John  Bacon,  Thompson  Joseph  Skinner, 
Esquires,  the  Reverend  Seth  Swift  and  Daniel  Collins,  Mr.  Israel 
Jones  and  Mr.  David  Noble,  who  voted  in  1788  to  erect  a  building 
for  its  use.  The  legislature  granted  them  a  lottery,  which  yield- 
ed about  $3,500.  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  raised  by  subscrip- 
tion $2,000  more  towards  the  building,  and  in  1790  the  brick 
edifice,  now  the  west  college,  was  built  on  the  middle  eminence 
in  the  principal  street,  82  feet  long,  42  broad,  four  stories,  contain- 
ing 28  rooms  and  a  small  chapel.  The  expense  of  the  building 
was  about  $11,700,  and  the  funds  then  remaining  at  interest 
amounted  to  about  the  same  sum. 

The  school  was  opened  in  October,  1791,  under  Mr.  Ebenezer 
Fitch,  a  native  of  Canterbury,  Conn.,  who  had  been  a  tutor  at 
Yale  College.  It  consisted  of  two  departments,  an  academy  or 
grammar  school,  and  an  English  free  school ;  and,  under  the  direc- 
tion of  this  gentleman,  immediately  became  prosperous.  A  con- 
siderable number  of  students  resorted  to  it  from  Massachusetts 
and  the  neighboring  states,  and  even  from  Canada.  Upon  the  de- 
sire of  the  people  of  Williamstown  and  others,  and  to  effect  more 
perfectly  the  object  of  the  donor,  the  legislature,  in  June,  1793, 


erected  this  into  a  college,  and  accompanied  the  charter  with  a 
grant  of  $4,000.  The  trustees  of  the  original  school,  together  with 
Henry  Van  Schaack,  Esq.,  of  Pittsfield,  Elijah  Williams,  Esq.,  of 
Deerfield,  and  the  Rev.  Stephen  West,  were  constituted  trustees  of 
the  college.  In  the  charter  it  was  provided  that  the  trustees  might 
be  seventeen  in  number,  (of  whom  the  president  ex  officio  is  one,) 
that  they  might  fill  their  own  vacancies,  and  hold  property,  the 
annual  income  of  which  shall  amount  to  $20,000.  Mr.  Fitch, 
now  the  Rev.  Dr.  Fitch,  was  elected  president,  and  the  college  be- 
gan its  operations  in  October  of  this  year,  by  the  admission  of 
three  small  classes.  The  English  free  school  was  discontinued, 
but  the  academy  continued  for  some  years  in  connection  with  the 
college.  In  1794,  a  lot  was  purchased  and  a  house  built  for  the 
president,  which  together  cost  $2,400.  In  January,  1796,  the 
legislature  granted  to  the  president  and  trustees,  two  townships 
of  land  in  the  district  of  Maine,  which  were  sold  in  May  for  about 
$10,000 ;  which,  with  a  considerable  sum  besides,  were  applied  in 
1797  and  8  to  build  the  east  college.  This  stands  on  the  eastern 
eminence  in  the  principal  street,,  about  60  rods  from  the  other  col- 
lege, on  the  south  side  of  the  road.  This  is  also  of  brick,  104  feet 
long,  28  broad,  four  stories,  containing  32  suites  of  rooms.  Both 
colleges  front  the  east. 

Two  townships  have  since  been  granted  to  the  college,  and  sold 
less  advantageously.  The  college  also  received  from  the  com- 
monwealth three  thousand  dollars  annually  for  ten  years,  begin- 
ning with  1814;  the  interest  of  one  fourth  of  which  ($7,500)  is 
applied  annually  to  the  payment  of  the  bills  of  such  students  as 
need  assistance.  Woodbridge  Little,  Esq.,  of  Pittsfield,  one  of  the 
first  trustees,  made  a  donation  of  $2,500  in  1811,  and  raised  the 
sum  to  near  $5,700  at  the  time  of  his  death,  in  June,  1813 ;  the 
interest  of  which  is  applied  also  to  assist  young  men  intended  for 
the  Christian  ministry.  In  1820,  more  than  $17,500  were  added 
to  the  funds  of  the  college  by  subscription ;  and  in  1826,  $25,000 
more  were  raised  in  the  same  manner,  for  the  establishment  of  a 
new  professorship,  and  the  erection  of  a  new  chapel.  In  the  sum- 
mer of  1828,  the  chapel  was  erected,  and  on  the  2d  of  September 
dedicated  to  the  service  of  God.  It  is  of  brick,  stands  on  the  op- 
posite side  of  the  road  from  the  east  college,  facing  the  south,  93 
feet  long,  38  wide,  and  three  stories  high.  It  contains,  besides  the 
large  and  convenient  room  for  the  chapel,  a  chemical  laboratory, 
lecture  rooms,  apartments  for  the  philosophical  apparatus,  the 
mineralogical  collection,  the  libraries,  the  meetings  of  the  trustees, 
&c.  In  addition  to  the  buildings  already  mentioned,  the  corpora- 
tion own  a  house  and  lot,  designed  for  the  accommodation  of  one 
of  the  professors,  and  a  right  in  the  meeting-house. 

The  fast  property  of  the  college,  with  the  library,  apparatus, 
and  cabinet  of  minerals,  has  cost  about  $44,000,  and  the  produc- 
tive fund  is  $66,000. 

The  college  library  is  a  choice  selection  of  books,  amounting 
to  little  more  than  2,000  volumes.  The  library  of  the  students, 



called  the  Adelphic  Union  Library,  the  library  of  the  Theologi- 
cal Society,  and  a  collection  of  class  books,  called  the  Franklin 
Library,  for  the  immediate  use  of  the  indigent  students,  amount  to 
about  half  that  number. 

The  philosophical  and  chemical  apparatus  is  well  selected. 

The  immediate  instruction  and  government  of  the  college  is 
placed  in  the  president,  professors  and  tutors,  who  compose  the 
faculty.  Besides  the  president  and  tutors,  there  is  established  a 
professorship  of  divinity,  of  law,  of  moral  philosophy  and  rhet- 
oric, of  mathematics  and  natural  philosophy,  of  chemistry  and 
natural  history,  and  of  languages,  and  a  lectureship  of  anatomy. 
There  was  formerly  a  professorship  of  the  French  language. 

The  terms  of  admission  and  the  course  of  instruction  are  the 
same  substantially  as  in  the  other  New  England  colleges. 

With  this  college,  the  Berkshire  Medical  Institution,  at  Pittsfield, 
is  connected. 

Williamstown  was  incorporated  by  the  general  court  of  Massa- 
chusetts in  1765.  The  township  is  nearly  7  miles  in  length  and  a 
little  more  than  5  in  breadth.  The  general  character  of  the 
soil  is  clayey,  though  loam  predominates  in  some  places,  and  a 
few  spots  of  some  extent  may  be  called  gravelly.  Some  of  the 
best  lands  lie  along  the  Hoosic,  particularly  in  the  eastern  part 
of  the  town,  though  not  a  very  large  tract  can  properly  be  called 
meadow.  A  tract  of  considerable  extent  in  the  south  part  of  the 
town,  about  the  junction  of  the  two  principal  branches  of  Green 
river,  and  along  up  those  streams,  is  also  particularly  fertile  and 
beautiful.  But  the  hills  also,  and  generally  the  mountain  sides, 
almost,  and  sometimes  quite,  upto  their  tops,  have  a  good  and  in 
many  places  an  excellent  soil,  suited  both  to  grazing  and  tillage, 
though  generally  best  for  the  former.  In  1837,  there  were  in  the 
town  2,000  Saxony  sheep,  merino  sheep  5,800,  other  kinds  of 
sheep  200;  Saxony  wool  produced,  5,000  Ibs.,  merino  wool,  17,400 
Ibs. ;  1  cotton  and  2  woollen  mills.  Population,  1,981. 

The  following  facts,  though  remarkable,  are  not  solitary ;  seve- 
ral similar  cases  are  recorded. 

In  1806,  a  strong  and  beautiful  bug  eat  out  of  a  table  made  from  an  apple-tree, 
which  grew  on  the  farm  of  Maj.  Gen.  Putnam,  in  Brooklyn,  Con.,  and  which  was 
brought  to  Williamstown  when  his  son,  Mr.  P.  S.  Putnam,  removed  to  that  town.  It 
was  cut  down  in  1786,  sixty-five  years  after  it  was  transplanted,  and  if  the  tree  was 
then  fifteen  years  old,  it  was  80  years  old  when  cut  down.  As  the  cortical  layers  of 
the  leaf  of  the  table  are  about  sixty,  and  extend  within  about  five  of  the  heart,  as  the 
inner  ones  are  quite  convex,  about  fifteen  layers  have  been  cut  off  from  the  outside. 
In  1814,  a  third  bug  made  his  way  out,  the  second  having  appeared  two  or  three  years 
before.  The  last  bug  came  forth  from  nearest  the  heart,  and  45  cortical  layers  distant, 
on  the  supposition  of  its  age,  from  the  outside.  The  tree  had  now  been  cut  down  28 
years.  Of  course,  the  egg  must  have  been  deposited  in  the  wood  seventy-three  years 
before.  This  bug  eat  about  three  inches  along  the  grain,  till  it  emerged  into  the  light. 
The  eating  of  the  insect  was  heard  for  weeks  before  its  appearance.  These  facts  were 
given  by  Mr.  Putnam,  in  whose  possession  the  table  still  remains,  and  were  first  pub- 
lished in  the  Repertory  at  Middlebury,  Vt.,  in  1816.  One  of  the  bugs,  preserved  for 

WINDSOR.  109 

some  time  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Fitch,  "  was  about  an  inch  and  one  fourth  long,  and  one 
third  inch  in  diameter ;  color,  dark  glistening  brown,  with  tints  of  yellow." — Hist,  of 
Berkshire,  p.  39. 


THIS  township  was  purchased  at  Boston,  by  Noah  Nash,  for 
£1,430,  on  the  2d  of  June,  1762,  and  called,  among  the  townships 
purchased  at  that  time,  No.  4.  When  it  was  incorporated  in  1771, 
it  was  called  Gageborough,  in  honor  of  General  Gage,  then  British 
governor  of  Massachusetts.  In  1778,  at  the  request  of  the  inha- 
bitants, the  general  court  gave  to  it  its  present  name.  The  first 
inhabitants  of  the  town  were  Joseph  Chamberlain  and  Ephraim 
Keyes,  from  Ashford,  Con.,  Edward  Walker,  from  Hadley,  John 
Hall,  Jeremiah  Cady,  and  Josiah  Lawrence,  from  Plain  field,  Con. 
Though  Mr.  Hail  has  many  descendants  still  living  here,  he  soon 
moved  to  Castleton,  Vermont,  and  was  killed  by  a  party  of  Indians, 
about  the  time  of  the  capture  of  Burgoyne.  The  first  child  born 
in  the  place  was  a  daughter  of  Mr.  Lawrence ;  born  May,  1768. 

For  many  years  the  people  had  but  one  place  of  worship,  and 
most  of  the  inhabitants  are  yet  Congregationalists.  The  first 
meeting-house  erected  was  unfortunately  burnt  before  it  was  com- 
pleted. The  present  brick  meeting-house  was  built  in  1823,  and 
dedicated  the  next  year,  on  the  7th  of  January.  The  first  church 
was  formed  in  1772,  and  on  the  25th  of  March,  1773,  the  Rev. 
David  Avery,  a  native  of  Groton,  Con.,  and  graduate  of  Yale 
College,  1769,  was  installed  their  pastor,  having  been  previously 
ordained  an  evangelist.  He  was  dismissed  April  14,  1777,  that 
he  might  accept  the  office  of  chaplain  in  the  army  of  the  United 
States,  during  the  revolutionary  war.  He  was  much  esteemed  by 
the  people  here,  who  were  extremely  unwilling  to  part  with  him. 
A  second  Congregational  church  was  formed  in  the  autumn  of 
1811,  in  the  north-east  part  of  the  town,  with  20  members,  taken 
principally  from  the  church  in  Windsor.  A  few  families  in  Savoy 
united  with  them,  and  they  held  their  meetings,  for  a  time,  in  a 
dwelling-house,  fitted  up  for  the  purpose,  on  the  line  between  the 
two  towns.  The  Rev.  Jephthah  Poole,  from  Plainfield,  was 
ordained  their  pastor  Oct.  11,  1811.  There  is  a  Baptist  society  in 
this  town,  who  erected  their  meeting-house  in  1819.  Elder  Noah 
Y.  Bushnel  preached  to  them  for  some  years. 

This  township  is  about  7  miles  in  length  and  5  in  breadth.  The 
surface  is  uneven.  A  height  of  land  lies  a  little  west  of  the  center, 
in  a  north  and  south  direction,  from  which  the  descent  is  gradual, 
both  to  the  east  and  west.  On  the  east  side  rises  Westfield  river, 
and  on  the  west  the  Housatonic.  The  origin  and  sources  of  these 
streams  are  but  a  few  rods  apart,  a  little  south  of  the  Congrega- 
tional meeting-house.  On  the  Housatonic,  in  the  south-west  part 
of  the  town,  near  the  line  of  Dalton,  are  falls,  judged  to  be  about 


70  feet.  Though  the  quantity  of  water  is  not  great,  yet  it  is  pre- 
cipitated down  the  rock  with  such  violence  that  it  affords  a  pros- 
pect truly  sublime.  The  soil  of  the  township  is  various ;  in  the 
eastern  section  it  is  sandy.  In  general  it  is  well  adapted  to  grazing 
and  mowing.  In  1837,  there  were  in  the  town  7,157  sheep,  pro- 
ducing wool  to  the  value  of  $10,500.  This  town  is  situated  18 
miles  N.  N.  E.  of  Lenox,  and  120  W.  by  N.  of  Boston.  Popula- 
tion 887. 


THIS  county  was  incorporated  in  1685.  The  surface  of  the 
county  is  somewhat  broken,  but  generally  level  and  sandy.  It 
has  a  maritime  coast  of  considerable  extent,  and  many  of  the  inha- 
bitants of  this  county  are  engaged  in  navigation,  and  a  large  num- 
ber employed  in  manufactures.  Iron  ore  is  found  in  large  quanti- 
ties in  various  parts.  Taunton  and  Pawtucket  rivers,  both  passing 
into  Narragansett  Bay,  are  the  principal  streams,  and  there  is  abun- 
dant water-power  in  many  of  the  towns.  The  tonnage  of  the  two 
districts  in  this  county  (New  Bedford  and  Dighton,)  is  75,188 
tons.  In  1837,  there  were  57  cotton  mills,  having  104,507  spindles ; 
4,814,238  Ibs.  of  cotton  were  consumed,  and  18,382,828  yards  of 
cotton  goods  were  manufactured,  the  value  of  which  was  $1,678,- 
226.  Population  of  the  county  in  1837  was  58,152.  The  follow- 
ing is  a  list  of  the  towns. 

Attleborough,  Pairhaven,  Norton,  Somerset, 

Berkley,  Fall  River,  Pawtucket,  Swansey, 

Dartmouth,  Freetown,  Raynham,  Taunton, 

Dighton,  Mansfield,  Rehoboth,  Westport. 

Easton,  New  Bedford,  Seekonk, 


IN  1661,  Capt.  Thomas  Willett,  of  Rehoboth,  having  been  em- 
powered by  the  court,  purchased  of  Wamsitta,  a  sachem  of  Poka- 
noket,  a  tract  of  land,  which  was  called  the  Rehoboth  North  Pur- 
chase. It  was  bounded  west  by  Pawtucket  river,  now  the  Black- 
stone  ;  north  by  the  Massachusetts  colony,  or  the  Bay  line ;  east  by 
the  Taunton  North  Purchase ;  and  south  by  the  ancient  Rehoboth. 
This  purchase  included  Attleborough,  Cumberland,  R.  I.,  and  a  tract 
extending  east  and  west  a  mile  and  a  half.  The  land  was  divided 
into  seventy-nine  and  a  half  shares.  The  following  are  the  names 
of  the  purchasers.* 

*  This  list  is  copied  from  the  History  of  Attleborough,  by  John  Daggett,  Esq.  It  is  to 
this  work  the  author  is  almost  entirely  indebted  for  the  history  of  this  town. 



Capt.  Thomas  Willett, 
Mr.  Stephen  Paine, 
Mr.  Noah  Newman, 
Lieut.  Peter  Hunt, 
Mr.  James  Browne, 
Samuel  Newman, 
John  Allen,  sen., 
John  Woodcock, 
Thomas  Estabrooke, 
Thomas  Willmot, 
Sampson  Mason, 
Anthoney  Perry, 
John  Butterworth, 
Philip  Walker, 
John  Ormsby, 
Richard  Martin, 
Stephen  Paine, 
Rober  Joans, 
Obadiah  Bowen, 
John  Pecke, 
James  Redeway, 
Samuel  Carpenter, 
John  Titus, 
Mr.  John  Myles, 
William  Carpenter, 
Joseph  Pecke, 
Thomas  Cooper, 
Ensign  Henery  Smith, 

Thomas  Cooper,  sen., 
Samuel  Pecke, 
William  Buckland, 
Joseph  Buckland, 
Benjamin  Buckland, 
John  Reade,  sen.. 
John  Reade,  jr., 
Nicholas  Pecke, 
Elizabeth  Winchester, 
Hannah  Winchester, 
Lydia  Winchester, 
Daniel  Smith, 
Jonathan  Bliss, 
Rice  Leonard, 
William  Saben, 
John  Perrin,  sen., 
George  Kendricke, 
George  Robenson, 
John  Doggett, 
John  Fitch, 
Richard  Bowen, 
Elizabeth  Bullucke, 
John  Miller, 
Robert  Fuller, 
Robert  Wheaten, 
Ester  Hall, 
John  Miller,  sen., 
Jaret  Ingraham, 

John  KingSiey, 
Gilbert  Brookes, 
Thomas  Reade, 
Thomas  Grant, 
Jonathan  Fuller, 
James  Gillson, 
Samuel  Luther, 
Nicholas  Tanner, 
John  Allen,  jr., 
Preserved  Abell, 
Francis  Stephens, 
Nicholas  Ide, 
Richard  Whittaker, 
Nathaniel  Pecke, 
Israel  Pecke, 
Jonah  Palmer, 
Robert  Miller, 
Nathaniel  Paine, 
Jeremiah  Wheaton, 
Joanna  Ide, 
John  Savage, 
Thomas  Ormsby, 
Jacob  Ormsby, 
John  Polley, 
William  Allen, 
John  Lovell, 
Eldad  Kingsley. 

The  first  settlement  in  the  town  was  commenced  by  Mr.  John 
Woodcock  and  his  sons,  in  the  neighborhood  of  the  Baptist  meeting- 
house, where  Hatch's  tavern  now  stands :  it  was  soon  after  the 
division  in  1669.  He  built  a  public  house  on  the  Bay  road,  and 
laid  out  about  300  acres  of  land  for  his  farm.  He  took  up  in  seve- 
ral parts  of  the  town  about  600  acres,  some  on  his  own  shares,  and 
the  rest  on  rights  which  he  purchased  of  Roger  Amidowne,  James 
Redeway,  Andrew  Willett,  &c.  His  house  was  occupied  for  a 
garrison.  It  was  licensed  in  1670,  according  to  the  following 
record:  "  July  5th,  1670.  John  Woodcock  is  allowed  by  the  court 
to  keep  an  ordinary  at  the  Ten-mile  river  (so  called),  which  is  in 
the  way  from  Rehoboth  to  the  Bay ;  and  likewise  enjoined  to  keep 
good  order,  that  no  unruliness  or  ribaldry  be  permitted  there." 
Woodcock  was  a  man  of  some  consequence  in  those  days.  His 
name  often  appeared  in  town  offices  and  on  committees.  In  1691, 
he  was  chosen  deputy  to  the  general  court  from  Rehoboth,  and  at 
several  other  times.  He  was  shrewd,  hardy,  and  brave.  He  did 
not  much  regard  the  rights  of  the  Indians.  On  one  occasion,  he 
took  the  liberty  of  paying  himself  a  debt  due  to  him  from  an 
Indian,  without  his  consent,  for  which  act  the  court  passed  the 
following  sentence  upon  him ;  an  example  of  the  strict  justice  of 
the  Puritans. 

"  1654.  John  Woodcock,  of  Rehoboth,  for  going  into  an  Indian 
house,  and  taking  away  an  Indian  child  and  some  goods,  in  lieu 
of  a  debt  the  Indian  owed  him,  was  sentenced  to  sit  in  the  stocks 
at  Rehoboth  on  a  training-day,  and  to  pay  a  fine  of  forty  shillings." 
Woodcock  died  in  1701,  at  an  advanced  age.  After  his  death  the 



scars  of  seven  bullet-holes  were  counted  on  his  body.  He  was  a 
strong  and  implacable  enemy  to  the  Indians.  His  garrison  was 
well  known  as  a  place  of  rendezvous  in  the  great  Indian  war.  It 
was  part  of  a  chain  of  fortifications  extending  from  Boston  to 
Rhode  Island.  There  was  one  in  Boston,  one  in  Dedham,  one  in 
Rehoboth,  and  one  at  Newport,  on  the  island.  This  stand,  now 
owned  and  occupied  by  Col.  Hatch,  is  the  oldest  in  the  county  of 
Bristol :  a  public  house  has  been  kept  on  the  spot  without  intermis- 
sion nearly  one  hundred  and  seventy  years.  It  is  located  on  the 
Boston  and  Providence  turnpike. 

In  1806,  the  old  garrison  was  torn  down,  having  stood  one  hun- 
dred and  thirty-six  years.  The  greater  part  of  the  timber  was 
said  to  be  perfectly  sound,  though  pierced  by  many  a  bullet  in 
king  Philip's  time.  A  large  and  elegant  building  has  been  erected 
on  the  spot.  There  was  another  early  settlement  at  the  Falls, 
now  the  Falls  Factories.  The  advantage  of  a  fine  fall  of  water 
attracted  many  to  the  spot.  John  Daggett,  of  Rehoboth,  was  the 

West  view  of  Attleborough. 

first  person  who  laid  out  lands  at  the  Falls.  In  1677,  he  sold  50 
acres  of  it  to  his  brother,  Thomas  Daggett,  of  Martha's  Vineyard. 
Edmund  Hall  also  owned  50  acres  here,  which  he  gave  to  his  son 
John,  who  sold  it  to  John  Stevenson  and  Samuel  Penfield,  in  1686. 
Penfield  sold  it  to  Thomas  Daggett,  of  Edgartown,  and  Joseph 
and  Nathaniel  Daggett,  of  Rehoboth. 

The  first  mill  built  at  the  Falls  was  a  corn-mill,  owned  and 
occupied  by  Joseph  Daggett.  The  south-east  part  of  the  town 
was  early  settled  by  people  from  Rehoboth.  The  borders  of  the 
Bay  road  that  passed  through  the  neighborhood  of  NewelPs  and 
the  City,  were  occupied  by  some  of  the  first  settlers.  This  was 
the  first  road  in  town. 

The  above  is  a  view  taken  in  the  principal  village  in  Attlebo- 
rough. The  Boston  and  Providence  railroad  passes  through  it, 


and  is  but  a  few  rods  eastward  of  the  Congregational  church  seen 
in  the  engraving.  The  "  Attleborough  Bank,"  in  this  village,  is 
the  first  building  westward  of  the  church.  This  place  is  11  miles 
fromTaunton,  11  from  Providence,  and  21  from  Boston.  Popula- 
tion of  the  town,  3,396.  The  following  is  from  the  statistical  tables, 
published  by  the  state  in  1837.  Cotton  mills,  8 ;  cotton  spindles, 
13,078  ;  cotton  consumed,  510,680  Ibs. ;  cotton  goods  manufac- 
tured, 2,500,811  yards;  value  of  the  same,  $229,571;  males  em- 
ployed, 157;  females,  220 ;  capital  invested,  $259,000 ;  manufac- 
tory of  metal  buttons,  1 ;  metal  buttons  manufactured,  37,560 
fross ;  value  of  the  same,  $90,000 ;  males  employed,  42 ;  females, 
1 ;  capital  invested,  $90,000 ;  value  of  jewelry  manufactured 
$92,000;  hands  employed,  112;  capital  invested,  $543,000;  value 
of  planing  machines  manufactured,  $40,000 :  hands  employed,  15 ; 
capital  invested,  $18,000 ;  value  of  boots  and  shoes  manufactured, 

The  Rev.  Matthew  Short  was  the  first  settled  minister  in  this 
town ;  he  was  ordained  in  1712.  Difficulties  between  him  and  his 
people  soon  commenced,  which  resulted  in  his  dismission  in  1715. 
According  to  the  agreement  made  with  Mr.  Short,  he  was  to  be 
paid  £50  a  year,  for  the  first  six  years,  one  third  in  money,  and  the 
other  two  thirds  in  grain,  beef,  pork,  butter  or  cheese,  at  the  cur- 
rent price.*  "  At  the  7th  year,  his  salary  was  to  be  raised  to  £60, 
payable  as  above,  and  then  to  continue  until  there  should  be  100 
families  in  town  capable  of  paying  public  taxes,  in  the  judgment 
of  the  selectmen,  and  then  it  was  to  be  £70  per  annum."  The 
second  minister  was  Rev.  Ebenezer  White;  he  was  the  pastor 
for  11  years,  and  died  in  1726.  He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev. 
Habijah  Weld.  He  was  distinguished  for  his  usefulness  in  the 
ministry,  and  highly  respected  as  a  man,  both  at  home  and 
abroad.  He  united,  to  an  uncommon  degree, 'the  affections  of 
his  people,  for  a  period  of  55  years,  during  which  he  was 
their  pastor.  He  was  a  man  of  talents  and  respectable  acquire- 
ments, and  was  extensively  known.  He  was  ordained  in  1727, 
and  died  1782,  in  the  80th  year  of  his  age. 

"  Mr.  Weld  was  below  the  middle  stature,  and,  in  the  latter  part  of  his  life,  corpu- 
lent. His  constitution  was  vigorous,  and  his  mind  almost  singularly  energetic.  The 
stipend  he  received  from  his  parishioners  consisted  of  an  annual  salar5r  of  two  hun- 
dred and  twenty  dollars,  and  the  use  of  a  parsonage-lot,  which  furnished  him  with 
wood  and  a  little  pasture.  With  his  patrimony,  he  purchased  a  farm  of  about  70 
acres,  of  moderately  good  land,  and  a  decent  house.  He  had  fifteen  children,  ten  of 
whom  were  married  during  his  life,  and  one  after  his  death.  The  remaining  four 
died  while  young.  This  numerous  family  he  educated,  with  the  means  which  have 
been  mentioned,  in  a  manner  superior  to  what  is  usually  found  in  similar  cir- 
cumstances ;  entertained  much  company  in  a  style  of  genuine  hospitality;  and  was 
always  prepared  to  contribute  to  the  necessities  of  others.  For  the  regulation  of  his 
domestic  concerns,  he  prescribed  to  himself  and  his  family  a  fixed  system  of  rules, 
which  were  invariably  observed,  and  contributed  not  a  little  to  the  pleasantness  and 
prosperity  of  his  life.  His  children,  laborers,  and  servants,  submitted  to  them  with 

*  These  articles  were  then  valued  as  follows.  Corn,  2s.  6d.  per  bushel;  rye,  3s.  6d. 
per  bushel ;  pork,  3d.  per  Ib. ;  beef,  2d.  per  Ib. ;  butter,  6d. ;  and  good  new  milk  cheese, 
4d.  per  Ib. 

]14  ATTLEB  0  ROU  GH. 

cheerfulness ;  and  his  house  became  the  seat  of  absolute  industry,  peace,  and  good 
order.  Breakfast  was  on  the  table  precisely  at  six  o'clock,  dinner  at  twelve,  and  sup- 
per at  six  in  the  evening.  After  supper  he  neither  made  visits  himself,  nor  permitted 
any  of  his  family  to  make  them."  From  the  death  of  Mr.  Weld  to  the  settlement  of 
Mr.  Wilder,  in  1790,  nearly  8  years,  the  first  parish  was  destitute  of  a  settled  minis- 
ter. Rev.  John  Wilder  was  dismissed  Nov.  28,  1822,  having  been  settled  upwards  of 
32  years. 

The  first  meeting  of  the  East  Parish  was  on  the  6th  June,  1743.  On  the  20th  a 
meeting  was  called  "to  consider  and  see  what  the  parish  will  do  in  order  to  placing 
a  meeting-house  for  the  public  worship  of  God."  This  is  the  first  record  of  an  attempt 
to  build  a  meeting-house  in  this  part  of  the  town.  The  Rev.  Peter  Thatcher,  their 
first  minister,  was  ordained  in  1748.  The  second  meeting-house  was  built  in  1825. 

The  North  Baptist  Church  was  constituted  in  1769.  Its  existence  may  be  traced 
back  as  early  as  1747.  It  was  a  small  and  feeble  church,  and  of  the  Congregational 
order,  though  differing  from  that  denomination  in  some  respects.  In  1769,  they,  by  a 
vote,  changed  their  constitution  from  a  Congregational  to  a  Baptist  church,  in  what  is 
called  open  communion.  Previous  to  this,  in  1767,  the  church  moved  Mr.  Abraham 
Bloss  from  Sturbridge  to  Attleborough ;  he  preached  to  them  till  his  death  in  1769. 
He  was  succeeded  by  Elder  Job  Seamans,  of  Sackville,  Cumberland  county,  then  in 
"Nova  Scotia  ;  he  requested  a  dismission  in  1788,  which  was  granted.  His  successor 
was  Elder  Abner  Lewis,  who  was  settled  1789,  and  continued  until  1795,  when  he 
was  dismissed.  After  this,  Mr.  Laben  Thurber  preached  two  years,  and  then  gave 
up  the  office  of  the  ministry.  He  was  followed  by  Elder  James  Reed,  who  commenced 
preaching  here  in  1800.  He  gave  so  much  satisfaction,  that  in  December  of  the  same 
year  the  church  invited  him  to  settle,  which  invitation  he  accepted.  He  was  installed 
in  1801.  He  died  in  1814,  universally  respected  as  a  man.  His  successor  was  the 
Rev.  Stephen  S.  Nelson,  who  settled  in  1815,  and  was  dismissed  in  1820.  The  first 
meeting-house  was  not  finished  till  1784.  The  present  house  was  built  in  1817. 

South  Baptist.  The  records  of  this  church  cannot  be  found.  In  1789,  the  first  and 
second  churches  in  Attleborough  met  and  agreed  upon  fellowship  as  sister  churches. 
Elder  Ellhu  Daggett  was  the  first  preacher.  The  next  in  succession  was  Elder  Eli- 
sha  Carpenter,  who  settled  in  1780,  and  continued  till  1798,  when  he  removed  to  Pro- 
vidence. This  church  is  now  extinct. 

First  Universalist  Society  was  incorporated  in  1818.  The  first  minister  was  the  Rev. 
Richard  Carrique,  who  was  ordained  1818,  and  dismissed  in  1822.  His  successor  was 
the  Rev.  Robert  Kilham,  who  commenced  preaching  in  1S22,  and  was  dismissed  in 

Hebronville  Church  was  gathered  by  Rev.  Thomas  Williams,  after  his  dismission  from 
the  west  parish  in  1827.  A  small  but  neat  house  was  built  on  the  line  between  Attle- 
borough and  Seekonk,  half  in  one  town  and  half  in  the  other,  to  which  and  the  neigh- 
borhood was  given  the  name  of  Hebronville  by  the  founder.  Mr.  Williams'  connec- 
tion with  the  church  was  dissolved  in  1832. 

.Rev.  Naphtali  Daggett,  D.  />.,  president  of  Yale  College,  a 
native  of  this  town,  w,as  born  1727.  His  ancestor,  John  Daggett, 
ancestor  of  all  the  Daggetts  here  and  in  Connecticut,  came  to 
Attleborough  from  Chilmark,  Martha's  Vineyard,  in  1709. 

Rev.  Naphtali  Daggett  entered  Yale  College  in  1744,  and  graduated  in  1748.  He 
was  settled  as  minister  of  Smithtown,  on  Long  Island,  in  1751.  In  1755  he  was 
elected  Professor  of  divinity  in  Yale  College,  which  he  accepted,  and  removed  to  New 
Haven.  After  the  resignation  of  Mr.  Clap  in  1766,  he  officiated  as  president  till  1777. 
During  the  barbarous  attack  on  New  Haven  in  July,  1779,  he  distinguished  himself 
for  the  part  he  took  in  the  defence  of  the  country.  He  had  made  himself  obnoxious 
by  his  bold  opposition  to  the  British  cause.  In  the  pulpit  and  in  the  lecture-room,  he 
inculcated  upon  the  students  the  duty  of  resisting  British  oppression  j  consequently  he 
incurred  the  marked  displeasure  of  the  invaders.  What  he  preached,  that  he  practised. 
When  the  enemy  landed,  he  shouldered  his  musket  to  repel  them.  He  was  taken  pri- 
soner, and  treated  with  all  possible  indignity.  His  clerical  character  did  not  exempt 

you  have  been  praj 
ing  against  our  cause."     "  Yes,  and  I  never  made  more  sincere  prayers  in  my  lift."1     Hr 

BERKLEY.  115 

was  saved  by  the  courage  of  the  lady  into  whose  house  he  had  been  conveyed.  The 
enemy  having  retired,  they  sent  back  an  officer  and  file  of  soldiers  to  convey  him  as 
prisoner  on  board  their  fleet.  They  came  to  the  house,  and  were  refused  admittance 
by  the  lady,  who  pleaded  the  excuse  that  he  was  so  badly  wounded  that  it  would  be 
impossible  to  convey  him  on  board  alive.  "My  orders,"  said  the  officer,  "  are  positive 
to  take  nim  with  me."  But  she  pleaded  that  he  was  in  the  agonies  of  death.  After 
continual  demands  and  refusals,  the  officer  left  to  report  the  case,  but  never  returned. 
He  died  in  1780,  in  consequence  of  the  wounds  he  had  received  in  his  engagement 
with  the  British.  He  held  the  office  of  professor  of  divinity  twenty-five  years,  and 
presided  over  the  University  about  eleven  years. 

The  following  inscriptions  are  from  monuments  in  this  town. 

Bezaleel  Mann,  mort.  die  Octo.  ter-t.  1796,  an.  setat.  74.  Early  imbued  with  the  prin- 
ciples of  moral  rectitude,  he  sustained  through  the  diversified  concerns  of  a  long  and 
active  life,  the  character  of  an  honest  man.  As  a  physician,  he  commanded,  during 
the  period  of  near  50  years,  that  unlimited  confidence  and  respect  which  talents  alone 
can  inspire.  The  features  of  his  mind  were  sketched  by  the  glowing  pencil  of  nature, 
filled  up  with  qualities  that  adorn  humanity,  and  shaded  with  few  infirmities,  the  fre- 
quent attendants  on  mental  excellence. 

"Bebe  Mann,  his  wife,  mort.  die  Octo.  tert.  1793,  setat.  61.  She  was  a  person  of 
bright  genius,  of  few  words  and  much  reserved  in  mind.  From  early  youth,  she 
marked  all  her  paths  with  virtue,  and  timely  took  the  advice  Christ  gave  to  his  disci- 
ples, and  made  to  herself  a  friend  of  the  mammon  of  unrighteousness,  and,  when  she 
failed,  could  with  Christian  confidence  say,  that  her  witness  was  in  heaven  and  her 
reward  on  high."  This  stone  is  erected  by  the  grateful  hand  of  filial  piety  to  protect 
the  awful  dust  of  revered  parents. 

In  memory  of  Dr.  Herbert  Mann,  who  with  119  sailors,  with  Capt.  James  Magee,  mas- 
ter, went  on  board  the  Brig  General  Arnold  in  Boston  Harbor  25th  Dec.  1778,  hoisted 
sail,  made  for  sea,  and  were  immediately  overtaken  by  the  most  tremendous  snow 
storm  with  cold,  that  was  ever  known  in  the  memory  of  man,  and  unhappily  parted 
their  cable  in  Plymouth  harbor,  in  a  place  called  the  Cow-yards,  and  he  with  about. 
100  others  was  frozen  to  death ;  sixty-six  of  whom  were  buried  in  one  grave.  He 
was  in  the  21st  year  of  his  age.  And  now  Lord  God  Almighty,  just  and  true  are  all 
thy  ways,  but  who  can  stand  before  thy  cold  ? 

The  following  is  an  epitaph  on  the  negro  slave  Caesar,  who  was 
given  to  Lieut.  Josiah  Maxcy  by  his  mother  when  he  was  a  child. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  Baptist  church,  honest  and  faithful.  He 
survived  his  first  master,  and  after  his  own  death  was  buried  in 
the  same  grave-yard.  A  decent  stone  was  erected  to  his  memory 
by  his  younger  master,  Levi  Maxcy,  with  this  inscription,  which 
may  be  seen  in  the  north-east  corner  of  the"burying-ground,  near 
Hatch's  tavern. 

Here  lies  the  best  of  slaves 
Now  turning  into  dust ; 
Caesar  the  Ethiopian  craves 
A  place  among  the  just. 

His  faithful  soul  has  fled 
To  realms  of  heavenly  light, 

And  by  the  blood  that  Jesus  shed 
Is  changed  from  Black  to  White. 

January  15,  he  quitted  the  stage, 
In  the  77th  year  of  his  age. 


THIS  town,  situated  on  the  east  side  of  Taunton  river,  was  for- 
merly a  part  of  Dighton.  It  was  incorporated  in  1735.  It  is  5 
miles  S.  of  Taunton,  18  E.  of  Providence,  and  37  S.  of  Boston. 
Population,  878.  In  five  years  previous  to  1837,  there  were  13 



vessels  built ;  tonnage  of  the  same,  1,267 ;  valued  at  $38,010.  This 
place  has  about  ten  sail  of  coasting  vessels,  and  some  iron  ore. 
The  celebrated  "Dighton"  or  "Writing  Rock"  is  in  the  limits 
of  this  town,  being  situated  on  the  eastern  shore  of  Taunton  river, 
which  divides  this  town  from  Dighton.  For  a  description  of  this 
rock,  see  Dighton. 


THIS  town  was  incorporated  in  1664,  and  formerly  included 
within  its  limits  the  present  towns  of  Westport,  New  Bedford  and 
Fairhaven.  During  Philip's  war  a  great  part  of  this  town  was 
laid  desolate  and  many  of  the  inhabitants  killed.  The  most  of 
the  Plymouth  forces  were  ordered  thither.  In  coming  to  Russell's 
garrison  at  Ponaganset  or  Aponaganset,  in  thi?  town,  they  met 
with  a  number  of  the  enemy  that  had  surrendered  themselves 
prisoners  on  terms  promised  by  Captain  Eels  of  the  garrison,  and 
Ralph  Earl,  who  persuaded  them  to  come  in,  by  a  friendly  Indian 
whom  he  employed.  It  is  to  be  regretted,  however,  that,  notwith- 
standing the  promises  made  by  the  above  persons  to  the  Indians, 
they  were  by  the  superior  authorities  carried  away  to  Plymouth, 
"  then  sold  and  transported  out  of  the  country,  being  about  eight 
score  persons."  That  part,  of  Dartmouth  which  was  destroyed 
is  about  5  miles  S.  W.  of  New  Bedford.  The  cellars  of  Russell's 
garrison  are  still  to  be  seen.  They  are  on  the  north  bank  of  the 
Aponaganset,  about  a  mile  from  its  mouth.  It  is  stated  that  the 
Indians  had  a  fort  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river,  and  used  to 
show  themselves,  and  act  all  manner  of  mockery  to  aggravate  the 
English,  they  being  at  more  than  a  common  gunshot  off.  It  is 
related,  however,  that  an  Indian  came  out  at  one  time,  and,  hav- 
ing turned  his  back  sides,  as  usual,  in  a  contemptuous  manner 
towards  the  English,  some  one,  having  an  uncommonly  long  gun, 
fired,  and  put  an  end  to  his  mockery. 

Dartmouth  is  principally  a  farming  and  fishing  town ;  the  cen- 
tral part  of  which  is  about  3  miles  from  New  Bedford,  and  21 
from  Taunton.  There  are  3  postoffices,  Dartmouth,  (at  Smith's 
Mills,)  North  Dartmouth,  and  South  Dartmouth.  This  last  place 
is  called  Padan  Aram  ;  it  is  a  fishing  village,  containing  a  Congre- 
gational church,  and  perhaps  50  or  60  dwelling-houses.  There 
are  in  the  limits  of  the  town  4  houses  of  worship  for  Friends,  3  for 
Baptists,  2  of  which  are  Christian,  1  Congregationalist,  and  1  for 
Methodists.  Population  of  the  town,  3,958.  In  1837,  5  vessels 
were  employed  in  the  whale  fishery;  tonnage  of  the  same,  1,490; 
sperm  oil  imported,  74,000  gallons;  whale  oil  imported,  73,978 
gallons ;  hands  employed  in  the  whale  fishery,  129.  There  were 
13  establishments  for  the  manufacture  of  salt ;  ship-building  is  car- 
ried on  to  some  extent. 




THIS  town  was  incorporated  in  1712,  previous  to  which  time  it 
formed  a  part  of  the  town  of  Taunton.  It  is  finely  situated  on 
the  west  side  of  Taunton  river,  and  is  a  port  of  entry.  About 
half  a  mile  from  the  landing  place  for  sloops,  there  is  a  village  of 
about  20  dwelling-houses,  7  miles  from  Taunton  and  43  from 
Boston.  Population  of  the  town,  1,453.  There  are  3  cotton  mills, 
with  3.564  spindles;  a  woollen  mill,  furnace,  and  nail  factory. 
Ship-building  is  also  carried  on. 

Dighton  Rock  as  seen  from  Dighton  Shore. 

The  celebrated  "Dighton  Rock"  the  inscriptions  on  which 
have  caused  such  a  variety  of  speculations,  is  on  the  Berkley  side 
of  the  river,  opposite  the  landing  place  mentioned  above.  The 
engraving  shows  the  appearance  of  the  rock  and  the  surrounding 
objects  as  seen  from  the  Dighton  shore.  The  "  Writing  Rock,"  as 
it  is  sometimes  called,  is  the  one  by  which  two  persons  are  seen 

Western  side  of  Dighton  Rock. 

standing.     The  above  shows  the  shape  of  the  rock,  with  •some- 
thing of  the  appearance  of  the  inscriptions  upon  it ;  which  are, 

118  BIGHT  ON. 

to  some  extent,  followed  in  the  engraving.  The  lower  part  of 
this  stone  is  generally  covered  to  the  dotted  line  at  high  water. 
Several  drawings  of  these  inscriptions  have  been  taken  at  various 
periods ;  the  inscriptions,  however,  are  so  indefinite,  that  no  two 
of  them  agree  entirely  with  each  other.  Several  of  these  draw- 
ings have  been  copied  and  recently  published  in  Copenhagen,  in 
a  splendid  work  on  the  Antiquities  of  America.  It  is  the  opinion 
of  some  learned  men,  that  these  inscriptions  are  the  work  of  the 
Norwegian  adventurers  who  it  is  supposed  visited  this  coast  about 
the  year  1000  of  the  Christian  Era.  The  following  account  of  this 
rock  is  extracted  from  the  second  volume  of  Kendall's  Travels. 
Mr.  Kendall  travelled  through  the  northern  parts  of  the  United 
States  in  1807  and  1808 ;  he  made  a  careful  examination  of  the 
Dighton  Rock,  visiting  it  several  times  for  the  purpose. 

"  The  rock  is  an  insulated  mass  of  fine-grained  gray  granite  or  grunstein,  lying 
north-west  and  south-west,  on  the  sands  of  the  river,  a  few  feet  above  the  present  low- 
water  mark,  but  covered  at  every  tide.  Its  length  is  eleven  feet,  and  its  height  four 
and  a  half.  Toward  the  land,  its  form  is  broken  and  irregular,  but  inclining  gradu- 
ally outward  from  the  summit  to  the  base ;  toward  the  water,  it  presents  a  regular 
face,  and  nearly  smooth,  forming  an  inclined  plane,  of  about  sixty  degrees  elevation. 
Of  this  face,  which  is  of  the  length  of  the  rock,  and  about  five  feet  broad,  the  whole 
appears  to  have  been  originally  filled  with  sculptures  ;  but  those  immediately  at  the 
base,  if  such  there  were,  are  now  entirely  worn  away.  A  little  above,  sculptures  dis- 
cover themselves  but  faintly ;  while  those  at  the  summit  are  very  perfect. 


"  The  whole  is  composed  of  outlines,  hollowed,  or  cut  in  intaglio,  and  of  which  the 
breadth  is  generally  less  than  an  inch,  and  the  depth,  where  deepest,  does  not  exceed 
half  an  inch.  From  the  appearance  of  the  sculpture,  and  from  the  hardness  of  the 
stone,  it  is  probable  that  the  upper  parts  have  suffered  little  injury ;  and  yet  the  edges 
are  here  broken,  and  the  whole  execution  appears  barbarous.  The  different  states  of 
preservation,  observable  in  the  lower  figures  and  the  upper,  may  be  attributed  to  the 
action  of  the  water,  and  perhaps  to  the  collision  of  floating  bodies  of  ice,  both  of 
which  agents  must  operate  on  the  lower  part  of  the  stone  in  a  greater  degree  than  on 
the  upper  •  the  upper  being  covered,  at  every  tide,  for  a  much  shorter  space  of  time 
than  the  lower.  The  alternate  action  of  salt  and  the  atmosphere  have  produced  an 
equal  diversity  of  color  on  the  surface  of  the  stone  ;  the  upper  part  being  of  a  deep 
red  or  purple  color,  and  the  lower  gradually  fading  toward  the  base  into  a  pinkish 
gray.  The  interior  substance  is  gray. 

"After  viewing  the  rock  and  its  sculptures,  which  last  are  sufficiently  conspicuous  to 
attract  notice  from  the  deck  of  a  vessel  sailing  in  the  channel  of  the  river,  we  demand, 
if  not  the  meaning  of  the  sculptures,  at  least  the  history  of  their  formation  ;  but,  upon 
the  second  subject,  there  is  very  little  to  be  said,  and  upon  the  first,  absolutely  noth- 
ing. The  only  solid  history  is,  that  the  rock,  with  its  sculptures,  was  found  in  its 
present  place,  and  apparently  in  its  present  condition,  by  the  earliest  colonists. 

"  But,  in  the  absence  of  history,  there  has  been  an  abundance  of  conjecture.  Two 
opinions,  though  with  some  subordinate  varieties,  chiefly  divide  the  learned  and 
unlearned.  The  unlearned  believe  that  the  rock  was  sculptured  by  the  order  of  a 
pirate,  either  Captain  Kyd  or  Captain  Blackbeard,  in  order  to  mark  the  site  of  buried 
treasure  ;  and  the  shore,  for  more  than  a  hundred  fathom  on  a  side,  has  been  dug,  in 
the  hope  of  a  discovery.  The  learned  are  more  attached  to  a  Phoenician  origin,  and 
suspect  that  the  Writing  Rock  may  be  a  momument  of  the  first  navigators  that  passed 
the  Pillars  of  Hercules;  indeed,  they  find  the  Pillars  of  Hercules  among  the 


"  In  accounting  for  the  diversities  observed  in  the  copies,  a  favorite  resource  is 
that  of  supposing  that  the  stone  moulders  away ;  but  this  theory,  which  would  well 
enough  explain  why  sculptures  seen  in  the  year  1700  were  not  seen  in  the  year 
1800,  will  by  no  means  explain  why  those  seen  in  1800  were  not  seen  in  1700:  it 
svill  account  for  disappearance,  but  not  for  variation.  Professor  Se wall's  drawing, 

EASTON.  119 

which  is  the  earliest,  Dr,  Mather's  excepted,  contains  no  figures  that  I  did  not  see  on 
the  rock  ;  but  the  two  later  drawings  contain  several. 

"  But,  the  question  of  decay  in  the  sculptures  affects  the  question  of  their  antiquity  ; 
and  Professor  SewalFs  drawing,  and  even  Dr.  Mather's,  is  evidence  with  me,  that  no 
perceptible  decay  has  taken  place  within  the  last  hundred  years  ;  and  this  evidence, 
added  to  that  derived  from  the  durable  quality  of  the  stone,  and  from  the  degree  of 
the  decay  that  is  really  observable,  induces  me  to  believe  that  the  sculptures  are  very 

"As  to  traditions,  there  is,  though  but  in  a  few  mouths,  an  Indian  tradition,  which 
purports  that,  some  ages  past,  a  number  of  white  men  arrived  in  the  river,  in  a  bird  ; 
that  the  white  men  took  Indians  into  the  bird,  as  hostages  ;  that  they  took  fresh  water 
for  their  consumption  at  a  neighboring  spring ;  that  the  Indians  fell  upon  and  slaugh- 
tered the  white  men  at  the  spring ;  that,  during  the  affray,  thunder  and  lightning 
issued  from  the  bird;  that  the  hostages  escaped  from  the  bird  ;  and  that  a  spring, 
now  called  White  Spring,  and  from  which  there  runs  a  brook,  called  White  Man's 
Brook,  has  its  name  from  this  event. 

"  This  story  believed,  the  inference  is,  that  the  rock,  which  is  doubtlessly  a  monu- 
ment of  some  event  in  Indian  history,  is  a  monument  of  the  adventure  and  slaugh- 
ter of  the  white  men  of  the  bird  ;  but,  upon  visiting  the  spring,  which  is  at  the  distance 
of  a  quarter  of  a  mile  from  the  rock,  on  the  farm  of  a  Mr.  Asa  Shove,  I  could  hear 
nothing  of  the  affair :  on  the  contrary,  a  son  of  Mr.  Shove's  related  to  me,  that  he 
had  always  understood  the  spring  and  brook  to  have  received  their  names  from  the 
death  of  a  white  hunter,  (a  colonist,)  who,  being  heated  with  the  chase,  drank  freely 
at  the  spring,  and  died  in  consequence,  upon  the  spot.  In  regard  to  the  spring,  one 
neighbor  had  told  me  that  it  was  a  hot  spring,  and  another  that  it  was  remarkable 
for  its  intense  coldness ;  and  I  found  it  neither  warmer  nor  colder  than  springs  in 
general.  The  spring  is  to  the  north-east  of  the  rock,  and  the  brook  enters  Taunton 
river  a,  little  above  the  rock.  The  rock  itself  is  on  the  farm  of  a  Mr.  Deane ;  and 
Asonnet  Neck  is  said  to  have  been  a  place  of  banishment  among  the  Indians.  I  was 
informed  that  another  sculptured  rock  had  been  seen  in  the  river,  at  times  when  the 
water  was  particularly  low ;  but  this  account,  on  tracing  it  to  its  source,  appeared  to 
be  untrue.  The  only  sculptures  on  any  rock,  not  on  the  Writing  Rock,  consist  in 
two  or  three  figures  or  characters,  having  some  similitude  to  the  letters  X  0  O,  and 
which  are  seen  on  the  corner  of  a  slab  of  stone,  lying  within  a  few  yards  of  the 
Writing  Rock." 


THIS  town,  formerly  a  part  of  Taunton,  was  incorporated  in 
1725.  It  forms  the  north-eastern  corner  of  Bristol  county.  Popula- 
tion, 1,976.  It  is  situated  10  miles  northerly  from  Taunton,  22 
from  Providence,  and  22  from  Boston.  The  manufacture  of  iron 
has  been  carried  on  extensively,  and  the  manufacture  of  shovels, 
spades,  &c.,  is  an  important  branch  of  business  in  this  town. 
According  to  the  statistical  tables  published  by  the  state  in  1837, 
there  were  two  manufactories  of  shovels,  spades,  forks,  or  hoes,  at 
which  84  hands  were  employed ;  value  of  articles  manufactured, 
$108,000;  capital  invested,  $51,000.  There  were  employed  in 
the  manufacture  of  boots  and  shoes,  141  males  and  40  females  ; 
"  56,200  pair  of  boots,  and  26,400  pair  of  shoes,  bottomed." 
Four  cotton  mills;  cotton  spindles,  1,824;  cotton  goods  manufac- 
tured, 180,000  yards;  value  of  the' same,  $32,400;  males  em- 
ployed, 11 ;  females,  45  ;  capital  invested,  $31,000.  Four  air  and 
cupola  furnaces,  which  made  250  tons  of  iron  castings,  valued  at 
$20,000 ;  20  hands  were  employed :  1  furnace  for  the  manufacture 
of  pig  iron ;  1  manufactory  of  cutlery ;  value  of  cutlery  made, 
$5,000;  1  wire  manufactory;  value  of  wire,  $20,000;  1  rnanufac- 


tory  of  surveyors'  instruments ;  value  of  instruments,  $4,500 ;  1 
manufactory  of  pegs,  employing  14  hands;  15,000  straw  bonnets 
were  manufactured,  valued  at  $14,000. 


THIS  town  was  formerly  included  within  the  limits  of  New 
Bedford ;  it  was  incorporated  as  a  distinct  town  in  1812.  The 
village  was  settled  in  1764,  and  it  is  said  to  have  received  its 
name,  Fair-haven,  from  the  beauty  of  its  situation.  It  is  united  to 
New  Bedford  by  a  long  bridge,  about  three  fourths  of  a  mile  in 
extent,  and  is  associated  with  it  in  many  of  its  enterprises. 

Western  view  of  Fairhaven. 

The  above  shows  the  appearance  of  the  village  as  it  is  seen 
from  near  the  bridge  on  the  New  Bedford  side  of  the  river,  or 
inlet.  It  contains  3  churches,  1  Congregational.  1  Freewill  Bap- 
tist, and  1  Methodist,  a  bank,  (the  Fairhaven  Bank,)  and  an  insu- 
rance office.  This  place,  in  1837,  had  37  vessels  employed  in  the 
whale  fishery,  the  tonnage  of  which  was  11,564  tons;  sperm  oil 
imported,  168,524  gallons ;  whale  oil  imported,  350,944  gallons  ; 
value  of  sperm  oil,  $144,178  56;  value  of  whale  oil,  $152,780; 
hands  employed  in  the  fishery,  945  ;  capital  invested  in  the 
same,  $957,000;  whale-bone,  101,554  Ibs.;  value  of  whale-bone, 
$25,312  86.  Population  of  the  town,  3,649. 

During  the  revolutionary  war,  on  the  night  of  the  7th  of  Sep- 
tember, 1778,  the  British  troops  made  an  attempt  to  destroy  the 
village  of  Faithaven,  but  were  bravely  repulsed  by  a  small  force 
in  the  command  of  Major  Israel  Fearing.  The  enemy  a  day  or 
two  previously  had  burnt  houses  and  destroyed  a  large  amount 
of  property  at  New  Bedford.  The  following  is  from  D wight's 
Travels,  vol.  3d,  p.  71. 

"  From  this  place  they  marched  around  the  head  of  the  river  to  Sconticut  Point,  on 
the  eastern  side,  leaving  in  their  course,  for  some  unknown  reason,  the  villages  of 

FALL    RIVER.  121 

Oxford  and  Fairhaven.  Here  they  continued  till  Monday,  and  then  re-embarked. 
The  following  night  a  large  body  of  them  proceeded  up  the  liver  with  a  design  to  finish* 
the  work  of  destruction  by  burning  Fairhaven.  A  critical  attention  to  their  move- 
ments had  convinced  the  inhabitants  that  this  was  their  design,  and  induced  them  to- 
prepare  for  their  reception.  The  militia  of  the  neighboring  country  had  been  sum- 
moned  to  the  defence  of  this  village.  Their  commander  was  a  man  far  advanced  in 
years.  Under  the  influence  of  that  languor  which  at  this  period  enfeebles  both  the 
body  and  the  mind,  he  determined  that  the  place  must  be  given  up  to  the  enemy,  and 
that  no  opposition  to  their  ravages  could  be  made  with  any  hope  of  success.  This 
decision  of  their  officer  necessarily  spread  its  benumbing  influence  over  the  militiar 
and  threatened  an  absolute  prevention  of  all  enterprise,  and  the  destruction  of  this 
handsome  village. 

"Among  the  officers,  belonging  to  the  brigade,  was  Israel  Fearing,  Esq.,  a  major 
of  one  of  the  regiments.  This  gallant  young  man,  observing  the  torpor  which  was 
spreading  among  the  troops,  invited  as  many  as  had  sufficient  spirit,  to  follow  him, 
and  station  themselves  at  the  post  of  danger.  Among  those  who  accepted  the  invita- 
tion was  one  of  the  colonels,  who  of  course  became  the  commandant ;  but  after  they 
had  arrived  at  Fairhaven.  and  the  night  had  come  on,  he  proposed  to  march  the 
troops  back  into  the  country.  He  was  warmly  opposed  by  Major  Fearing  ;  and,  find- 
ing that  he  could  not  prevail,  prudently  retired  to  a  house  three  miles  distant,  where 
he  passed  the  night  in  safety. 

"After  the  colonel  had  withdrawn,  Major  Fearing,  now  commander-in-chief, 
arranged  his  men  with  activity  and  skill ;  and  soon  perceived  the  British  approach- 
ing.  The  militia,  in  the  strictest  sense  raw,  already  alarmed  by  the  reluctance  of 
their  superior  officers  to  meet  the  enemy,  and  naturally  judging  that  men  of  years 
must  understand  the  real  state  of  the  danger  better  than  Major  Fearing,  a  mere  youth, 
were  panic-struck  at  the  approach  of  the  enemy,  and  instantly  withdrew  from  their 
post.  At  this  critical  moment  Major  Fearing,  with  the  decision  which  awes  men  into 
a  strong  sense  of  duty,  rallied  them  ;  and,  placing  himself  in  the  rear,  declared,  in  a 
tone  which  removed  all  doubt,  that  he  would  kill  the  first  man  whom  he  found  re- 
treating. The  resolution  of  their  chief  recalled  theirs.  With  the  utmost  expedition 
he  then  led  them  to  the  scene  of  danger.  The  British  had  already  set  fire  to  several 
stores.  Between  these  buildings  and  the  rest  of  the  village  he  stationed  his  troops,, 
and  ordered  them  to  lie  close  in  profound  silence,  until  the  enemy,  who  were  advanc 
ing,  should  have  come  so  near  that  no  marksman  could  easily  mistake  his  object. 
The  orders  were  punctually  obeyed.  When  the  enemy  had  arrived  within  this  dis- 
tance, the  Americans  rose,  and  with  a  well-directed  fire  gave  them  a  warm  and  un- 
expected reception.  The  British  fled  instantly  to  their  boats,  and  fell  down  the  river 
with  the  utmost  expedition.  From  the  quantity  of  blood  found  the  next  day  in  their 
line  of  march,  it  was  supposed  that  their  loss  was  considerable.  Thus  did  this  heroic 
youth,  in  opposition  to  his  superior  officers,  preserve  Fairhavea,  and  i»erit  a  statue 
from  its  inhabitants." 


THIS  town  was  formerly  a  part  of  Freetown,  and  was  incorpo- 
rated as  a  distinct  town  by  the  name  of  Troy  in  1803.  In  1834, 
its  name  was  changed  to  that  of  the  river  within  its  borders,  at  the 
junction  of  which  with  the  Taunton  river  the  village  is  built.  It  is 
estimated  that  about  seven  eighths  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town 
are  in  the  village.  It  is  stated  that  thirty-six  years  since,  there 
were  but  eleven  dwelling-houses  in  the  place.  At  the  north  end 
of  Main  street,  there  were  four  houses ;  occupied  by  Charles  Dur- 
fee,  Daniel  Duffington,  John  Luther,  Mary  Borden ;  in  East  Cen- 
tral street  were  Nathan  Bowen  and  Parry  Borden ;  in  West 
Central  street  were  Nathan  and  Daniel  Borden ;  in  South  Main 
street,  Simeon  Borden,  Richard  Borden;  Thomas  Borden  lived  to 
the  west,  towards  the  shore.  The  first  meeting-house  in  the 


FALL     R  I  V  £,  1C 

place  stood  on  the  dividing  line  between  Fall  River  and  Tiverton. 
R.  I.  The  next  meeting-house  which  was  built,  was  for  Friends ; 
it  was  a  small  building,  and  was  erected  near  where  their  present 
house  now  stands.  The  next  was  a  Congregational  church,  now 
occupied  as  a  school-house  in  Anna  won  street.  The  Baptists  and 
Methodists  erected  their  houses  afterwards  and  at  about  the  same 

During  the  revolutionary  war  about  200  of  the  enemy  landed 
in  the  south  part  of  where  the  present  village  is  built ;  they  were 
opposed  by  about  fifteen  of  our  people,  under  the  command  of  Col. 
Joseph  Durfee,  who  from  behind  the  stone  walls  fired  on  the 
British  troops  and  killed  two  soldiers ;  upon  this,  they  rapidly  re- 
treated to  their  barges.  The  two  soldiers  were  buried  south  of  the 
river,  where  the  Pocasset  factory  now  stands.  At  the  erection  of  this 
factory  their  remains  were  taken  up  and  buried  in  the  town  grave- 

North  view  of  Fall  River. 

The  above  is  a  northern  view  of  Fall  River  village,  as  seen 
from  the  western  side  of  Taunton  river,  at  Blade's  ferry.  Fall 
river,  from  whence  the  town  derives  its  name,  rises  in  Wattuppa 
Ponds;  one  of  which  is  11  miles  in  length  and  1  in  breadth. 
These  ponds  are  produced  by  perpetual  springs,  and  lie  about  two 
miles  east  of  the  town.  The  descent  of  this  river  is  136  feet.  The 
volume  of  water  is  constant ;  not  liable  to  excess,  and  of  sufficient 
power  for  the  largest  manufactories.  The  harbor  on  Taunton 
river  is  safe,  easy  of  access,  and  of  sufficient  depth  for  large  ships. 
A  marine  railway  was  constructed  here  in  1834. 

The  following  view  is  taken  in  the  main  street  in  the  village, 
looking  to  the  southward,  showing  some  of  the  public  buildings. 
This  street  is  upwards  of  a  mile  in  extent,  and  is  thickly  settled 
for  about  that  distance.  This  village  is  situated  near  the  Rhode 
Island  line,  and  a  few  houses,  properly  belonging  to  it,  are  in  the 
town  of  Tiverton,  in  that  state.  There  are  8  houses  for  public 

FALL     RIVER.  123 

Central  part  of  Fall  River. 

worship,  1  for  Friends,  1  Orthodox  Congregational,  1  Unitarian, 
1  Baptist,  1  Christian,  1  Episcopal,  1  Methodist,  and  1  Catholic. 
There  are  two  banks— the  Fall  River  Bank,  capital  $400,000, 
Fall  River  Union  Bank,  capital  $100,000 — and  an  Insurance 
Company,  capital  $100,000.  Fall  River  is  17  miles  from  Taun- 
ton,  14  from  New  Bedford,  17  to  Newport,  49  from  Boston,  and  30 
by  water  to  Providence.  Population,  6,352. 

In  1837,  there  were  in  Fall  River  10  cotton  mills,  having  25,000 
spindles;  1,547.300  Ibs.  of  cotton  were  consumed.  Cotton  goods 
manufactured,  7,767,614  yards ;  value  of  the  same,  $668,028 ; 
males  employed,  337;  females,  648;  capital  invested,  $700,000. 
One  woollen  mill ;  woollen  machinery,  8  sets ;  wool  consumed, 
175,000  Ibs.:  cloth  manufactured,  150,000  yards;  value  of  the 
same,  $180,000 ;  males  employed,  65 ;  females,  55 ;  capital  in- 
vested, $50,000;  sperm  oil  used,  6,500  gallons.  Two  print 
works ;  cloth  printed,  12,000,000  yards ;  value  of  the  same, 
$1,680,000;  capital  invested,  $300,000;  hands  employed,  500. 
One  nail  factory:  nails  manufactured,  1,780  tons;  value  of  the 
same,  $260,000;  hands  employed,  40;  capital  invested,  $75,000. 
There  were  six  vessels  employed  in  the  whale  fishery ;  tonnage  of 
the  same,  1,359;  sperm  oil  imported,  63,000  gallons;  whale  oil, 
42,338  ;  hands  employed,  120 ;  capital  invested,  $125,000.  There 
were  also  in  the  place  2  air  and  cupola  furnaces,  a  rolling  and 
slitting  mill,  and  various  other  establishments  for  manufacturing 

The  following  account  of  some  remains  found  in  this  town  is 
from  an  article  by  John  Stark,  Esq.,  of  Galena,  Illinois,  published 
in  the  third  volume  of  the  American  Magazine,  Boston,  1837. 

"  These  remains  were  found  in  the  town  of  Fall  River,  in  Bristol  county,  Massachu- 
setts, about  three  years  since.  In  digging  down  a  hill  near  the  village,  a  large  mass,  of 

124  FALL     RIVER. 

earth  slid  off,  leaving  in  the  bank,  and  partially  uncovered,  a  human  skull,  which  on 
examination  was  found  to  belong  to  a  body  buried  in  a  sitting  posture  ;  the  head  being 
about  one  foot  below  what  had  been  for  many  years  the  surface  of  the  ground.  The 
surrounding  earth  was  carefully  removed,  and  the  body  found  to  be  enveloped  in  a  cov- 
ering of  coarse  bark  of  a  dark  color.  Within  this  envelope  were  found  the  remains  of 
another  of  coarse  cloth,  made  of  fine  bark,  and  about  the  texture  of  a  Manilla  coffee  bag. 
On  the  breast  was  a  plate  of  brass,  thirteen  inches  long,  six  broad  at  the  upper  end 
and  five  at  the  lower.  This  plate  appears  to  have  been  cast,  and  is  from  one  eighth  to 
three  thirty-seconds  of  an  inch  in  thickness.  It  is  so  much  corroded,  that  whether  or 
not  any  thing  was  engraved  upon  it  has  not  yet  been  ascertained.  It  is  oval  in  form, 
the  edges  being  irregular,  apparently  made  so  by  corrosion. 

"  Below  the  breast-plate,  and  entirely  encircling  the  body,  was  a  belt  composed  of 
brass  tubes,  each  four  and  a  half  inches  in  length,  and  three  sixteenths  of  an  inch  in 
diameter,  arranged  longitudinally  and  close  together  ;  the  length  of  a  tube  being  the 
width  of  the  belt.  The  tubes  are  of  thin  brass,  cast  upon  hollow  reeds,  and  were  fast- 
ened together  by  pieces  of  sinew.  This  belt  was  so  placed  as  to  protect  the  lower 
parts  of  the  body  below  the  breast-plate.  The  arrows  are  of  brass,  thin,  flat,  and  tri- 
angular in  shape,  with  a  round  hole  cut  through  near  the  base.  The  shaft  was 
fastened  to  the  head  by  inserting  the  latter  in  an  opening  at  the  end  of  the  wood,  and 
then  tying  it  with  a  sinew  through  the  round  hole,— a  mode  of  constructing  the  weapon 
never  practised  by  the  Indians,  not  even  with  their  arrows  of  thin  shell.  Parts  of  the 
shaft  still  remain  on  some  of  them.  When  first  discovered,  the  arrows  were  in  a  sort 
of  quiver  of  bark,  which  fell  in  pieces  when  exposed  to  the  air. 

"The  annexed  cut  will  give  our  readers  an 
idea  of  the  posture  of  the  figure  and  the  position 
of  the  armor.  When  the  remains  were  discovered 
the  arms  were  brought  rather  closer  to  the  body 
than  in  the  engraving.  The  arrows  were  near 
the  right  knee. 

"  The  skull  is  much  decayed,  but  the  teeth  are 
sound,  and  apparently  those  of  a  young  man. 
The  pelvis  is  much  decayed,  and  the  smaller  bones 
of  the  lower  extremities  are  gone.  The  integu- 
ments of  the  right  knee,  for  four  or  five  inches 
above  and  below,  are  in  good  preservation,  appa- 
rently the  size  and  shape  of  life,  although  quite 

"Considerable  flesh  is  still  preserved  on  the 
hands  and  arms,  but  none  on  the  shoulders  and 
elbows.  On  the  back,  under  the  belt,  and  for  two  inches  above  and  below,  the 
skin  and  flesh  are  in  good  preservation,  and  have  the  appearance  of  being  tanned. 
The  chest  is  much  compressed,  but  the  upper  viscera  are  probably  entire.  The 
arms  are  bent  up,  not  crossed  •  so  that  the  hands  turned  inwards  touch  the  shoulders. 
The  stature  is  about  five  and  a  half  feet.  Much  of  the  exterior  envelope  was  decayed, 
and  the  inner  one  appeared  to  be  preserved  only  where  it  had  been  in  contact  with 
the  brass. 

"  The  preservation  of  this  body  may  be  the  result  of  some  embalming  process  j 
and  this  hypothesis  is  strengthened  by  the  fact,  that  the  skin  has  the  appearance  of  hav- 
ing been  tanned  ;  or  it  may  be  the  accidental  result  of  the  action  of  the  salts  of  the  brass 
during  oxydation  ;  and  this  latter  hypothesis  is  supported  by  the  fact,  that  the  skin  and 
flesh  have  been  preserved  only  where  they  have  been  in  contact  with,  or  quite  near, 
the  brass ;  or  we  may  account  for  the  preservation  of  the  whole  by  supposing  the 
presence  of  saltpetre  in  the  soil  at  the  time  of  the  deposit.  In  either  way,  the  preser- 
vation of  the  remains  is  fully  accounted  for,  and  upon  known  chemical  principles. 

"  That  the  body  was  not  one  of  the  Indians,  we  think  needs  no  argument.  We 
have  seen  some  of  the  drawings  taken  from  the  sculptures  found  at  Palenque,  and  in 
those  the  figures  are  represented  with  breast-plates,  although  smaller  than  the  plate 
found  at  Fall  River.  On  the  figures  at  Palenque  the  bracelets  and  anklets  appear  to 
be  of  a  manufacture  precisely  similar  to  the  belt  of  tubes  just  described.  These  fig- 
ures also  have  helmets  precisely  answering  the  description  of  the  helmet  of  Hector  in 

•'•'  If  the  body  found  at  Fall  River  be  one  of  the  Asiatic  race,  who  transiently  settled 
m  Central  North  America,  and  afterward  went  to  Mexico  and  founded  those  cities,  in 
exploring  the  ruins  of  which  such  astonishing  discoveries  have  recently  been  made  ; 
then  we  may  well  suppose  also  that  it  is  one  of  the  race  whose  exploits  with  '  brazen 


spears '  have,  although  without  a  date  and  almost  without  a  certain  name,  been  im- 
mortalized by  the  Father  of  Poetry ;  and  who,  probably,  in  still  earlier  times,  con- 
structed  the  Cloacae  under  ancient  Rome,  which  have  been  absurdly  enough  ascribed  to 
one  of  the  Tarquins,  in  whose  time  the  whole  population  of  Rome  would  have  been 
insufficient  for  a  work,  that  would,  moreover,  have  been  useless  when  finished.  Of 
this  Great  Race,  who  founded  cities  and  empires  in  their  eastward  march,  and  are 
finally  lost  in  South  America,  the  Romans  seem  to  have  had  a  glimmering  tradition 
in  the  story  of  Evander. 

"  But  we  rather  incline  to  the  belief  that  the  remains  found  at  Fall  River  belonged 
to  one  of  the  crew  of  a  Phoenician  vessel. 

"  The  spot  where  they  were  found  is  on  the  sea-coast,  and  in  the  immediate  neigh- 
borhood of  <  Dighton  Rock,'  famed  for  its  hieroglyphic  inscription,  of  which  no  suffi- 
cient explanation  has  yet  been  given  ;  and  near  which  rock  brazen  vessels  have  been 
found.  If  this  latter  hypothesis  be  adopted,  a  part  of  it  is,  that  these  mariners — the 
unwilling  and  unfortunate  discoverers  of  a  new  world — lived  some  time  after  they 
landed ;  and,  having  written  their  names,  perhaps  their  epitaphs,  upon  the  rock  at 
Dighton,  died,  and  were  buried  by  the  natives." 


THIS  town  was  first  settled  about  1659,  and  incorporated  in 
1683.  The  principal  village  in  the  town  is  Assonett,  situated  at 
the  head  of  an  inlet  from  Taunton  river,  8  miles  from  Taunton,  8 
from  Fall  River,  16  from  New  Bedford,  and  26  from  Boston.  The 
village  consists  of  about  fifty  dwelling-houses  and  2  churches,  1 
Congregational  and  1  Baptist.  Ship-building  is  carried  on  in  the 
village.  Population  of  the  town,  1,779.  There  are  in  the  town 
2  nail  factories,  2  air  and  cupola  furnaces,  1  axe  manufactory,  1 
manufactory  of  cntlery,  and  1  for  shovels,  spades,  &c.  Eight  ves- 
sels were  built  in  five  years  preceding  1837,  tonnage  636 ;  value  of 
the  same,  $36,200 ;  hands  employed  in  building,  eleven. 


THIS  town  was  formerly  a  part  of  Norton ;  it  was  incorporated 
as  a  distinct  town  in  1770.  The  central  part  of  this  town  is  12 
miles  from  Taunton  and  28  from  Boston.  Population,  1,444.  Col. 
Ephraim  Leonard  was  one  of  the  most  distinguished  of  the  first 
settlers  of  this  place  ;  he  built  his  house  about  two  miles  eastward 
of  the  Congregational  church  in  the  center  of  the  town.  The  Rev. 
Mr.  White,  the  first  minister,  lived  about  one  mile  south  of  the 
meeting-house.  Nathan  Williams,  another  of  the  first  settlers, 
located  his  house  where  the  tavern  now  stands.  A  number  of 
families,  by  the  name  of  Wellman,  had  their  houses  about  half  a 
mile  south  of  the  meeting-house ;  Deacon  Abial  Leonard  lived 
at  the  distance  of  about  three  miles.  Benjamin,  brother  to  Nathan 
Williams,  lived  about  a  mile  north  of  the  meeting-house ;  these 
brothers  owned  lands  extending  to  the  old  colony  line.  A  family 
of  Deans  settled  in  the  south  part  of  the  town ;  Deacon  Skinner 
in  the  western  part.  Families  by  the  name  of  Grover  were  among 
the  early  inhabitants. 

This  town  is  well  watered  by  three  principal  branches  of  Taun- 
ton river,  called  Rumford,  Cocasset,  and  Canoe  rivers ;  the  two 

126  NEW      BEDFORD. 

first  mentioned  are  valuable  streams.  There  are  in  the  town  6 
cotton  mills,  running  3,412  spindles.  In  1837,  there  were  680,971 
yards  of  cotton  goods  manufactured,  the  value  of  which  was  up- 
wards of  $40,000.  There  is  a  woollen  mill,  and  2  nail  factories. 
In  the  same  year  30,000  straw  bonnets,  valued  at  ,$30,000;  1,500 
palm-leaf  hats,  valued  at  $382,  and  $4,000's  worth  of  baskets,  were 


THE  Indian  name  of  New  Bedford  was  Acchusnutt  or  Acushnet. 
It  was  incorporated  as  a  town  in  1787,  previous  to  which  it 
formed  a  part  of  the  town  of  Dartmouth.  At  what  time  and  by 
whom  the  first  settlement  was  commenced  in  the  limits  of  tho 
town,  does  not  distinctly  appear.  It  is  supposed,  however,  that 
the  Friends  or  Quakers  were  the  first  white  inhabitants.  The 
first  settled  minister  appears  to  have  been  the  Rev.  Samuel  Hunt, 
who  died  about  the  year  1735 ;  it  is  supposed  he  was  ordained 
here  about  1700.  The  next  minister  was  Rev.  Richard  Pierce ;  he 
was  settled  in  1735,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Mr.  Cheever. 
Mr.  Cheever  was  dismissed  in  1759,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev. 
Samuel  West,  D.  D.,  who  was  settled  in  1761.  The  villages  of 
New  Bedford  and  Fairhaven,  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river, 
were  settled  about  the  same  time,  1764.  The  first  house  in  New 
Bedford  village  was  built  by  Mr.  John  Louden,  of  Pembroke. 
The  land  on  which  the  place  is  built  was  owned  by  a  Mr.  Russell. 
This  being  the  family  name  of  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  Mr.  J.  Rotch, 
one  of  the  principal  purchasers  and  settlers,  declared  that  the  place 
where  they  built  should  go  by  the  name  of  Bedford.  It  afterwards 
received  the  prefix  Neiv,  on  account  of  there  being  another  town 
of  the  same  name  in  the  limits  of  the  commonwealth.  Mr.  Rotch, 
a  member  of  the  society  of  Friends,  was  a  man  of  sagacity  and 
enterprise.  He  speedily  built  a  house,  stores,  and  wharves  ;  and 
was  joined  by  several  associates.  By  his  previous  knowledge  of 
the  whaling  business  which  he  had  acquired  in  Nantucket,  Mr. 
Rotch  and  his  friends  were  able  to  carry  on  this  business  to  great 
advantage,  which  has  been  a  great  source  of  great  wealth  and 
prosperity  to  the  place  to  the  present  time.  "  By  his  peculiar  ad- 
dress he  procured  first  from  the  government  of  France,  and  then 
from  that  of  Great  Britain,  the  privilege  of  exporting  oil  to  those 
countries,  duty  free  ;  and  was  thus  enabled  to  carry  on  his  own 
business  with  the  highest  profit,  and  essentially  to  befriend  that  of 
lu's  neighbors." 

New  Bedford  is  a  half  shire  town  of  Bristol  county  and  port 
of  entry,  on  the  west  side  of  the  Acushnet  river,  or,  more  properly, 
an  inlet  from  Buzzard's  Bay.  The  ground  upon  which  the  town 
is  built  rises  beautifully  from  the  water,  and  as  the  town  is  ap- 
proached from  the  water  or  from  the  Fairhaven  side  it  presents  a 
fine  appearance.  The  harbor,  though  not  easy  of  access,  is  capa- 


cious,  and  well  secured  from  winds.  A  wooden  bridge  and  cause- 
way, the  whole  of  which  extends  about  three  fourths  of  a  mile, 
connects  the  town  with  the  village  of  Fairhaven.  The  almost 
entire  business  of  the  place  is  the  whale  fishery  and  other  branches 
of  business  connected  with  it :  this  business  was  commenced  before 
the  revolutionary  war,  and  has  gradually  risen  to  its  present  impor- 
tance. In  1838,  the  number  of  vessels  belonging  to  New  Bedford,  en- 
gaged in  the  whale  fishery,  was  one  hundred  and  seventy,  employ- 
ing four  thousand  hands.  There  are  seventeen  candle  houses  arid  oil 
manufactories.  In  1837.  there  was  imported  into  the  United  States 
181,724  bbls.  of  sperm  oil,  and  219,138  bbls.  of  whale  oil:  of  this 
quantity  75,675  bbls.  of  sperm  oil,  and  85,668  bbls.  of  whale  oil, 
was  imported  into  the  New  Bedford  district.  There  are  4  banks. 
The  Bedford  Commercial  Bank,  with  a  capital  of  $400,000,  was  in- 
corporated in  1816 ;  the  Merchants  Bank  was  incorporated  in  1825, 
with  a  capital  of  $400,000 ;  the  Mechanics  Bank  incorporated  in 

1831,  capital  $200,000 ;  and  the   Marine   Bank,  incorporated  in 

1832,  with  a  capital  of  $300,000.     There  are  three  insurance  offi- 
ces, whose  united  capitals  amount  to  350,000  dollars.    The  "  New 
Bedford  Institution  for  Savings"  has  an  amount  invested  of  about 
220,000  dollars.     There  are  14  churches  :  3  Baptist,  2  of  which  are 
Christian  societies ;  3  Congregational,  1  of  which  is  Unitarian ;  2 
Methodist  Episcopal,  1  Episcopal,  1  for  Friends,  1  Universalist,  1 
Bethel,  1  African  and  1  Catholic.     Few  towns  in  Massachusetts 
have  increased  more  rapidly  than  New  Bedford.  By  the  census  of 
1790,  the  population  of  the  village  was  about  700  ;  in  1820,  it  was 
3,947;   in  1830,  it  was  7,592 ;  and  in  1836,  it  was  11,113;  making 
an  increase  of  nearly  47  per  cent,  in  six  years.     Distance  52  miles 
S.  of  Boston,  52  N.  W.  of  Nantucket,  24  from  Taunton,  and  214 
north-easterly  from  New  York. 

During  the  revolutionary  war  New  Bedford  was  a  place  of 
resort  for  American  privateers.  In  order  to  destroy  them,  4,000 
British  troops,  under  Gen.  Gray,  landed  upon  Clark's  Neck,  the 
western  boundary  of  the  river  at  its  mouth.  From  this  point  they 
marched  to  the  town,  and  burnt  houses,  wharves,  &c.,  to  the 
amount  of  £11,241.  They  also  destroyed  English  and  West  India 
goods,  provisions,  naval  stores,  shipping,  &c.,  to  the  amount  of 
£85,739 ;  amounting  in  the  whole  to  £96,980,  or  $323,266. 


NORTON  was  incorporated  as  a  town  in  1711.  It  was  originally 
a  part  of  Taunton,  and  when  incorporated  included  in  its  limits 
the  present  towns  of  Easton  and  Mansfield.  The  first  settler  within 
the  limits  of  the  town  was  a  cabin-boy,  named  William  Witherell, 
who  received  a  tract  of  land  by  the  gift  of  his  master,  and  built  a 
house  upon  it  in  1670.^  A  settlement  was  made  in  1696,  by 

*  Spofibrd's  Gazetteer  of  Massachusetts. 


George  Leonard,  Esq.,  a  name  which  has  been  identified  with 
much  of  the  public  and  mechanical  business  of  the  town.  He  was 
led  to  the  settlement  by  the  discovery  of  iron  ore,  and  finding 
water  power  suitable  to  its  manufacture.  The  iron  manufacture 
has  been  continued  in  the  family  of  the  Leonards  till  the  present 
time.  Several  of  this  name  have  been  distinguished  in  civil  life, 
and  are  persons  of  wealth  and  respectability.  "  The  soil  is  not  of 
the  first  quality,  though  equal  to  the  adjoining  towns.  Much  of 
this  town  is  occupied  by  tenants,  greatly  to  the  disadvantage  of  its 
agriculture  ;  there  being  146  freeholders,  and  107  tenants  under 

Norton  is  8  miles  N.  W.  of  Taunton,  30  S.  of  Boston,  and  17  N. 
E.  from  Providence.  Population,  1,530.  In  1837,  there  were  in 
this  town  4  cotton  mills,  1,993  spindles;  cotton  goods  manufac- 
tured, 290,376  yards;  value  of  the  same,  $53,167  82;  males 
employed,  53  ;  females,  35  ;  one  air  and  cupola  furnace,  which 
made  375  tons  of  iron  castings,  valued  at  $37,500  ;  twenty-five 
hands  were  employed  ;  eight  air  and  cupola  furnaces  for  rolling 
and  refining  copper  ;  500  tons  of  sheet  copper  and  copper  bolts 
were  manufactured,  valued  at  $280,000  ;  thirty-  three  hands  were 
employed  ;  capital  invested,  $226,000. 


THIS  town  was  formerly  within  the  limits  of  Seekonk.  It  was 
incorporated  as  a  distinct  town  in  1828.  It  is  two  miles  square, 
lying  on  the  east  side  of  Paw  tucket  river.  The  village  of  Paw- 
tucket  is  centrally  divided  by  the  river ;  that  part  lying  on  the 
west  side  is  within  the  limits  of  the  town  of  North  Providence,  in 
Rhode  Island. 

The  cut  shows  the  appearance  of  the  village  as  it  is  entered 
from  the  south  on  the  Rhode  Island  side  of  the  river.  It  is  said 
that  the  first  manufacture  of  cotton  cloth  in  this  country,  by  water 
power  machinery,  was  commenced  at  this  place.  The  water 
power  is  very  great,  and  the  fall  of  the  river  within  a  short  dis- 
tance is  fifty  feet.  There  are  in  the  village  12  cotton  factories,  with 
35,000  spindles  and  1000  looms.  The  Franklin  calico  printing 
works  do  an  extensive  business.  There  are  also  5  machine  shops 
and  a  number  of  iron  works.  About  2000  operatives  are  employed 
in  these  establishments.  The  river  is  navigable  to  the  village ;  it 
runs  4  miles  S.  by  W.  to  Providence  river,  at  India  Point — one 
mile  below  the  center  of  the  city  of  Providence.  The  river  above 
the  village  takes  the  name  of  Blackstone.  This  place  is  4  miles 
N.  of  Providence,  16  from  Taunton,  38  S.  E.  of  Worcester,  and  36 
from  Boston.  The  whole  village  is  said  to  contain  about  6,000 
inhabitants.  There  are  7  churches:  2  Baptist,  1  Episcopal,  1 
Methodist,  and  1  Catholic  on  the  Rhode  Island  side ;  1  Congrega- 

*  Spofford's  Gazatteer  of  Massachusetts. 



South  view  of  Pair  tucket,  Mass,  and  R.  I. 

tional  and  I  Freewill  Baptist  on  the  Massachusetts  side.  In  the 
town  of  Pawtucket,  according  to  the  Statistical  Tables  published 
by  the  state  of  Massachusetts,  in  1837,  there  were  6  cotton  mills, 
with  15,317  spindles;  2,156,266  yards  of  cotton  goods  manufac- 
tured ;  125  males  and  243  females  employed.  One  print  works, 
which  printed  4,894,597  yards  of  cloth,  employing  196  males  and 
28  females.  The  "  Pawtucket  Bank,"  with  a  capital  of  $100,000, 
is  in  this  town.  Population,  1,881. 

[From  the  Commercial  Advertiser,  1838.] 

"  EVASION  OF  THE  LAWS. — Following  in  the  footsteps  of  Massachusetts,  Rhode  Island 
has  prohibited  the  sale  or  vending  of  ardent  spirits  in  less  quantities  than  fifteen  gal- 
lons. These  prohibitory  laws  in  both  states  are  producing  great  excitement,  and  we 
should  not  marvel  were  they  to  result  in  violent  political  action.  Meantime  the  great 
inventor  of  the  alembic  is  teaching  his  followers  every  possible  device  for  evading  the 
laws,  as  will  appear  from  the  following  law  report  from  the  Providence  Journal. 

"'  The  Ark.' — At  the  present  session  of  the  supreme  court  in  this  city,  evidence  was 
brought  before  the  grand  jury  to  obtain  an  indiclment  for  a  violation  of  the  license 
law.  It  appears  that  some  person  or  persons  had  procured  a  raft  or  scow,  erected  a 
shanty  thereon,  and  moored  the  same  on  Pawtucket  river,  where  it  was  regularly  fur- 
nished with  a  "  great  variety  of  choice  liquors."  Attached  to  the  scow  was  a  platform, 
which,  when  lowered,  enabled  persons  from  the  shore  to  walk  to  the  ark,  as  the  float 
was  designated,  and  the  vessel  was  moored  so  that  this  platform  could  be  used  on 
either  side  of  the  river,  as  profit  or  policy  might  dictate.  On  gaining  it,  there  could 
be  seen  faucets  variously  marked,  R,  G,  B,  6cc.,  from  either  of  which,  on  being  turned, 
gushed  forth  the  beverage  its  initial  represented.  This  place  of  resort  became  very 
soon  as  popular  as  any  natering  place  in  the  country  ;  as  at  it  glasses  were  always 
ready,  although  no  attendants  were  at  hand.  Those  who  partook  of  the  refreshing 
streams,  as  a  matter  of  course,  left  something  as  satisfaction  for  trouble,  which,  by 
some  legerdemain  we  could  not  comprehend,  and  therefore  cannot  describe,  was 
taken  possession  of  by  some  spirit  unseen  and  unknown.  As  the  dividing  line  between 
Rhode  Island  and  Massachusetts  is  at  high-water  mark  on  the  east  side  of  the  river, 
it  will  be  perceived  that  customers  from  our  sister  state,  by  the  platform  being  placed 
on  their  side,  could  be  accommodated  without  violation  of  Massachusetts  laws.  Not 
so,  however,  with  the  laws  of  Rhode  Island.  Against  these  laws  there  was  an  offence 
committed,  but  establishing  the  identity  of  the  offender  was  a  very  difficult  matter. 
"Witnesses  in  abundance  were  produced,  who  testified  that  they  had  drunk  deep  of  the 
waters  of  the  ark,  but  whom  they  obtained  them  of,  they  had  neither  desire  or 
ability  to  say.  One  person  in  Pawtucket  testified  that  he  furnished  from  $75  to  ' 


1 30  K  A  Y  N  H  A  M  . 

worch  of  liquors  per  week  ;  that  he  charged  it  to  "the  ark  ;"  that  he  delivered  it  some- 
times to  one  and  sometimes  to  another,  who  were  employed  to  do  chores  ;  and,  finally, 
he  identified  one  person  who  had  at  one  time  received  it,  against  whom  the  grand 
jury  returned  a  true  bill,  and  whose  trial  will  take  place  at  the  present  term  of  the 
court.  It  is  surmised  that,  as  none  of  the  brood  were  preserved  in  the  ancient,  it  was 
from  this  modern  ark  came  the  "striped  pig"*  which  has  so  recently  been  astonish- 
ing the  natives  of  Boston.  Notwithstanding  the  cloud  of  mystery  in  which  the  operators 
envelop  themselves,  one  thing  is  very  certain,  the  parties  have  been  stimulated  in 
their  course  by  evil  spirits." 

R  A  Y  N  H  A  M . 

THIS  town  was  formerly  a  part  of  Taimton,  and  was  incorpo- 
rated as  a  distinct  town  in  1731.  It  originally  made  a  part  of  those 
lands  known  by  the  name  of  Cohanet,  in  the  colony  of  New  Ply- 
mouth. They  were  first  purchased  of  Massasoit,  the  Indian  chief, 
by  Elizabeth  Pool  and  her  associates.  It  appears  the  first  settle- 
ment made  in  the  town  was  about  the  year  1650.  The  first  meet- 
ing-house was  built  in  1730.  At  this  period  there  were  about  thirty 
families  in  the  place.  This  house  stood  for  forty-two  years.  The 
second  meeting-house  was  erected  in  1771,  nearly  in  the  center  of 
the  town.  The  first  minister  ordained  here  was  Rev.  John  Wales ; 
this  was  in  1731.  Mr.  Wales  died  in  1765.  and  was  succeeded  by 
Rev.  Peres  Fobes,  LL.  D.,  who  was  ordained  in  1766. 

The  lands  in  Raynham  are  in  general  level  and  the  soil  light. 
Taunton  river  washes  the  southern  border  of  the  town;  there 
are  also  a  number  of  ponds,  which  produce  a  water  power.  There 
is  a  large  shovel  factory,  a  wire  mill,  a  furnace,  and  a  nail  factory, 
which  has  produced  eleven  tons  of  nails  daily.  Iron  ore  is  found 
here.  There  are  3  houses  of  worship :  1  Unitarian,  1  Orthodox, 
and  1  Baptist,  Population,  1,379.  Distance  3  miles  N.  E.  of  Taun- 
ton. 24  E.  of  Providence,  and  30  miles  S.  of  Boston. 

The  following  cut  represents  the  original  Leonard  House  in 
this  town,  "where  tradition  says  that  Philip's  head  was  deposited 
for  some  time.  It  is  still  occupied  by  one  of  the  family,  of  the 
sixth  generation  from  the  builder,  and,  so  far  as  we  are  informed, 
is  the  oldest  mansion  now  standing  in  this  country.  The  vane  at 
one  of  the  gable-ends  is  inscribed  with  the  date  1700 ;  but  there  is 
little  doubt  of  the  house  having  been  erected  at  least  thirty  years 
previous.  The  workmanship,  especially  within,  is  remarkably 
massive  and  sound.  It  is  apparently  modelled  after  an  English 

*  Keferenee  is  here  made  to  the  exhibition  of  a  "  striped  pig"  in  Dedham,  or  some 
other  place  in  the  vicinity  of  Boston,  on  a  day  of  general  military  muster.  The  exhi- 
biters  of  this  curiosity,  having  obtained  permission  of  the  proper  authorities,  gave 
notice  that  this  strange  animal  could  be  seen  at  the  low  price  of  six  cents.  This  pig 
drew  quite  a  number  of  visiters.  Those  who  visited  the  exhibition,  state  that  they 
found  the  pig  as  represented  ;  the  stripes,  however,  were  laid  on  with  a  painter's  brush. 
They  found  also  a  choice  variety  of  liquors,  a  glass  of  which  was  allowed  gratis  to 
each  visiter,  in  addition  to  the  privilege  of  seeing  this  remarkable  pig.  There  was 
something  so  attracting  about  the  animal,  that  quite  anumber  of  individuals,  not  satis- 
fied with  one  sight,  were  known  to  visit  the  exhibition  a  number  of  times  the  same 

R  A  Y  N  H  A  M  .  131 

Ancient  Leonard  House  in  Raynham. 

fashion  of  the  eighteenth  century,  with  some  modifications  proper 
for  defence  against  the  Indians.  It  was  garrisoned  during  the  war. 
The  Fowling  Pond,  still  so  called,  has  become  a  thick  swamp. 
An  aged  gentleman  was  living  not  many  years  since  who  in  boy- 
hood had  frequently  gone  off  in  a  canoe,  to  catch  fish  in  its  waters. 
Indian  weapons  and  utensils  are  still  found  on  its  borders."* 

The  first  iron  forge  in  America  was  set  up  in  this  town.  On 
the  banks  of  one  of  the  ponds  in  this  place,  the  celebrated  King 
Philip  had  a  hunting  house.  The  following  is  taken  from  the  Rev. 
Dr.  Fobes'  description  of  Raynham  in  1793. 

"  The  first  adventurers  from  England  to  this  country,  who  were  skilled  in  the  forge 
iron  manufacture,  were  two  brothers,  viz.  James  and  Henry  Leonard.  They  came  to 
this  town  in  the  year  1652,  which  was  about  two  years  after  the  first  settlers  had  plant- 
ed themselves  upon  this  spot ;  and  in  the  year  1652,  these  Leonards  here  built  the 
first  forge  in  America.  Henry  not  long  after  moved  from  this  place  to  the  Jerseys 
and  settled  there.  James,  who  was  the  great  progenitor,  from  whom  the  whole  race 
of  the  Leonards  here  sprang,  lived  and  died  in  this  town.  He  came  from  Ponterpool 
in  Monmouthshire,  and  brought  with  him  his  son  Thomas,  then  a  small  boy,  who  after- 
wards worked  at  the  bloomery  art,  with  his  father,  in  the  forge.  This  forge  was  situ- 
ated on  the  great  road  ;  and,  having  been  repaired  from  generation  to  generation,  it  is 
to  this  day  still  in  employ.  On  one  side  of  the  dam,  at  a  small  distance  from  each  other, 
stand  three  large  elms  and  one  oak  tree.  Two  of  the  elms  are  near  three  feet  in  cir- 
cumference, and  are  still  nourishing.  These  trees  are  now  almost  a  hundred  and  twenty 
years  old ;  which,  with  the  ancient  buildings  and  other  objects  around,  present  to  the 
eye  a  scene  of  the  most  venerable  antiquity.  In  the  distance  of  one  mile  and  a  quar- 
ter from  this  forge  is  a  place  called  the  Fowling  Pond,  on  the  northerly  side  of  which 
once  stood  King  Philip's  house.  It  was  called  Philip's  hunting  house,  because,  in  the 
season  most  favorable  to  hunting,  he  resided  there,  but  spent  the  winter  chiefly  at 
Mount  Hope,  probably  for  the  benefit  of  fish.  Philip  and  these  Leonards,  it  seems, 
long  lived  in  good  neighborhood,  and  often  traded  with  each  other ;  and  such  was 
Philip's  friendship,  that  as  soon  as  the  war  broke  out,  which  was  in  1675,  he  gave  out 
strict  orders  to  all  his  Indians  never  to  hurt  the  Leonards.  During  the  war,  two 
houses  near  the  forge  were  constantly  garrisoned.  These  buildings  are  yet  standing. 
One  of  them  was  built  by  James  Leonard,  long  before  Philip's  war.  This  house  still 
remains  in  its  original  gothic  form,  and  is  now  inhabited,  together  with  the  same  pater- 
nal spot,  by  Leonards  of  the  sixth  generation.  In  the  cellar  under  this  house,  was 
deposited,  for  a  considerable  time,  the  head  of  King  Philip;  for  it  seems  that  even 

*  Thatcher's  Indian  Biography. — This  interesting  relic  of  antiquity,  we  regret  to 
state,  is  now  no  more,  it  having  been,  as  we  are  informed,  taken  down  quite  recently 
oy  the  proprietor. 


Philip  himself  shared  the  fate  of  kings  j  he  was  decollated,  and  his  head  carried  about 
and  shown  as  a  curiosity,  by  one  Alderman,  the  Indian  who  shot  him. 

There  is  yet  in  being  an  ancient  case  of  drawers,  which  used  to  stand  in  this  house, 
upon  which  the  deep  scars  and  mangled  impressions  of  Indian  hatchets  are  now  seen ; 
but  the  deeper  impressions  made  on  those  affrighted  women,  who  fled  from  the  house 
when  the  Indians  broke  in,  cannot  be  known.  Under  the  door-steps  of  the  same  build- 
ing now  lie  buried  the  bones  of  two  unfortunate  young  women,  who  in  their  flight 
here  were  shot  down  by  the  Indians,  and  their  blood  was  seen  to  run  quite  across  the 
road  ;  but  more  fortunate  was  the  flight  of  Uriah  Leonard,  who,  as  he  was  riding  from 
Taunt  on  to  the  forge  in  this  place,  was  discovered  and  fired  upon  by  the  Indians.  He 
instantly  plucked  off  his  hat,  swung  it  around,  which  startled  his  horse,  and  in  full 
career  he  reached  the  forge  dam,  without  a  wound ;  but  several  bullets  were  shot 
through  the  hat  he  held  in  his  hand,  and  through  the  neck  of  the  horse  near  the  mane, 
from  which  the  blood  on  both  sides  gushed  and  ran  down  on  both  his  legs. 

While  deacon  Nathaniel  Williams,  with  some  others,  were  at  work  in  the  field,  on 
the  south  side  of  the  road  about  half  a  mile  from  the  forge,  one  of  the  number  disco- 
vered a  motion  of  the  bushes  at  a  little  distance ;  he  immediately  presented  his  gun  and 
fired  ;  upon  which  the  Indians  were  heard  to  cry,  Cocoosh,  and  ran  off ;  but  soon  after 
one  of  the  Indians  was  found  dead  near  the  Fowling  Pond.  Near  the  great  river  are 
now  to  be  seen  the  graves  of  Henry  Andross  and  James  Philips,  who,  with  James 
Bell  and  two  sons,  were  killed  by  a  number  of  Indians,  who  lay  in  ambush.  This 
happened  in  the  place  called  Squabette. 

The  place  already  mentioned,  by  the  name  of  Fowling  Pond,  is  itself  a  great  curios- 
ity. Before  Philip's  war  it  seems  to  have  been  a  large  pond,  nearly  two  miles  long 
and  three  quarters  of  a  mile  wide.  Since  then,  the  water  is  almost  gone,  and  the  large 
tract  it  once  covered  is  grown  up  to  a  thick-set  swamp  of  cedar  and  pine.  That  this, 
however,  was  once  a  large  pond,  haunted  by  fowls,  and  supplied  with  fish  in  great 
plenty,  is  more  than  probable,  for  here  is  found,  upon  dry  land,  a  large  quantity  of 
white  floor  sand,  and  a  great  number  of  that  kind  of  smooth  stones,  which  are  never 
found  except  on  shores  or  places  long  washed  with  water.  There  is  also  on  the  east 
side  a  bank  of  sand,  which  is  called  the  Beaver's  Dam,  against  which  the  water  must 
formerly  have  washed  up ;  and  if  so,  the  pond  must  once  have  been  of  such  amplitude 
as  that  above  mentioned.  Add  to  this,  that  a  large  number  of  Indian  spears,  tools, 
pots,  &c.,  are  found  near  the  sides  of  this  pond.  This  indicates  that  the  natives  were 
once  thick-settled  here.  But  what  could  be  their  object  ?  What  could  induce  Philip 
to  build  his  house  here  ?  It  was,  undoubtedly,  fishing  and  fowling,  in  this  then  large 
pond.  But,  more  than  all,  there  is  yet  living  in  this  town  a  man  of  more  than  ninety 
years  old,  who  can  well  remember  that  when  he  was  a  boy  he  had  frequently  gone  off 
in  a  canoe  to  fish  in  this  pond ;  arid  says,  that  many  a  fish  had  been  caught  where  the 
pines  and  cedars  are  now  more  than  fifty  feet  high.  If  an  instance,  at  once  so  rare 
and  well  attested  as  this,  should  not  be  admitted  as  a  curious  scrap  of  the  natural  his- 
tory of  this  country,  yet  it  must  be  admitted  as  a  strong  analogical  proof  that  many 
of  our  swamps  were  originally  ponds  of  water  :  but,  more  than  this,  it  suggests  a  new 
argument  in  favor  of  the  wisdom  and  goodness  of  that  Divine  Providence  which 
"changes  the  face  of  the  earth,"  tc  supply  the  wants  of  man,  as  often  as  he  changes  from 
uncivilized  nature  to  a  state  of  cultivation  and  refinement. 


THE  original  limits  of  Rehoboth  were  extensive,  comprehending 
the  present  town,  Seekonk,  Pawtucket,  Attleborough,  Cumber- 
land, R.  I.,  and  part  of  Swansey  and  Barrington.  The  first  pur- 
chase of  land  here  for  a  settlement  was  made  of  Massasoit,  in  1641, 
comprehending  a  tract  of  land  about  ten  miles  square,  embracing 
the  present  towns  of  Rehoboth,  Seekonk,  and  Pawtucket.  The 
first  white  settler  in  the  original  limits  of  the  town  was  William 
Blackstone,  a  non-conformist  minister  of  England,  who  fled  from 
persecution  and  sought  an  asylum  in  the  wilds  of  America.  He 
was  the  first  white  man  who  lived  on  the  peninsula  where  the 


city  of  Boston  now  stands.  He  sold  his  lands  on  the  peninsula  in 
1634,  and  probably  removed  to  Rehoboth  the  next  year.  He  loca- 
ted himself  in  what  is  now  Cumberland,  R.  I.,  on  the  river  which 
bears  his  name,  about  three  miles  above  the  village  of  Pawtucket. 
His  house,  which  he  named  "  Study  Hall,"  stood  near  the  east  bank 
of  the  river,  a  few  rods  east  of  a  knoll  which  rises  abruptly  from 
the  meadow  on  the  brink  of  the  river  to  the  height  of  60  or  70  feet. 
His  grave  and  the  well  which  he  dug  are  still  to  be  seen.  The 
celebrated  Roger  Williams  for  a  short  time,  when  driven  from 
Massachusetts,  first  pitched  his  tent  in  the  limits  of  Rehoboth,  and 
resided  there  for  a  short  period. 

Rev.  Samuel  Newman*  may  be  considered  as  the  founder  of 
Rehoboth.  He  removed  here  with  part  of  his  church  in  Weymouth 
in  1644.  The  first  meeting  of  the  original  planters  to  be  found  on 
record  is  dated  at  "  Weimouth  the  24th  of  the  8th  month  [October] 
1643."  The  second  meeting  was  held  in  Dec.  following,  when 
regulations  were  made  as  to  the  planting  of  corn.  The  teacher 
was  to  have  a  certain  portion  from  each  settler  ;  servants,  after 
four  years,  to  be  inhabitants,  and  entitled  to  their  privileges.  The 
following  appears  to  be  a  list  of  all  the  planters  at  Seekonk  or  Re- 
hoboth in  July,  1644.  It  is  prefixed  in  the  following  manner  : — 

"  This  combination,  entered  into  by  the  general  consent  of  all  the  inhabitants,  after 
general  notice  given  the  23d  of  the  4th  month.  We  whose  names  are  underwritten, 
being,  by  the  providence  of  God,  inhabitants  of  Seacunk,  intending  there  to  settle,  do 
covenant,  &c. 

Walter  Palmer,  Samuel  Newman,  Peter  Hunt,  Ralph  Alin, 

Edward  Smith,  Wm.  Cheesborough,  William  Smith,  Thomas  Bliss, 

Edward  Bennett,  Richard  Wright,  John  Peren,  George  Kendricke, 

Robert  Titus,  Robert  Martin,  Zachery  Rhoades,  John  Allen, 

Abraham  Martin,  Richard  Bowen,  Job  Lane,  William  Sabin, 

John  Matthewes,  Joseph  Torrey,  Alex.  Winchester,  Thomas  Cooper. 

Edward  Sale,  James  Clark,  Henry  Smith, 

Ralph  Shepherd,  Ephraim  Hunt,  Stephen  Payne, 

"Though  the  proprietors  purchased  their  land  of  the  Plymouth  colony,  yet  it  appears, 
from  the  compact  signed  by  them,  that  they  considered  themselves  independent  of  any 
jurisdiction  but  their  own,  though  they  were  afterwards  claimed  by  both  Plymouth 
and  Massachusetts  Bay.  In  1645,  they  submitted  themselves  to  the  jurisdiction  of 
the  Plymouth  court,  or  rather  were  assigned  to  that  by  the  commissioners  of  the 
United  Colonies,  and  were  incorporated  by  the  Scripture  name  of  Rehoboth, — a  name 
selected  by  Mr.  Newman;  for,  said  he,  "  the  Lord  hath  made  room  for  «s."f 

The  town  of  Rehoboth  in  its  present  limits  is  formed  from  the 

*  Mr.  Newman  was  a  man  of  great  learning  and  piety.  He  compiled  a  Concor- 
dance of  the  Bible,  a  herculean  labor,  which  was  published  in  London  in  1643,  in  folio. 
After  his  removal  to  Rehoboth  (now  Seekonk),  he  revised  this  work  and  greatly  im- 
proved it,  using  in  the  evening,  according  to  President  Stiles,  pine  knots  instead  of 
candles.  He  died  at  Seekonk,  in  1663.  "  The  manner  of  his  death,"-  says  Elliot, 
"  was  peculiar.  He  had  a  certain  premonition  of  it,  and  seemed  to  triumph  in  the; 
prospect  of  its  being  near.  He  was  apparently  in  perfect  health,  and  preached  a  ser- 
mon  from  these  words,  Job  xiv.  14  :  '  All  the  days  of  my  appointed  time  will  I  wait  till 
my  change  come.'  In  the  afternoon  of  the  following  Lord's  day  he  asked  the  deacon  to 
pray  with  him,  saying  he  had  not  long  to  live.  As  soon  as  he  had  finished  his  prayer, 
he  said  the  time  was  come  when  he  must  leave  the  world ;  but  his  friends,  seeing 
no  immediate  signs  of  dissolution,  thought  it  was  the  influence  of  imagination.  Bui 
he  turned  round,  saying,  'Angels,  do  your  office/  and  immediately  expired.'' 

f  Bliss'  History  of  Rehoboth,  p.  31. 


second  precinct  of  the  ancient  Rehoboth.  This  was  incorporated 
as  a  separate  society  in  1759.  As  early  as  1711,  the  inhabitants 
of  the  south-east  part  of  the  town,  called  the  "neighborhood  of 
Palmer's  river,"  petitioned  for  a  division  of  the  town  into  two  pre- 
cincts. This  was  opposed  by  the  western  or  older  part  of  the  town. 
In  1717,  the  general  court  granted  permission  to  the  people  at 
Palmer's  River  to  build  a  meeting-house  in  their  part  of  the  town. 
This  house  was  commenced  the  same  year,  and  stood  on  a  small 
elevation  about  half  a  mile  N.  W.  of  the  Orleans  factory.  Jethnial 
Peck,  Capt.  Samuel  Peck,  and  Jonathan  Bliss,  gave  each  an  acre 
of  land  for  the  site  of  the  meeting-house.  In  1721  a  church  was 
organized  here,  under  the  pastoral  care  of  Rev.  David  Turner. 
Mr.  Turner  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Robert  Rogerson,  who  was 
settled  in  1759 ;  he  died  in  1799,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Otis 
Thompson,  who  was  ordained  in  1800.  The  second  meeting-house 
was  erected  in  1773,  "upon  the  plaine  near  Timothy  Headways," 
There  are  at  present  in  Rehoboth  5  churches  :  2  Baptist,  1  Congre- 
gational, 1  Reformed  Methodist,  and  1  Christian.  There  is  a  cot- 
ton factory,  with  1,440  spindles.  Population,  2,202.  Distance,  10 
miles  S.  W.  of  Taunton,  7  east  of  Providence,  and  40  south-west- 
erly of  Boston. 

South-west  view  of  Annaworfs  Rock,  Rehoboth. 

The  above  is  a  representation  of  the  celebrated  rock,  called 
Annawon' s  Rock,  in  the  eastern  part  of  Rehoboth,  a  few  rods  south 
of  the  new  turnpike  from  Taunton  to  Providence,  about  eight  miles 
from  the  former  and  ten  miles  from  the  latter  place.  The  whole 
rock  extends  N.  E.  and  S.  W.  70  or  80  feet,  and  its  height  is  25 
or  30  feet.  It  is  on  the  northern  border  of  a  great  swamp  of  nearly 
3000  acres,  called  Squannakonk,  by  which  it  is  rendered  inaccessible 
except  on  the  northern  side.  This  place  is  rendered  memorable 
by  the  capture  of  Annawon,  the  last  and  bravest  of  King  Philip's 
chieftains,  on  28th  of  Aug.  1676.  Annawon,  after  the  death  of 
Philip,  Aug.  12th,  with  a  few  brave  warriors,  ranged  the  woods  in 


the  vicinity  of  Rehoboth  and  Swanzey,  much  to  the  terror  of  the 
inhabitants.  Capt.  Church,  so  celebrated  in  this  war,  was  sent  foi, 
who  with  his  party  immediately  commenced  upon  the  pursuit. 
Having  captured  a  number  of  Annawon's  company,  one  of  them 
having  his  life  spared  offered  to  conduct  him  to  his  chieftain's  retreat. 
The  following  interesting  account  is  taken  from  the  account  given 
in  Drake's  Hist,  of  Indian  Chiefs,  published  in  Boston  in  1832. 

Having  travelled  through  swamps  and  thickets  until  the  sun  was  setting,  the  pilot 
ordered  a  stop.  The  captain  asked  him  if  he  had  made  any  discovery.  He  said, 
''About  that  hour  of  the  day  Annurvon  usually  sent  out  his  scouts  to  see  if  the  coast 
was  clear,  and  as  soon  as  it  began  to  grow  dark  the  scouts  returned,  and  then  we  may 
move  securely."  When  it  was  sufficiently  dark,  and  they  were  about  to  proceed,. 
Capt.  Church  asked  the  old  man  if  he  would  take  a  gun  and  fight  for  him.  He 
bowed  very  low  and  said,  "I  pray  you  not  to  impose  such  a  thing  upon  me  as  to 
fight  against  Capt.  Annarvon,  my  old  friend,  but  I  will  go  along  with  you,  and  be  help- 
ful to  you,  and  will  lay  hands  on  any  man  that  shall  offer  to  hurt  you."  They  had 
proceeded  but  a  short  space,  when  they  heard  a  noise,  which  they  concluded  to  be 
the  pounding  of  a  mortar.  This  warned  them  that  they  were  in  the  vicinity  of  Anna- 
tvon's  retreat. 

#  *  #####*## 

When  they  arrived  near  the  foot  of  the  rock,  Capt.  Church,  with  two  of  his  Indian 
soldiers,  crept  to  the  top  of  it,  from  whence  they  could  see  distinctly  the  situation  of 
the  whole  company,  by  the  light  of  their  fires.  They  were  divided  into  three  bodies, 
and  lodged  a  short  distance  from  one  another.  Annarvori's  camp  was  formed  by  felling 
a  tree  against  the  rock,  with  bushes  set  up  on  each  side.  With  him  lodged  his  son, 
and  others  of  his  principal  men.  Their  guns  were  discovered  standing,  and  leaning 
against  a  stick  resting  on  two  crotches,  safely  covered  from  the  weather  by  a  mat. 
Over  their  fires  were  pots  and  kettles  boiling,  and  meat  roasting  upon  their  spits. 
(Japt.  Church  was  now  at  some  loss  how  to  proceed,  seeing  no  possibility  of  getting 
down  the  rock  without  discovery,  which  would  have  been  fatal.  He  therefore  creeps 
silently  back  again  to  the  foot  of  the  rock,  and  asked  the  old  man,  their  pilot,  if  there 
were  no  other  way  of  coming  at  them.  He  answered,  "  No,"  and  said  that  himself 
and  all  others  belonging  to  the  company  were  ordered  to  come  that  way,  and  none 
could  come  any  other  without  danger  of  being  shot. 

The  fruitful  mind  of  Church  was  no  longer  at  a  loss,  and  the  following  stratagem 
was  put  in  successful  practice.  He  ordered  the  old  man  and  the  young  woman  to  go 
forward  and  lead  the  way,  with  their  baskets  upon  their  backs,  which,  when  Anna- 
won  should  discover  them,  would  take  no  alarm,  knowing  them  to  be  those  he  had 
lately  sent  forth  upon  discovery.  Capt.  Church  and  his  handful  of  soldiers  crept 
down  also,  under  the  shadow  of  those  two  and  their  baskets.  The  captain  himself 
crept  close  behind  the  old  man,  with  his  hatchet  in  his  hand,  and  stepped  over  the 
young  man's  head  to  the  arms.  The  young  Annarvon,  discovering  him,  whipped  his 
blanket  over  his  head,  and  shrunk  up  in  a  heap.  The  old  captain  Annawon  started  up 
on  his  breech,  and  cried  out  "Horvoh  /"  which  signified,  "I  am  taken."  All  hope  of  es- 
cape was  now  fled  forever,  and  he  made  no  effort,  but  laid  himself  down  again  in  perfect 
silence,  while  his  captors  secured  the  rest  of  the  company.  For  he  supposed  the  Eng- 
lish were  far  more  numerous  than  they  were,  and  before  he  was  undeceived  his 
company  were  all  secured. 

One  circumstance  much  facilitated  this  daring  project.  It  has  been  before  mentioned 
that  they  heard  the  pounding  of  a  mortar  on  their  approach.  This  continued  during 
their  descent  down  the  rock.  A  squaw  was  pounding  green  dried  corn  for  their 
supper,  and  when  she  ceased  pounding  to  turn  the  corn  they  ceased  to  proceed,  and 
when  she  pounded  again  they  moved.  This  was  the  reason  they  were  not  heard  as 
they  lowered  themselves  down  from  crag  to  crag,  supported  by  small  bushes  that 
grew  from  the  seams  of  the  rock.  The  pounded  corn  served  afterwards  for  a  supper 
to  the  captors. 

#  ##  #  *  *  #  *  *  * 

The  two  companies  situated  at  a  short  distance  from  the  rock  knew  not  the  fate  of 
their  captain,  until  those  sent  by  Church  announced  to  them  that  they  were  all  pris- 
oners; and,  tc  prevent  their  making  resistance,  were  told  that  Capt.  Church  had  en- 
compassed them  with  his  army,  and  that  to  make  resistance  would  be  immediate 
death ;  but  if  they  all  submitted  peaceably,  they  should  have  good  quarter.  "  Now 

136  S  E  E  K  O  N  K  . 

they  being  old  acquaintance,  and  many  of  them  relations,"  readily  consented  ;  deh 
vering  up  their  guns  and  hatchets,  were  all  conducted  to  head  quarters. 

Things  being  thus  far  settled,  Captain  Church  asked  Annawon  what  he  had  for  sup. 
per ;  "  for,''  said  he,  "  I  am  come  down  to  sup  with  you."  Annanon  replied,  "  TaubutJ1 
with  a  majestic  voice,  and,  looking  around  upon  his  women,  ordered  them  to  hasten 
and  provide  Capt.  Church  and  his  company  some  supper.  He  asked  Capt.  Church 
11  whether  he  would  eat  cow  beef  or  horse  beef."  He  said  he  \vould  prefer  cow  beef. 
It  was  soon  ready,  which,  by  the  aid  of  some  salt  he  brought  in  his  pocket,  he  made  a. 
good  meal.  And  here  it  should  be  told,  that  a  small  bag  of  salt,  which  Church  carried 
in  his  pocket,  was  the  only  provision  he  took  with  him  upon  this  expedition. 

When  supper  was  over,  Capt.  Church  set  his  men  to  watch,  telling  them  that  if  they 
would  let  him  sleep  two  hours  they  should  sleep  all  the  rest  of  the  night,  he  not  hav- 
ing slept  any  for  thirty-six  hours  before ;  but  after  lying  a  half  hour,  and  no  dispo- 
sition to  sleep  came,  from  the  momentous  cares  upon  his  mind,  for, 

"  The  dead  alone  in  such  a  night  can  rest ;" 

he  looked  to  see  if  his  watch  were  at  their  posts,  but  they  were  all  fast  asleep.  Anna- 
won  felt  no  more  like  sleeping  than  Church,  and  they  lay  for  some  time  looking  one 
upon  the  other.  Church  spoke  not  to  Annawon,  because  he  could  not  speak  Indian, 
and  thought  Annawon  could  not  speak  English,  but  it  now  appeared  that  he  could, 
from  a  conversation  they  held  together.  Church  had  laid  down  with  Annawon  to  pre- 
vent his  escape,  of  which  however  he  did  not  seem  much  afraid,  for  after  they  had 
laid  a  considerable  time  Annawon  got  up  and  walked  away  out  of  sight,  which 
Church  considered  was  on  a  common  occasion.  But  being  gone  some  time,  "  he  began 
to  suspect  some  ill  design."  He  therefore  gathered  all  the  guns  close  to  himself,  and 
lay  as  close  as  he  possibly  could  under  young  Annawon1  s  side,  that  if  a  shot  should  be 
made  at  him  it  must  endanger  the  life  of  young  Annawon  also.  After  lying  a  while 
in  great  suspense,  he  saw,  by  the  light  of  the  moon,  Annawon  coming  with  something 
in  his  hands.  When  he  had  got  to  Capt.  Church  he  knelt  down  before  him,  and  after 
presenting  him  what  he  had  brought,  spoke  in  English  as  follows: — "Great  captain, 
you  have  killed  Philip,  and  conquered  his  country.  For  I  believe  that  I  and  my  com- 
pany  are  the  last  that  war  against  the  English,  so  suppose  the  war  is  ended  by  your 
means,  and  therefore  these  things  belong  unto  you."  He  then  took  out  of  his  pack  a 
beautifully  wrought  belt,  which  belonged  to  Philip.  It  was  nine  inches  in  breadth, 
and  of  such  length  as,  when  put  about  the  shoulders  of  Capt.  Church,  reached  to  his 
ankles.  This  was  considered  at  that  time  of  great  value,  being  embroidered  all  over 
with  money,  that  is  wampampeag,  of  various  colors,  curiously  wrought  into  figure* 
of  birds,  beasts,  and  flowers.  A  second  belt,  of  no  less  exquisite  workmanship,  was 
next  presented,  which  belonged  also  to  Philip.  This,  that  chief  used  to  ornament  his 
head  with ;  from  the  back  part  of  which  flowed  two  flags,  which  decorated  his* 
back.  A  third  was  a  smaller  one,  with  a  star  upon  the  end  of  it,  which  he  wore  upon 
his  breast.  All  three  were  edged  with  red  hair,  which  Annawon  said  was  got  in  the 
country  of  the  Mohawks.  These  belts,  or  some  of  them,  it  is  believed  remain  at  this 
day,  the  property  of  a  family  in  Swansey.  He  next  took  from  his  pack  two  horns  of 
glazed  powder  and  a  red  cloth  blanket.  These,  it  appears,  were  all  of  the  effects  of 
the  great  chief.  He  told  Capt.  Church  that  those  were  Philip's  royalties,  which  he 
was  wont  to  adorn  himself  with  when  he  sat  in  state,  and  he  thought  himself  happy 
in  having  an  opportunity  to  present  them  to  him. 

The  remainder  of  the  night  they,  spent  in  discourse,  in  which  Annawon  "gave  an 
account  of  what  mighty  success  he  had  had  formerly  in  wars  against  many  nations  of 
Indians,  when  he  served  Asuhmequin,  Philip's  father.  Morning  being  come,  they  took 
up  their  march  for  Taunton.  In  the  way  they  met  Lieutenant  Howland,  according  to 
appointment,  at  his  no  small  surprise.  They  lodged  at  Taunton  that  night.  The 
next  day  Capt.  Church  took  old  Annawon,  and  half  a  dozen  Indian  soldiers,  and  his 
own  men,  and  went  to  Rhode  Island ;  the  rest  were  sent  to  Plymouth,  under  Lieut. 
Howland.  Not  long  after  this,  to  the  great  grief  of  Capt.  Church,  Annawon  was  be- 
headed at  Plymouth.  It  is  true  Church  did  not  guarantee  his  life  when  he  surrendered, 
but  he  had  little  doubt  of  his  being  able  to  save  him,  knowing  how  much  the  country 
was  indebted  to  him  in  this  war. 


IN  1812,  the  west  part  of  Rehoboth  was  incorporated  into  a  dis- 
tinct township  by  its  ancient  name  of  Seekonk.      This  word  in 

S  E  E  K  0  N  K  .  137 

the  Indian  language  is  the  name  for  the  wild  or  black  goose,  and 
this  place  probably  received  its  name  from  the  circumstance  that 
great  numbers  of  wild  geese  used  frequently  to  alight  in  Seekonk 
river  and  cove.^  This  town  is  properly  the  ancient  Rehoboth,  it 
being  the  place  where  the  first  settlement  was  made.  Some  account 
of  the  first  settlers,  and  the  names  of  some  of  the  first  planters, 
will  be  found  in  the  account  given  in  this  work  of  the  town  of 
Rehoboth.  The  town,  or  first  settlement,  was  built  in  a  semi- 
cjrcular  form,  around  what  is  now  Seekonk  common,  (the  south 
extremity  of  the  plain,)  with  the  meeting-house  and  parsonage  in 
the  center;  the  semi-circle  opening  towards  Seekonk  or  Paw- 
tucket  river.  This  circle  was  afterwards  called  "The  Ring  of 
the  Town." 

Seekonk  is  washed  on  the  west  by  Providence  river,  separating 
it  from  the  state  of  Rhode  Island.  There  are  three  cotton  facto- 
ries in  the  town,  running  nearly  6,000  spindles,  and  about  150 
looms.  There  are  2  houses  of  worship,  1  Congregational  and  1 
Baptist.  Population.  2,016.  Distance  from  Providence  4  miles, 
14  S.  W.  of  Taunton,  and  41  miles  southerly  from  Boston.  The 
Boston  and  Providence  railroad  passes  through  this  town. 

In  the  spring  of  1676,  during  Philip's  war,  the  Indians,  dispers- 
ing themselves  in  small  parties,  committed  dreadful  ravages  both 
in  Rhode  Island  and  Massachusetts.  The  country  being  alarmed, 
Capt.  Pierce,  from  Scituate,  with  sixty-three  Englishmen  and 
twenty  friendly  Indians  from  Cape  Cod,  was  ordered  to  drive  the 
Indians  towards  Rhode  Island.  He  arrived  at  Seekonk  on  the 
25th  of  March.  While  in  pursuit  of  the  Indians,  the  next  day, 
he  was  attacked  and  surrounded  by  an  overwhelming  force  of 
savages;  after  a  desperate  resistance,  Capt.  Pierce,  with  nearly 
all  his  men,  were  killed,  after  having  slain,  it  is  supposed,  nearly 
double  the  number  of  their  enemies.  "  Two  days  after  Pierce' s 
fight,  a  party  of  the  Indians,  crossing  the  river,  laid  the  town  in 
ashes,  burning  40  houses  and  30  barns."  These  houses  were 
around  the  "Ring -of  the  Town;"  only  two  houses  were  left 
standing, — the  garrison-house,  which  stood  on  the  spot  where  the 
house  of  Phanuel  Bishop  now  stands,  and  another  house  on  the  south 
end  of  the  common,  which  was  preserved  by  black  sticks  having 
been  arranged  around  it,  so  as  to  give  it  at  a  distance  the  appearance 
of  being  strongly  guarded.  The  houses  were  set  on  fire,  as  tradition 
informs  us,  early  in  the  evening,  and  when  the  sun  arose  the 
next  morning  it  beheld  only  a  line  of  smoking  ruins.  It  appears 
that  only  one  person  was  killed ;  he  was  an  Irishman,  a  religious, 
but  a  singular  and  superstitious  man.  On  the  approach  of  the 
Indians,  he  refused  to  go  into  the  garrison-house,  but  remained 
in  his  own  house  with  his  Bible  in  his  hand,  believing  that  while 
he  continued  reading  it,  nothing  could  harm  him.  He  was,  how- 
ever, shot  through  the  window. 

*  Bliss'  History  of  Rehoboth. 


138  faEEKONK. 

There  is  a  chair  now  in  possession  of  Capt.  Caleb  Abell  of  See- 
konk,  which  has  been  in  possession  of  that  family  since  the  burn- 
ing by  the  Indians,  and  is  dignified  with  the  appellation  of  "  King 
Philip's  Chair"  According  to  the  tradition  preserved  in  the 
family,  Philip  was  in  the  habit  of  frequently  visiting  the  house  of 
Preserved  Abell,  and  whenever  he  came,  this  chair,  being  the 
'•big  armed-chair  of  the  house,"  was  brought  forth  as  a  mark  of 
distinction  for  his  seat.  At  the  burning  of  the  place  in  1676,  the 
Indians  brought  it  out  of  the  house  for  their  chief  (who  is  said  to 
have  been  King  Philip)  to  sit  in,  and  enjoy  the  conflagration. 
When  they  left  this  house  for  another,  an  Indian  threw  a  fire- 
brand into  the  chair,  which  consumed  the  bottom,  but  left  the 
huge  frame,  with  only  scorching  the  parts  to  which  the  bottom 
was  attached. 

Capt.  Thomas  Willet,  who  came  over  to  this  country  in  1630, 
was  buried  in  the  limits  of  this  town,  at  the  head  of  Bullock's 
Cove.  He  was  a  very  young  man  when  he  arrived,  and  was  a 
merchant  by  profession.  He  first  resided  at  Plymouth,  and  soon 
became  a  useful  and  distinguished  man  in  the  colony.  When 
New  York  was  surrendered  by  the  Dutch,  Capt.  Willet  was  sent 
for  by  his  majesty's  commissioners  to  assist,  them  in  organizing 
the  new  government.  After  a  residence  of  a  few  years  in  New 
York,  he  returned  to  his  seat  at  Swansea,  where  he  died  in  1674. 
"  The  English  mayor  of  the  first  commercial  metropolis  in  Ame- 
rica, (says  Mr.  Daggett  in  his  History  of  Attleborough,)  lies  buried 
on  a  lonely  and  barren  heath,  in  the  humble  town  of  Seekonk, 
at  a  place  seldom  visited  by  the  footsteps  of  man,  with  nought 
but  the  rudest  monument  to  mark  the  spot."  The  following  is 
the  rudely  carved  inscription,  still  legible. 


Here  lyeth  the  body  of  the  worthy  Thomas  Willet,  Esq.,  who  died  August  ye  4th, 
in  the  64th  year  of  his  age,  Anno  .  .  .  who  was  the  first  Mayor  of  New  York, 
and  twice  did  sustain  the  place. 

The  following  inscriptions  are  copied  from  monuments  in  the 
burying-ground  in  this  town. 

Here  rests  the  body  of  Mr.  George  Allen,  a  native  of  Sherburn  in  Great  Britain, 
who  died  Jan.  20th,  A.  D.  1774,  aged  78  years.  His  ingenuity  &  application  to 
study  were  such,  that  in  early  life  he  made  uncommon  advances  in  the  principal 
branches  of  Literature,  &  at  the  age  of  17  was  employed  as  a  writing  master  in  his 
native  town.  At  the  age  of  21  he  arrived  at  Boston,  where  he  opened  a  school  for  the 
instruction  of  youth,  in  which  occupation  (in  that  &  other  towns)  he  spent  the  Prime 
of  his  life  ;  his  latter  researches  were  better  calculated  for  the  promotion  of  Science, 
than  for  the  advancement  of  his  private  interest.  His  friendly  disposition  and  mode- 
ration were  conspicuous  to  all  who  knew  him. 

A  tribute  of  respect  to  Hosea  Humphrey,  Esq.,  who  died  June  30th,  1816,  aged  59. 
He  was  a  native  of  Connecticut,  was  highly  esteemed  there  as  a  Philosopher,  Physi- 
cian &  Statesman;  was  honored  with  a  seat  in  the  Convention  for  adopting  the 
Federal  Constitution,  &  also  of  the  Legislature ;  and  ever  defended  the  rights  of  man 
with  a  liberal  independent  spirit. — Erected  by  the  affect1  onate  regard  of  his  afflicted 

S  W  A  N  S  E  Y  .  139 


THIS  town  is  pleasantly  situated  on  the  western  side  of  Taun- 
ton  river,  opposite  the  town  of  Fall  River.  Previous  to  its  incor- 
poration in  1790,  it  formed  a  part  of  Swansey,  and  was  called  the 
Shawamet  Purchase.  Taunton  river  to  this  place  is  navigable  for 
vessels  of  considerable  burthen.  This  place  is  13  miles  from 
Taunton,  16  from  Providence,  and  45  from  Boston.  Population, 
1,063.  In  five  years  preceding  1837,  there  were  12  vessels  built; 
tonnage,  696.  This  town  has  about  1,200  tons  of  shipping,  and 
7  potteries,  where  stone  and  earthen  ware  are  manufactured. 
There  are  4  churches  :  2  Baptist,  1  Friends,  and  1  Methodist 


A  PART  of  this  town  was  originally  comprehended  in  the  ancient 
limits  of  Rehoboth.  It  forms  a  part  of  the  tract  called  by  the  In- 
dians Wannamoiset,  situated  in  this  town  and  Barrington,  R.  I. 
Swansey  was  incorporated  as  a  town  in  1667,  and  comprehended 
in  its  limits  at  that  period  the  present  town,  Somerset,  Barring- 
ton,  and  the  greater  part  of  Warren,  R.  I.  The  town  derived  its 
name  from  Swansea  in  Wales,  and  was  so  spelled  in  the  earliest 
records.  In  1649,  Obadiah  Holmes  and  several  others  in  Reho- 
both, having  embraced  the  Baptist  sentiments,  withdrew  them- 
selves from  Mr.  Newman's  church,  and  set  up  a  separate  meeting 
of  their  own.  The  attempt  to  break  them  up,  and  the  persecution 
they  received,  increased  the  number  of  Baptists.  In  1663,  they 
were  much  strengthened  by  the  arrival  of  Rev.  Jtfhn  Myles,  with 
part  of  his  church,  which  he  had  formed  at  Wales,  whence  he  had 
been  ejected  for  non-conformity.  In  the  same  year  of  his  arrival 
Mr.  Myles  formed  a  Baptist  church  in  Rehoboth,  the  fourth 
formed  in  America.  It  was  organized  in  the  house  of  John  But- 
terworth,  and  commenced  with  seven  members,  viz.  John  Miles 
{or  Myles),  pastor,  James  Brown,  Nicholas  Tanner,  Joseph  Car- 
penter, John  Butterworth,  Eldad  Kingsley,  and  Benjamin  Alby. 
These  and  subsequent  proceedings,  were  deemed  such  an  evil  by 
the  rest  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  and  of  the  colony  generally, 
that  the  court  of  Plymouth  was  called  on  to  interfere.  Each  mem- 
ber of  this  new  church  was  fined  £5,  prohibited  from  worship 
for  the  space  of  one  month ;  and  they  were  advised  to  remove 
from  Rehoboth  to  some  place  where  they  might  not  prejudice  any 
existing  church.  They  accordingly  removed  to  Wannamoiset, 
and  erected  a  house  near  Kelley's  bridge,  on  a  neck  of  land  now  in 
the  limits  of  Barrington.  They  afterwards  erected  another  about 
half  a  mile  from  •"  Myles's  bridge,"  on  the  east  side  of  Palmer's 
river,  a  short  distance  from  where  the  present  house  of  worship 
now  stands. 

The  central  village  of  SiTansey  contains  about  a  dozen  dwelling- 

140  S  W  ANSE  Y. 

houses,  and  a  Union  church  for  various  denominations.  Some 
of  the  inhabitants  of  the  town  are  engaged  in  navigation  and  ship- 
building ;  there  is  also  a  cotton  factory,  2  paper-mills,  and  a  wool- 
len factory.  There  are  3  Baptist  churches.  Population,  1,627. 
Distance,  14  miles  S.  W.  of  Taunton,  20  from  New  Bedford,  14 
from  Providence,  10  N.  E.  of  Bristol,  R.  I.,  and  46  southerly  of 

This  town  will  be  memorable  on  account  of  its  being  the  place 
where  the  first  English  blood  was  shed  in  "King  Philip's  War." 
Philip  having  laid  his  plans  for  the  extermination  of  the  English, 
his  warriors  were  so  impatient  that  he  was  obliged  to  promise 
them  that  on  the  next  Lord's  day,  when  the  English  were  gone  to 
meeting,  they  should  rifle  their  houses  and  kill  their  cattle.  Ac- 
cordingly, on  Sunday,  June  20th,  1675,  he  permitted  his  men  to 
march  out  into  the  neighborhood  of  Swansey,  and  to  annoy  the 
English  by  killing  their  cattle,  thus  hoping  to  provoke  them  to 
commence  the  attack ;  for  it  is  said  a  superstitious  opinion  pre- 
vailed among  them,  that  the  side  which  did  the  first  execution 
would  finally  be  conquered.  The  Indians  were  so  insolent  in 
their  deportment  and  language,  that  an  Englishman  was  so  pro- 
voked that  he  fired  upon  one  of  them  and  wounded  him.  This, 
according  to  Mr.  Hubbard,  in  his  "Indian  Wars,"  was  the  first 
gun  fired.  According  to  tradition,  this  Indian  who  was  wounded, 
after  killing  a  number  of  cattle  in  the  field,  went  into  the  man's 
house  and  demanded  liquor ;  being  refused,  he  attempted  to  take 
it  by  violence,  and  at  the  same  time  threatened  revenge;  this 
caused  the  Englishman  to  fire  upon  him.  The  Indians  upon  this 
commenced  open  war. 

The  following  is  Mr.  Hubbard' s  account  of  the  first  shedding 
of  English  blood: — "On  the  24th  of  June,  1675,  was  the  alarm 
of  war  first  sounded  in  Plymouth  colony,  when  eight  or  nine  of 
the  English  were  slain  in  and  about  Swansey ;  they  (the  Indians) 
first  making  a  shot  at  a  company  of  English  as  they  returned 
from  the  assembly,  where  they  were  met  in  a  way  of  humiliation 
on  that  day,  whereby  they  killed  one  and  wounded  others ;  and 
then  likewise  at  the  same  time  they  slew  two  men  on  the  high- 
way, sent  to  call  a  surgeon ;  and  the  same  day  barbarously  mur- 
dered six  men  in  and  about  a  dwelling-house  in  another  part  of 
the  town ;  all  of  which  outrages  were  committed  so  suddenly,  that 
the  English  had  no  time  to  make  resistance." 

At  this  period  the  house  of  Rev.  John  Miles  was  garrisoned.  It 
stood  a  short  distance  west  of  Miles'  bridge,  probably  near  the 
site  of  the  tavern  of  Mason  Barney,  Esq.  Intelligence  of  the  mur- 
der of  the  Swansey  people  having  reached  Boston,  a  foot  company, 
under  Capt.  Henchman,  and  a  troop,  under  Capt.  Prentice,  imme- 
diately marched  for  Mount  Hope,  and  being  joined  by  another 
company  of  110  volunteers  under  Capt.  Mosely,  they  all  arrived 
at  Swansey  on  the  28th  of  June,  where  they  found  the  Plymouth 
forces  under  Capt.  Cudworth.  Mr.  Miles'  was  made  head-quar- 
ters. About  a  dozen  of  the  troop  went  immediately  over  the 

TAUNT  ON.  141 

bridge,  where  they  were  fired  upon  out  of  the  bushes,  one  killed 
and  one  wounded.  This  action  drew  the  body  of  the  English 
forces  after  the  enemy,  whom  they  pursued  a  mile  or  two,  until 
they  took  to  a  swamp,  after  having  killed  about  half  a  dozen  of 
their  number.  The  next  morning  the  troops  commenced  their 
pursuit  of  the  Indians.  Passing  over  Miles'  bridge,  and  proceed- 
ing down  the  east  bank  of  the  river,  till  they  came  to  the  narrow 
of  the  neck,  at  a  place  called  Keekamuit  or  Kickemuit,  they 
found  the  heads  of  eight  Englishmen  that  the  Indians  had  mur- 
dered, set  upon  poles  by  the  side  of  the  way.  These  they  took 
down  and  buried.  On  arriving  at  Mount  Hope  they  found  that 
Philip  and  his  Indians  had  left  the  place. 


IT  is  believed  that  the  first  Englishmen  who  first  traversed  the 
soil  of  this  ancient  town,  (called  by  the  Indians  Cohannet,)  were 
Edward  Winslow  and  Stephen  Hopkins,  on  their  visit  to  Massa- 
soit,  in  July,  1621.  They  found  it  depopulated  and  desolate  ;  the 
ravages  of  the  great  plague  were  every  where  discernible.  At 
Tetiquet  and  Namasket  there  were  Indian  villages.  The  territory 
of  Taunton  proper  (which  formerly  included  within  its  limits  the 
towns  of  Berkley  and  Raynham,)  was  claimed  by  the  sachem  of 
Tetiquet.  In  this  territory  there  were  no  Indian  settlements  except 
in  a  small  part  of  Raynham.  It  appears,  however,  that  the 
country  bordering  on  the  river  had  been  thickly  populated,  and 
the  land  cleared  on  both  sides  for  a  considerable  distance.  When 
first  visited  many  of  the  remains  of  the  natives  were  discovered 
unburied.  At  the  head  of  the  list  of  purchasers  of  Taunton,  stands 
the  name  of  Henry  Uxley :  who  he  was,  does  not  appear.  His 
house  and  lot  were  sold  to  Richard  Williams,  who  may  in  some 
measure  be  considered  as  the  father  of  Taunton,  as  he  was  in  the 
place  before  the  purchase  of  Miss  Pool.  Mr.  Williams  was  a 
Welshman,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  he  was  a  relation  of 
Roger  Williams.  A  tradition  has  always  existed  amongst  his 
descendants  that  he  was  related  by  blood  to  Oliver  Cromwell,  the 
original  name  of  whose  family  was  Williams,  (which  name  was 
changed  for  an  estate,)  and  one  of  Cromwell's  ancestors  bore  the 
name  of  Richard  Williams.^ 

The  inland  situation  of  Taunton  prevented  for  some  time  much  ac- 
cession to  the  number  of  settlers.  The  first  settlers,  with  few  excep- 
tions, were  from  Somersetshire  and  Devonshire,  and  many  of  them 
from  Taunton,  in  England.  The  first  purchase  was  made  in  1637, 
and  confirmed  afterwards ;  this  was  called  the  Tetiquet  purchase, 
this  being  the  Indian  name  for  the  great  river  of  Taunton.  About 
the  period  of  its  settlement,  Miss  Elizabeth  Pool,  a  lady  of  family 
and  fortune,  from  Taunton,  in  Somersetshire,  Eng.,  conceived  the 

*  Baylies'  Hist.  Memoir  of  Plymouth  Colony,  vol.  i.  p.  288. 

142  TAUNTON. 

bold  design  of  occupying  the  territory  of  Cohannet.  It  appears  that 
an  ardent  desire  of  planting  another  church  in  the  American 
wilderness,  induced  this  pious  puritan  lady  to  encounter  all  the 
dangers  and  hardships  of  forming  a  settlement  in  the  midst  of 
the  Indians.  She  died  in  1654,  and  her  kinsman  placed  over  her 
grave  a  stone  with  an  inscription  which  commemorates  her 

The  first  and  ancient  purchasers  stand  in  the  following  order 

Henry  Uxley, 

John  Dean, 

William  Hailstone, 

Francis  Street, 

Richard  Williams, 

John  Strong, 

William  Parker, 

Hugh  Rossiter, 

Joseph  Wilson, 

Henry  Andrews, 

John  Parker, 

John  Gilbert, 

Benjamin  Wilson, 

Thomas  Cooke, 

John  Richmond, 

Thomas  Gilbert, 

William  Coy, 

John  Smith, 

William  Holloway, 

Robert  Hobell, 

George  Hall, 

Mr.  Thomas  Farwell, 

The  Wid.  Randall, 

Richard  Burt, 

David  Corwithy, 

Edward  Case, 

Francis  Doty, 

John  Grossman, 

Mr.  William  Pool, 

John  Kingsley, 

William  Dunn, 

John  Luther, 

George  Macy, 

Richard  Paull, 

William  Scadding, 

John  Drake, 

William  Harvey, 

Richard  Smith, 

John  Bryant, 

Mr.  John  Brown. 

Hezekiah  Hoar, 

Mr.  John  Gilbert, 

Anthony  Slocum, 

Walter  Dean, 

William  Phillips, 

John  Gengille, 

In  a  pamphlet  entitled  "  Plain  Dealing  or  Newes  from  New 
England,"  written  by  Thomas  Lechford  of  Clements  Inn,  Jan. 
17,  1641,  and  published  in  London,  1642,  the  writer,  speaking  of 
Taunton,  says — 

Cohannet,  alias  Taunton,  is  in  Plymouth  patent.  There  is  a  church  gathered  of 
late,  and  some  ten  or  twenty  of  the  church,  the  rest  excluded  ;  Master  Hooke,  pastor ; 
Master  Street,  teacher.  Master  Hooke  received  ordination  from  the  hands  of  one 
Master  Bishop,  a  school-master,  and  one  Parker,  a  husbandman,  and  then  Master 
Hooke  joyned  in  ordaining  Master  Street.  One  Master  Doughty,  a  minister,  opposed 
the  gathering  of  the  church  there,  alleging  that  according  to  the  covenant  of  Abraham, 
all  men's  children  that  were  of  baptized  parents,  and  so  Abraham's  children,  ought  to 
be  baptized ;  and  spoke  so  in  publique,  or  to  that  effect,  which  was  held  a  disturbance, 
and  the  ministers  spake  to  the  magistrate  to  order  him ;  the  magistrate  commanded 
the  constable,  who  dragged  Master  .Doughty  out  of  the  assembly.  He  was  forced  to 
go  away  from  thence  with  his  wife  and  children. 

Rev.  William  Hooke,  who  must  be  considered  the  first  pastor  of 
the  Taunton  church,  was  born  about  the  year  1600.  He  married 
the  sister  of  Edward  Whalley,  a  major  general  in  the  Parliament's 
army,  one  of  the  regicides,  so  called,  from  being  one  of  the  judges 
who  condemned  Charles  I.  to  death.  Mr.  Hooke  left  Taunton 
about  1640,  and  removed  to  New  Haven,  Con.,  from  whence  in 
1656  he  returned  to  England.  He  was  received  in  the  family  of 
the  Lord  Protector,  Oliver  Cromwell,  as  domestic  chaplain.  After 
the  restoration  of  Charles  II.,  he  was  silenced  for  non-conformity, 
and  died  in  London,  in  1677. 

Taunton  is  a  shire  town;  it  is  pleasantly  situated  at  the  head  of 
sloop  navigation  on  Taunton  river.  This  place  has  great  water 
power  by  the  junction  of  Canoe  and  Rumford  rivers  with  the 
Taunton,  and  is  well  improved  for  manufacturing  purposes. 
There  are  about  30  sail  of  coasters  of  considerable  burthen  which 
ply  between  this  place  and  the  neighboring  ports.  A  branch  of 
the  Boston  and  Providence  railroad  is  extended  to  this  place. 

T  A  U  N  T  O  N  .  143 

There  are  8  churches  :  4  Congregational,  2  Baptist,  1  Episcopal,  1 
Methodist,  and  1  Catholic.  The  center  of  the  main  village  is  orna- 
mented with  an  enclosed  green  with  shade-trees,  on  one  side  of 
which  is  situated  the  court-house  and  other  handsome  buildings. 
There  are  3  banks,  the  "Taunton  Bank,"  with  a  capital  of  $250,- 
000,  the  "  Bristol  County  Bank,"  capital  $100,000,  and  the 
"  Cohannet  Bank,"  capital  $100,000.  There  are  two  insurance 
companies.  This  place  is  32  miles  from  Boston,  20  from  Provi- 
dence, and  32  from  Newport,  R.  I.  Population  of  the  town,  7,647. 
In  the  Statistical  Tables  of  the  state,  published  in  1837,  it  is  stated 
there  were  8  cotton  mills ;  3,043,887  yards  of  cotton  goods  were 
manufactured:  males  employed,  124;  females,  468.  One  print 
works,  which  printed  5,869.860  yards  of  cloth  ;  males  employed, 
250 ;  females,  40 ;  capital  invested,  $200,000.  Seven  millions  and 
one  hundred  thousand  of  bricks  were  manufactured,  valued  at 
$28.000 ;  ninety-five  hands  employed.  Forty  thousand  straw 
bonnets  were  manufactured,  valued  at  $62,000.  Three  nail  fac- 
tories, which  manufactured  256  tons,  valued  at  $60,500.  One  air 
and  cupola  furnace,  which  made  2,000  tons  of  iron  castings,  valued 
at  $200.000:  one  forge,  which  manufactured  400  tons  of  bar  iron, 
valued  at  §35,000.  Besides  these,  there  are  various  other  articles 
manufactured,  such  as  boots,  shoes,  hats,  &c. 

Monument  of  Miss  Pool,  Taunton  Cemetery. 

A  cemetery  has  been  recently  laid  out  in  the  immediate  vici- 
nity of  the  main  village  of  Taunton,  (called  Mount  Pleasant  Ceme- 
tery,) upon  the  plan  of  that  at  Mount  Auburn,  in  the  vicinity  of 
Boston.  The  ground  is  well  calculated  for  this  object,  being  agree- 
ably diversified  with  elevations  and  depressions,  and  the  soil  is 
superior  to  that  of  Mount  Auburn.  The  engraving  shows  the  ap- 
pearance of  the  monument  of  Miss  Pool,  at  the  entrance  of  the 
cemetery.  The  following  is  the  inscription  on  this  monument. 

The  Females  of  Taunton  have  erected  this  monument  in  honor  of  Er.r/ABvrn  POOL, 


144  TAUNTON. 

foundress  of  the  town  of  Taunton,  in  1637.    Born  before  the  settlement  of  America, 
in  England,  1589,  died  at  Taunton,  May  21,  1654. 

The  following  account  is  taken  from  the  pamphlet  containing 
Mr.  Conant's  sermon  at  the  execution  of  Bristol,  an  African  boy, 
for  the  murder  of  Miss  McKinstry.  It  is  proper  to  state  that 
some  accounts  say  that  this  boy  had  been  informed,  that  if  he 
would  kill  some  one,  and  run  away,  he  would  obtain  his  liberty. 

The  bloody  murder  of  Miss  Elizabeth  McKinstry,  on  June  the  4th,  1763,  which 
gave  occasion  for  the  preaching  of  the  foregoing  discourse,  may  Truly  be  placed 
among  the  astonishing  Events  of  Providence  and  the  alarming  Frailties  of  human 
nature.  One  cannot  call  to  mind  the  particular  circumstances  of  this  tragic  scene 
without  the  deepest  Emotions  of  Horror,  Pity  and  Indignation. 

The  Negro  Boy  who  perpetrated  this  lamentable  crime  was  born  in  Africa,  and  at 
the  age  of  about  eight  years  was  brought  to  New  England,  where  he  lived  about  five 
years  in  the  same  family  with  Miss  McKinstry,  at  Windsor.  His  master  then  dying, 
he  was  purchased  by  her  brother,  Dr.  McKinstry,  of  Taunton,  where  he  had  lived 
three  years  when  the  murder  was  committed,  the  deceased  having  been  also  about 
two  years  in  the  same  family ;  so  that  from  his  childhood  (excepting  one  year)  he  had 
lived  in  the  same  Family  with  her,  and  during  this  time  he  was  treated  with  all  the 
tenderness  and  Instruction  that  could  be  desired.  He  always  appeared  happy  in  his 
situation,  and  showed  an  uncommon  Readiness  to  do  his  business  and  Faithfulness  to 
perform  what  he  undertook,  without  the  least  appearance  of  Sullenness  or  Malice. 
After  he  had  the  fact  he  rode  to  Newport,  never  showing  the  least  concern  till  he  was 
apprehended ;  he  then  made  some  artful  excuses,  till  he  had  been  committed  about 
twelve  hours,  when  he  confessed  the  whole  fact ;  the  substance  of  which  was,  "  that 
early  in  the  morning.  Miss  McKinstry,  a  little  Girl,  and  himself,  being  the  only  per- 
sons of  the  Family  that  were  up,  and  the  little  girl  being  gone  up  stairs,  as  Miss 
McKinstry  was  stooping  over  the  fire,  he  catched  up  a  Flat  Iron  that  stood  on  the 
hearth,  struck  her  on  the  head,  and  knocked  her  into  the  fire,  which  burnt  her  face ; 
he  then  gave  her  another  Blow,  and  Immediately  dragged  her  down  the  cellar  stairs, 
where,  seeing  an  old  ax,  he  struck  her  with  it  on  the  head,  and  made  off  as  fast  as  he 

After  his  commitment  he  appeared  very  penitent,  and  expressed  his  sorrow  for  the 
crime,  particularly  for  the  grief  he  had  brought  on  his  master's  Family,  in  speaking 
of  which  he  always  seemed  the  most  affected.  He  declared  constantly,  during  the 
whole  of  his  imprisonment,  to  his  last  moments,  that  he  never  had  any  anger  against 
the  deceased,  nor  any  of  the  Family,  and  that  he  had  never  received  any  Treatment 
that  deserved  it ;  and  though  he  always  appeared  free  to  answer  any  Questions  that 
were  asked  him,  yet  he  never  gave  any  reason  for  committing  the  crime,  but  that  he 
was  prompted  to  it  by  a  Negro  Boy  of  his  acquaintance,  who  Threatened  to  kill  him 
if  he  did  not  do  it.  This  he  persisted  in  to  his  dying  moment. 

At  his  trial  he  pleaded  guilty,  but  showed  no  emotion  at  the  pronouncing  sentence 
of  Death,  nor  at  the  public  worship,  where  in  his  hearing  several  sermons  besides  this 
were  preached  on  the  occasion,  nor  even  at  the  execution.  This  would  naturally  be 
construed  to  Stupidity  or  Sullenness,  had  not  his  discourse  plainly  shown  that  he  had 
a  true  sense  of  his  Crime  and  right  notions  of  a  future  state. 

At  the  Gallows  he  made  a  long  speech  to  the  Spectators,  particularly  to  those  of  his 
own  color,  which  for  Substance  was  pertinent  and  important.  He  expressed  great 
concern  for  his  master's  Family,  was  very  particular  in  thanking  every  Body  that  had 
taken  notice  of  him  while  in  Prison;  he  acknowledged  his  condemnation  just ;  he  ex- 
pressed his  sense  of  his  guilt  and  the  hopes  he  had  of  forgiveness  and  future  happiness 
through  the  Mercy  of  God  in  Christ;  and  then,  after  repeating  the  Lord's  Prayer  dis- 
tinctly, he  was  turned  off.  The  deceased,  who  was  the  unhappy  object  of  this  unac- 
countable Malice,  was  a  Daughter  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  John  McKinstry,  late  of  Windsor, 
a  young  Lady  of  cheerful  disposition,  an  even,  generous  temper,  and  every  way  of  a 
worthy  character.  After  tarrying  with  her  Brother,  she  was  preparing  to  return  to 
her  Mother  at  Windsor,  when,  in  a  moment  that  she  thought  not  of,  she  was  hurried 
in  this  cruel  manner  to  her  long  home. 

The  following  inscriptions  are  copied  from  monuments  in  the 
ancient  burying-ground. 

TAUNT  ON.  145 

Here  rest  the  remains  of  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Pool,  a  native  of  old  England  of  good  Fam- 
ily, Friends  &  prospects,  all  of  which  she  left  in  the  prime  of  her  life  to  enjoy  the 
Religion  of  her  Conscience  in  this  distant  wilderness.  A  great  proprietor  of  the  town 
ship  of  Taunton,  a  chief  promoter  of  its  settlement  and  its  incorporation,  A.  D.  1639, 
about  which  time  she  settled  near  this  spot,  and  having  em  ployed  the  opportunytys  oi 
her  virgin  state  in  Piety,  Liberality  of  manners,  died  "May  2lst,  A.  D.  1654,  aged  65, 
to  whose  memory  this  monument  is  gratefully  erected  by  her  next  of  kin  lohn  Borland, 
Esq.  A.  D.  1771. 

In  memory  of  the  Hon.  Samuel  White,  Esq.  Colonel  of  a  foot  Ptegiment  of  Militia, 
Barrister  at  Law  and  member  of  the  Hon.  his  Majesty's  Council,  who  often  having 
been  delegated  to  the  offices  of  Government,  faithfully  served  his  God,  his  king  and  his 
country,  and  exhibiting  through  an  unspotted  course  of  life,  the  virtues  of  the  Patriot, 
Friend  and  Christian,  fell  asleep  in  Jesus,  March  XX,  MDCCLXIX,  in  the  LIX  year 
of  his  age. 

This  humble  stone,  small  tribute  of  their  praise 
Lamented  shade  !  thy  weeping  offspring  raise ! 
O  while  their  footsteps  haunt  ye  hallow'd  shrine, 
May  each  fair  branch  shoot  fertile  as  ye  vine- 
Not  with  thy  Dust  be  here  thy  virtue's  tomb 
But  bright'ning  still  each  Grace  transplanted  bloom, 
Sire,  Sons  and  Daughters  shall  a  like  renown ; 
Applauding  angels  !  a  celestial  crown ! 

Parentibus  optimus  bene  merentibus.* 

Zephaniah  Leonard,  Esq.  who  died  April  the  23d,  A.  D.  1766,  in  the  63d  year  of  his 
age,  &  Hannah,  his  wife,  who  died  the  same  day,  in  the  62d  year  of  her  age. 
To  dust  and  silence  so  much  worth  consigned, 
Sheds  a  sad  gloom  o'er  vanities  behind. 
Such  our  pursuits  ?  proud  mortals  vainly  soar. 
See  here,  the  wise,  the  virtuous  are  no  more. 
How  mean  Ambition  !  how  completely  hate ; 
How  dim  the  tinsel  glories  of  the  Great ! 
&  Death  6c  hovering  darkness  hide  us  all. 

Inscribed  to  the  memory  of  the  Honble-  Seth  Padelford,  Esq.,  who  deceased  January 
7th,  1810,  aged  58  years  and  1  month.  For  he  was  wise  to  know,  and  warm  to  praise, 
and  strenuous  to  transcribe  in  human  life  THE  MIND  ALMIGHTY. 

Robert  Treat  Paine,  a  poet  of  some  celebrity,  was  born  in  this 
town,  December  9th,  1773.  His  father  was  the  Hon.  Robert  Treat 
Paine,  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence.  In 
his  eighth  year  his  father  removed  to  Boston.  He  was  graduated 
at  Harvard  in  1792,  with  a  high  reputation  for  genius.  He  was 
soon  after  placed  in  the  counting-room  of  a  merchant,  but  left 
it  for  literary  occupations,  and  published  several  poerns  and  ora- 
tions, which  at  the  time  were  highly  popular.  In  1802,  he 
began  the  practice  of  law,  but  failed  of  success  for  want  of  appli- 
cation ;  and  he  spent  the  latter  part  of  his  life  in  poverty.  He 
died  Nov.  13th,  1811,  aged  38.  His  national  song,  Adams  and 
Liberty,  is  perhaps  the  most  widely  known ;  of  which  the  follow- 
ing is  the  first  stanza. 

Ye  sons  of  Columbia,  who  bravely  have  fought 

For  those  rights,  which  unstained  from  your  sires  had  descended, 

May  you  long  taste  the  blessings  your  valor  has  bought, 
And  your  sons  reap  the  soil  which  their  fathers  defended. 

*  A  worthy  son  of  worthy  parents. 

146  DUKES     COUNTY. 

'Mid  the  reign  of  mild  peace 

May  your  nation  increase, 

With  the  glory  of  Rome,  and  the  wisdom  of  Greece ; 
And  ne'er  shall  the  sons  of  Columbia  be  slaves, 
While  the  earth  bears  a  plant,  or  the  sea  rolls  its  waves. 


THIS  town,  previous  to  its  incorporation  in  1787,  was  a  part  of 
Dartmouth.  There  are  two  small  villages  in  the  town,  one  at  the 
head  of  East  river,  the  other  at  Westport  Point.  The  people  are 
much  divided  in  religious  sentiments.  There  are  5  meeting-houses : 
2  for  Friends,  2  for  Baptists,  and  1  for  Methodists.  There  is  also 
a  small  society  of  Congregationalists.  The  village  at  the  head  of 
East  or  Nochacuck  river  is  about  8  miles  from  New  Bedford,  8 
from  Fall  River,  and  21  from  Newport.  Formerly  considerable 
quantities  of  timber  were  obtained  in  this  town.  The  whale  fish- 
ery is  now  an  important  branch  of  business ; ,  eight  whaling  ves- 
sels now  go  out  from  Westport  Point.  There  is  a  cotton  mill  in 
this  town,  having  3,072  spindles,  which  in  1837  consumed  300,000 
Ibs.  of  cotton  ;  270,000  Ibs.  of  cotton  yarn  were  manufactured,  the 
value  of  which  was  $67,500. 


THIS  county  is  formed  of  the  islands  of  Martha's  Vineyard, 
Chappequiddick,  Elizabeth  Islands,  and  Neman's  Land.  The  last- 
mentioned  island  is  the  southern  extremity  of  Massachusetts. 
These  islands  lie  off  south  of  Barnstable  county  and  Buzzard's 
Bay,  and  contain  about  120  square  miles.  The  principal  island, 
Martha's  Vineyard,  is  19  miles  in  length  from  east  to  west,  and  its 
breadth  in  the  widest  part  is  10  miles,  and  in  the  narrowest  2  miles  : 
its  mean  breadth  may  be  about  5  miles.  Its  usual  Indian  name 
was  Capawock,  though  sometimes  called  Nope.  (It  is  believed 
that  Nope  was  more  properly  the  name  of  Gay  Head.)  The 
greatest  part  of  the  island  is  low  and  level  land ;  though  in  the 
western  part  there  is  a  range  of  hills,  which  begins  a  mile  west  of 
Lambert's  Cove,  where  they  are  three  quarters  of  a  mile  wide,  and 
running  in  a  chain  parallel  with  the  sound,  rise  to  the  height  of 
250  feet,  expand  to  the  breadth  of  three  miles,  and  terminate  at 
Gay  Head.  These  islands  were  discovered  by  Bartholomew  Gos- 
nold,  in  1602.  He  landed  at  Noman's  Land,  which  he  called 
Martha's  Vineyard,  passed  round  Gay  Head,  which  he  named 
Dover  Cliff,  anchored  in  Vineyard  sound,  and  landed  on  Catta- 
hunk,  which  he  named  Elizabeth  Island,  in  honor  of  Queen  Eliz- 
abeth. Here  he  concluded  to  begin  a  plantation,  and  accordingly 
chose  a  site  at  the  west  end  of  the  island.  Here,  on  the  north  side, 
is  a  small  pond  of  fresh  water,  two  miles  in  circumference ;  in  the 

DUKES      COUNTY.  147 

middle  of  its  breadth,  near  the  west  end,  is  a  small  rocky  islet. 
This  they  fortified,  and  upon  it  erected  a  storehouse.*  While  the 
men  were  occupied  in  this  work,  Gosnold  crossed  the  bay  in  his 
vessel,  went  on  shore,  trafficked  amicably  with  the  natives,  and, 
having  discovered  the  mouths  of  two  rivers,  returned  to  the  island. 
One  of  these  rivers  was  that  on  the  banks  of  which  New  Bedford 
is  now  built.  This  storehouse  was  the  first  house  built  by  the 
English  on  the  New  England  shores.  When  Gosnold  was  prepar- 
ing to  leave,  discontent  arose  among  those  who  were  to  have 
remained,  so  that  the  design  of  a  settlement  was  relinquished,  and 
the  whole  company  returned  to  England.  The  next  year,  in  June, 
Martin  Pring  entered  the  harbor  of  Edgartown,  which  he  called 
Whitson's  Bay,  and*  anchored  under  the  shelter  of  Chappequiddick 
neck,  to  which  he  gave  the  name  of  Mount  Aldworth.  Here  he 
remained  till  the  beginning  of  August,  when  he  sailed  for  England. 
In  1619,  Capt.  Thomas  Dermer  landed  at  Martha's  Vineyard,  and 
was  attacked  by  the  natives.  He  and  his  companions  gallantly 
defended  themselves  with  their  swords,  and  escaped.  Several 
Indians  were  killed  in  the  fray. 

Martha's  Vineyard,  Nan  tucket,  and  the  Elizabeth  Islands  were 
not  included  in  any  of  the  New  England  governments.  William, 
Earl  of  Sterling,  in  consequence  of  a  grant  from  the  crown  of  Eng- 
land, laid  claim  to  all  the  islands  between  Cape  Cod  and  Hudson's 
river.  James  Forcett,  agent  for  the  earl,  in  Oct.  1641,  granted  to 
Thomas  Mayhew,  of  Watertown,  and  Thomas  Mayhew  his  son, 
Nantucket,  Martha's  Vineyard,  and  the  Elizabeth  Islands,  with 
the  same  powers  of  government  which  the  people  of  Massachusetts 
possessed  by  charter.  The  elder  Thomas  Mayhew  had  been  a 
merchant  at  Southampton,  in  England,  and  when  he  first  came  to 
America  he  followed  the  same  employment.  The  next  year  after 
he  obtained  the  grant  of  Martha's  Vineyard,  he  sent  his  son  and 
several  other  persons  to  begin  a  plantation,  who  established  them- 
selves at  Edgartown.  The  father  himself  soon  followed,  and 
became  the  governor  of  the  colony.  In  1644,  by  an  act  of  the 
commissioners  of  the  United  Colonies  of  New  England,  probably 
at  the  request  of  the  inhabitants,  Martha's  Vineyard  was  annexed 
to  the  jurisdiction  of  Massachusetts.  In  1664,  the  Duke  of  York 
received  from  his  brother,  Charles  II.,  a  grant  of  New  York,  includ- 
ing Long  Island,  Martha's  Vineyard,  Nantucket,  and  the  islands 
adjacent,  which  had  been  previously  purchased  of  Henry,  grand- 
son and  heir  of  William  Earl  of  Sterling,  who  previously  resigned 
and  assigned  them  to  the  duke.  In  consequence,  these  islands 
became  a  part  of  New  York,  but  were  left  mostly  to  manage  their 
own  affairs.  It  was  while  Martha's  Vineyard  and  Elizabeth  Islands 
were  connected  with  NCAV  York  that,  with  Nantucket,  they 
were  made  a  county  by  the  name  of  Dukes  County.  By  the  char- 

*  The  cellar  of  Gosnold's  storehouse  is  yet  to  be  seen,  the  stones  of  which  were  taken 
1'rom  the  neighboring  beach  ;  the  rocks  of  the  islet  being  less  movable  and  If  ing  in 
.edges.  This  place  is  what  Josselyn  and  other  old  authors  call  "old  Plymouth  planta- 
tion, begun  in  1602." 

148  C  H  I  L  M  A  R  K  . 

ter  of  William  and  Mary,  which  arrived  in  1692,  these  islands 
were  taken  from  New  York  and  annexed  to  Massachusetts.  In 
1695,  Martha's  Vineyard,  the  Elizabeth  Islands,  and  Neman's  Land, 
were  separated  by  the  legislature  from  Nantucket,  and  made  a  dis- 
tinct county.  These  islands  suffered  much  in  the  revolutionary 
war.  The  vessels  of  the  inhabitants  were  all  taken  and  destroyed, 
the  young  men  were  captured,  and  many  of  them  died  on  board 
prison  ships.  They  lost  most  of  their  cattle  and  sheep,  which 
were  taken  off  by  the  enemy.  In  the  last  war  with  England,  the 
inhabitants  of  these  islands,  from  their  exposed  situation,  were 
obliged  to  remain  neutral.  In  this  county  there  are  3  towns,  viz. 
Chilmark,  Edgartown,  and  Tisbury. 


THIS  township  comprehends  the  west  end  of  Martha's  Vineyard, 
the  Elizabeth  Islands,  and  Neman's  Land.  The  territory  on  Mar- 
tha's Vineyard  is  10  miles  in  length,  and  from  2  to  5  miles  in 
breadth.  The  Indian  name  of  this  part  of  the  island  was  Nash- 
ou-oh-ka-muck,  and  it  was  the  last  settled  by  the  English.  There 
was,  however,  a  village  here  before  the  close  of  the  seventeenth  cen- 
tury. Whilst  it  was  under  the  government  of  New  York,  it  was 
called  the  manor  of  Tisbury,  but  it  was  known  by  the  name  of 
Chilmark  as  long  ago  as  1698.  The  first  town  meeting  was  held 
in  1705,  and  in  1707  it  first  sent  a  representative  to  the  general 
court.  It  was  incorporated  by  the  name  which  it  now  bears  in 

The  first  minister  in  Chilmark  was  Rev.  Ralph  Thacher ;  the 
time  of  his  ordination  is  unknown.  He  was  dismissed  at  his 
request  in  1714.  In  1715  William  Holmes  was  ordained.  He  was 
a  man  of  worth,  and  died  in  the  ministry.  In  1746,  Andrew 
Boardman  was  ordained;  and  died  of  the  small-pox  in  1777.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Jonathan  Smith,  ordained  in  1788,  dismissed  in 
1827.  Here  are  2  meeting-houses,  1  Congregational,  1  Methodist. 
Distance  12  miles  S.  W.  by  S.  of  Edgartown,  and  92  southerly 
from  Boston. 

The  surface  of  this  township  is  more  varied  than  that  of  the 
other  towns  in  the  county.  The  northern  and  western  part  is 
uneven,  having  many  hills,  which  afford  an  extensive  prospect  of 
the  ocean,  the  sound,  the  Elizabeth  Islands,  the  shore  of  Fal- 
mouth,  and  the  country  beyond  the  islands.  The  scene  is  enlivened 
by  vessels  which  are  continually  passing.  There  are  several 
pleasant  and  fertile  valleys  between  the  hills,  about  2  miles  from 
the  sound,  some  of  which  afford  iron  ore.  Considerable  quantities 
of  this  ore  have  been  exported  to  the  forges  on  the  main.  Deli- 
vered at  the  sound  it  is  worth  about  2  dollars  per  ton.  The  stones 
and  rocks  which  lie  on  these  hills  are  granite ;  many  of  them  are 
large,  and  some  of  singular  shapes.  Several  at  a  distance  might 

U  H  I  L  M  A  R  K 


be  mistaken  for  houses.  One  has  a  roof  like  a  barn,  another  is 
almost  a  perfect  cone,  and  is  called  the  Sugar  Loaf;  and  others 
are  hollowed  out  in  the  form  of  a  bowl.  The  soil  is  clay,  inter- 
mixed with  sand,  the  clay  predominating.  There  are  several 
plains  which  are  sandy.  Both  the  clayey  and  sandy  places  are 
stony.  The  land,  properly  manured,  produces  good  crops  of  Indian 
corn,  rye,  oats,  and  potatoes.  There  is  more  grass  land  in  this 
town  than  in  other  parts  of  the  island.  There  are  but  a  few  brooks, 
and  those  small.  Swamps  are  more  numerous,  lying  mostly  in  the 
western  part  of  the  township,  but  are  not  very  extensive.  Several 
of  them  have  been  cleared  and  converted  into  meadows.  The  best 
land  in  the  island  is  at  Gay  Head,  which  is  reserved  to  the  Indians. 
There  are  a  number  of  ponds  in  the  town,  the  largest  of  which  is 
Chilmark  Great  Pond,  which  consists  of  two  parts  connected  by 
an  artificial  creek,  the  length  of  which  is  2  miles,  east  and  west. 
There  is  a  small  pond  near  the  north-west  corner  of  the  township, 
covering  about  an  acre  of  ground,  and  situated  on  land  70  feet 
above  high  water.  It  is  so  deep  that  its  bottom  has  never  yet 

Lighthouse  at  Gay  Head,  Chilmark,  Martha's  Vineyard. 

oeen  found.  Most  of  the  shore  bordering  this  township  is  formed 
of  cliffs  of  clay,  of  blue  and  red  colors,  disposed  in  layers.  At  the 
west  end  of  the  town  and  island,  is  a  peninsula  of  about  three  and 
a  half  miles  in  length  and  one  and  a  half  in  breadth,  containing 
2,400  acres,  the  north-west  point  of  which  is  Gay  Head,  about  100 
feet  in  height.  This  cliff  is  composed  of  clay  and  other  substances, 
red,  yellow,  blue,  indigo,  black,  and  white;  and  to  those  who -are 
on  board  a  vessel  sailing  near  the  shore,  especially  after  a  rain, 
and  Avhen  the  sun  shines  on  it,  it  is  a  brilliant  and  beautiful  object; 
hence  it  derived  the  name  of  Gay  Head.  A  lighthouse  which 
stands  on  it  elevates  a  light  50  feet  more  above  the  level  of  the 

At  Gay  Head  is  the  Devil's  Den,  which,  notwithstanding  the  terror  of  its  name,  has 
nothing  formidable  in  its  appearance.    li  is  a  depression  in  the  hill  in  the  form  of  a 

150  C  H  I  L  M  A  R  K  . 

bowl,  except  that  it  is  open  on  the  side  next  the  sea,  through  which  it  is  not  difficult  to 
descend  to  the  strand.  It  is  about  400  yards  around,  and  100  feet  deep.  If  it  was  on  the 
top  of  a  mountain  it  might  be  called  a  crater.  In  this  cavity,  according  to  an  Indian 
traditionary  fable,  many  years  before  the  English  came  to  Martha's  Vineyard,  a  giant, 
or  tutelar  deity,  named  Maushope,  resided.  Here  he  broiled  the  whale  on  a  fire  made 
of  the  largest  trees,  which  he  pulled  up  by  the  roots.  Though  a  malignant  spirit  has  now 
taken  possession  of  his  den,  yet  the  first  occupier  was  a  benevolent  being,  and  he  kindly 
supplied  the  Indians  with  whales  and  other  fish.  After  separating  Neman's  Land  from 
Gay  Head,  metamorphosing  his  children  into  fishes,  and  throwing  his  wife  on  Saconet 
Point,  where  she  still  remains  a  misshapen  rock,  he  went  away,  nobody  knew  whither. 
Perhaps  the  report  that  volcanic  flames  have  been  seen  to  ascend  from  the  Devil's  Den 
is  as  fabulous  as  the  story  of  Ma.ushope,  as  they  have  never  been  observed  by  any  of 
the  well-informed  inhabitants.  It  has  been  suggested  that  the  above  story  of  the  giant 
might  have  originated  by  the  Indians  finding  fossil  skeletons  of  large  marine  animals 
at  that  place,  and  from  supposing  the  lignite  which  there  abound  to  be  the  remains  ot 
his  fires. 

From  Gay  Head  across  to  Cattahunk,  a  ledge  of  sunken  rocks 
extends,  known  by  the  name  of  the  Devil's  Bridge,  concerning  the 
origin  of  which  the  Indians  had  the  following  tradition.  The 
same  famous  giant  Maushope  undertook  to  build  a  bridge  or  cause- 
way there,  and  had  thrown  in  the  rocks  and  a  shoefull  of  earth, 
which  he  scraped  out  from  the  Devil's  Den,  but,  one  day,  while 
working  in  the  water,  a  crab  bit  his  toe,  which  so  vexed  him  that 
he  abandoned  his  project. 

Gay  Head  is  inhabited  by  descendants  of  the  native  Indians, 
who  own  there  2,400  acres  of  land,  most  of  which  is  under  good 
improvement.  Their  dwelling-houses,  up  wards  of  35,  are  mostly 
one  story,  and  are  comfortably  built.  The  number  of  their  popu- 
lation is  235.  Their  church,  which  at  present  is  of  the  Baptist 
denomination,  is  148  years  old,  since  the  organization,  and  now 
consists  of  47  communicants.  Their  present  minister  is  Rev. 
Joseph  Amos,  an  Indian,  of  Marshpee,  entirely  blind,  but  a  preach- 
er of  considerable  ingenuity.  Within  a  few  years  the  condition  of 
these  people  has  much  improved  in  point  of  temperance  and  gene- 
ral moral  reformation.  In  this  good  cause,  Simon  Johnson,  and 
Zacheus  Hauwassowee  are  actively  engaged. 

THE  ELIZABETH  ISLANDS  are  separated  from  Martha's  Vineyard  by 
the  sound,  arid  from  Falmouth  by  a  strait  called  Wood's  Hole. 
Beginning  north-east,  the  first  island  is  Nannamesset,  which  is  a 
mile  arid  a  quarter  long,  and  half  a  mile  in  breadth.  It  is  inha- 
bited by  3  families,  and  has  salt-works.  In  the  S.  W.  part  of  the 
island  is  a  high  hill  called  Mount  Sod.  The  next  island,  Onka- 
tomka,  is  three  quarters  of  a  mile  in  length,  and  half  a  mile  in 
breadth.  Between  Nannamesset  and  Nasnawn,  towards  the  sound, 
are  two  small  islands,  called  the  Ram  Islands.  South-west  from 
Nannamesset,  and  divided  from  it  by  the  Gut,  is  Nashawn.  This 
island  is  seven  miles  and  a  half  long,  and  a  mile  and  a  quarter  broad. 
The  soil  in  the  eastern  part  is  a  sandy  loam  and  good,  in  the 
western  part  light  and  inferior.  Nearly  one  half  of  the  island  is 
in  wood  and  swamps.  At  half  a  mile  distance,  north  of  Nashawn, 
in  Buzzard's  Bay,  are  3  small  islands,  called  Wepecket  Islands, 
the  largest  of  which  is  not  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in  length.  West 
of  Nashawn,  and  separated  from  it  by  a  strait  called  Robinson's* 


Hole,  is  Pasque  Island,  which  is  a  mile  and  three  quarters  long. 
The  soil  is  light,  and  more  stony  than  the  other  Elizabeth  Islands. 
South-west  from  Pasque,  and  separated  from  it  by  Quick's  Hole,  is 
Nashawenna,  three  miles  and  a  quarter  long,  and  a  mile  and  a 
quarter  broad.  Cattahunk  lies  west  of  Nashawenna,  from  which  it 
i?  separated  by  a  shoal,  and  is  two  miles  and  a  half  long,  and 
three  quarters  of  a  mile  broad.  The  soil  is  rich  and  good.  North 
of  Cattahunk  is  Penequese,  which  is  three  fourths  of  a  mile  long, 
arid  half  a  mile  broad.  Three  quarters  of  a  mile  east  of  Pene- 
quese is  Gull  Island,  which  is  less  than  a  fourth  of  a  mile  in  length. 
The  Elizabeth  Islands  are  stony,  but  the  soil  is  mostly  good. 
Cattle  are  kept  on  all  the  islands,  but  they  are  the  most  noted  for 
their  sheep,  which  are  larger  and  produce  finer  fleeces  than  those 
on  Martha's  Vineyard.  Nomarfs  Land  belongs  to  Chilmark,  and 
is  situated  4  miles  from  Squibnocket  Point,  and  six  and  a  half  from 
Gay  Head.  This  island  is  a  mile  and  three  quarters  long,  and 
three  quarters  of  a  mile  wide.  The  land  is  composed  of  hills  of  a 
moderate  elevation,  and  of  several  small  swamps.  There  are  no 
trees,  but  there  are  bushes  in  the  swamps,  and  in  some  of  them 
there  is  peat.  The  soil  of  the  upland  is  warm,  and  in  general 
gravelly.  The  island  is  mostly  used  for  the  feeding  of  sheep. 
There  are  two  dwelling-houses,  and  from  15  to  20  huts,  which 
shelter  the  pilots,  who  go  to  the  island,  principally  in  the  winter, 
to  look  out  for  vessels  which  are  coming  on  the  coast. 

The  number  of  sheep  in  the  town  of  Chilmark,  in  1837,  was  6,470, 
of  which  1,600  were  merinos;  the  average  weight  of  each  fleece 
2  Ibs.;  value  of  wool  produced,  §5,180.  Population  of  the  town, 


THIS  town  lies  on  the  eastern  part  of  Martha's  Vineyard,  and  is 
9  miles  in  length  and  5  in  breadth,  exclusive  of  Chappequiddick 
island,  which  belongs  to  the  town.  This  place  is  also  known  by 
the  name  of  Oldtown.  It  is  usually  said  to  have  been  first  settled 
by  Thomas  Mayhew  and  his  company,  in  1642;  but  it  appears 
there  were  10  or  12  English  families  settled  at  Edgartown  before 
Mayhew  went  on  to  the  island.  These  families  first  landed  at 
Pease  Point,  which  is  a  part  of  Starbuck  Neck.  The  ship  in 
which  they  came  was  bound  to  Virginia,  but  fell  by  accident  into 
this  port,  and,  being  short  of  provisions,  these  families  preferred 
remaining  and  taking  their  chance  with  the  Indians,  to  proceeding 
on  the  voyage.  Four  of  their  names  have  been  handed  down  to 
us :  Pease,  Vincent,  Norton,  and  Trapp,  the  three  former  of  which 
still  remain  on  the  island.  They  landed  late  in  the  autumn,  and 
were  supplied  during  the  first  winter  with  fish  and  com  by  the  na- 
tives. Mayhew  and  his  associates  united  with  them,  and  laid  out 
the  land  into  42  shares.  There  are  circumstances  which  render  it 
probable  that  Mayhew  the  younger  had  been  on  the  island  some 
time  before  the  grant  was  obtained.  The  town  was  incorporated  in 




1671,  while  under  the  government  of  New  York,  by  Francis  Love- 
lace, then  governor  of  that  colony. 

The  first  church  was  gathered  in  1641,  and  Thomas  Mayhew 
ordained  pastor.  He  died  in  1657.  Thomas  Mayhew  the  father 
preached  to  the  Indians,  and  also  to  the  English,  after  the  death 
of  his  son.  Jonathan  Dunham  was  ordained  in  1694.  Samuel 
Wiswall  was  ordained  in  1713.  He  died  in  1746,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded the  next  year  by  John  Newman.  He  was  dismissed  in 
1758,  and  succeeded  by  Samuel  Kmgsbury,  (from  Dedham,) 
ordained  in  176 1.  Mr.  Kingsbury  died  of  small-pox  in  1778,  and 
the  next  pastor,  Joseph  Thaxter,  was  ordained  in  1780,  and  conti- 
nued in  that  office  till  his  death,  in  1827. 

Eastern  view  of  Edgartorvn. 

The  village  of  Edgartown  is  pleasantly  situated  on  the  west  side 
of  the  harbor,  91  miles  S.  E.  of  Boston,  20  N.  W.  by  W.  of  Nan- 
tucket,  28  S.  E.  by  E.  of  New  Bedford,  20  S.  of  Falmouth,  495 
from  Washington.  It  is  a  county  town  and  port  of  entry.  Hero. 
is  the  court-house,  and  3  churches :  1  Congregational,  1  Baptist, 
and  1  Methodist, 

The  annexed  engravings  are  different  views  of  the  village  of 
Edgartown.  The  above  cut  shows  the  appearance  of  the  central 
part  of  the  place,  as  it  is  seen  from  the  island  of  Chappequiddick, 
lying  eastward  of  the  town.  The  engraving  on  the  next  page 
shows  the  appearance  of  the  village  as  it  is  seen  from  the  water, 
in  a  northern  direction  from  the  place.  Eight  vessels  are  employed 
in  the  whale  fishery  from  this  town.  Population,  1,625. 

Oldtown  harbor  is  the  strait  between  Martha's  Vineyard  and 
Chappequiddick  Island.  It  is  composed  of  two  parts.  The  outer 
harbor  extends  from  Cape  Poge  to  Starbuck's  Neck,  and  is  4  or  5 
fathoms  deep.  From  this  neck  the  harbor  winds  to  the  south,  and 
against  the  town  is  half  a  mile  wide.  This  harbor  is  safe  and 
excellent,  and  is  esteemed  one  of  the  best  in  the  United  States.  It 

E  D  G  A  R  T  O  W  N  . 


is  so  much  better  than  that  of  Nantucket,  that  the  whalemen  of 
that  island  come  to  this  place  to  take  in  their  water  and  fit  out 

Northern  view  of  Edgartown. 

their  ships.  The  excellent  water  of  this  town  is  conveyed  to  them 
by  troughs  which  run  over  the  wharves,  at  the  end  of  which  the 
ships  lie,  and  by  hose  is  conveyed  into  the  casks  in  the  holds.  The 
head  of  Edgartown  harbor  is  Matakeeset  Bay,  which  communicates 
with  the  ocean  by  a  strait  called  Washqua  outlet,  50  rods  wide,  and 
from  4  to  10  feet  deep  at  high  water.  The  surface  of  this  town  is 
mostly  level.  A  plain  extends  from  Starbuck's  Neck  8  miles  west, 
and  is  from  5  to  6  miles  wide,  and  elevated  about  eighteen  feet  above 
the  level  of  the  sea.  Round  Edgartown  harbor  there  area  few  ele- 
vated spots,  which  rise  from  60  to  75  feet  above  the  sea.  There  is 
an  elevation  of  land  in  this  town,  near  the  Tisbury  line,  of  120  feet, 
on  which  is  situated  a  pond  of  fresh  water,  of  about  20  rods 
in  length,  and  10  in  breadth,  and  5  or  6  feet  deep.  It  has 
never  been  known  to  be  dry ;  and  as  there  is  no  water,  either  salt 
or  fresh,  within  4  miles  of  it,  it  is  of  much  utility.  In  this  town 
there  is  no  stream  sufficiently  large  to  carry  a  mill,  and  all  the 
grinding  of  corn  and  grain  is  done  by  windmills.  Salt  is  made 
here  to  a  considerable  extent.  The  water  is  raised  by  pumps 
worked  by  windmills,  and  is  led  along  by  troughs  to  the  cisterns 
or  vats,  which  are  filled  to  the  depth  of  3  or  4  inches,  in  which  it 
is  dried  down  by  the  sun.  The  domestic  manufacture  of  wool  in 
this  town  is  of  considerable  importance.  Besides  flannels  and 
blankets,  many  thousand  pairs  of  stockings,  mittens,  and  caps  or 
wigs,  are  annually  made  and  sold.  Fish  of  various  kinds  are 
taken  in  abundance  in  the  harbor,  coves,  and  ponds  of  triis  town. 
The  herring  fishery  has  become  very  profitable.  Edgartown  has 
at  present  7  whale  ships,  2  schooners,  and  8  or  10  sloops  and 

CHAPPEQUIDDICK  ISLAND  lies  on  the  east  side  of  Edgartown  harbor, 
and,  including  Cape  Poge,  is  6  miles  long  and  3  broad.  The  soil 
is  sandy,  but  is  thought  to  be  more  productive  than  the  opposite 
land  in  Edgartown.  There  is  some  wood  on  the  island,  which  is 
chiefly  oak  of  various  sorts.  The  east  and  north  parts  of  the  island 

154  T  I  S  B  U  R  Y  . 

are  level,  but  the  west  part  rises  into  hills  60  feet  high.  Samp- 
son's hill  in  the  center  is  100  feet  in  height.  On  this  island  are 
about  50  families.  The  heads  of  several  of  these  families,  of  the 
name  of  Fisher,  living  near  Washqua  Point,  are  celebrated  as  bold 
and  skilful  pilots.  Ships  in  storms  often  get  within  the  dangerous 
rips  which  lie  off  the  island,  and  there  appears  to  be  no  retreat. 
These  men  are  constantly  on  the  watch  for  them.  The  sea  rolls 
like  moving  mountains  on  the  shore,  and  the  surf  breaks  in  a  ter- 
rible manner.  As  the  waves  retire,  five  or  six  of  them  lift  a  whale- 
boat  till  they  reach  the  surf,  and  then  jump  into  it  with  almost  in- 
credible alacrity.  The  boat  frequently  fills  with  water,  and  they 
are  obliged  to  return  to  the  land  to  bail  the  water  out,  and  to  carry 
the  boat  down  again.  When  at  last  they  are  so  fortunate  as  to 
float  on  the  surge,  to  a  person  standing  on  the  shore,  they  seem  to 
mount  up  to  the  sky,  and  then  suddenly  sink  into  the  deep.  With 
hard  rowing  they  reach  the  ship,  which  oftentimes  is  at  the  dis- 
tance of  7  or  8  miles.  They  come  the  messengers  of  safety,  for 
with  perfect  ease  they  carry  the  ship  into  the  harbor  of  Edgar- 
town,  where  it  is  secure  against  every  wind. 

At  the  time  of  the  settlement,  the  Indians  were  very  numerous  in  this  town,  perhaps 
more  so  than  in  other  parts  of  the  island.  The  Indians  of  Martha's  Vineyard  were 
hospitable,  and  more  tractable  than  those  on  the  main.  Governor  May  hew  and  his 
son,  as  soon  as  they  became  settled,  attempted  to  civilize  them  and  introduce  the  gospel 
among  them,  and  their  success  surprised  and  delighted  the  pious  of  that  age.  The 
younger  Mr.  May  hew  labored  in  this  benevolent  work  with  diligence  and  fervor  till 
his  death,  in  1657,  when  it  was  assumed  by  his  father,  and  in  a  few  years  by  his  son, 
and  it  was  carried  on  by  some  member  of  the  family  till  the  beginning  of  the  present 
«.-*ntury.  Nearly  all  the  Indians  on  the  island  became  professed  Christians.  At  first 
they  were  called  catechumens,  but  were  formed  into  a  church  in  1659,  and  from  this, 
another  church  arose  in  1670. 

The  English  found  most  essential  advantages  from  the  ascendency  which  was  gained 
over  their  minds ;  they  were  disarmed  of  their  rage,  they  were  made  friends  and 
fellow-subjects.  In  King  Philip's  war,  all  the  Indian  nations  on  the  main  were  con- 
federated again?*,  the  English.  Alarm  and  terror  were  diffused  on  every  side,  but  Gov. 
May  hew  was  so  well  satisfied  with  the  fidelity  of  these  Indians  that  he  employed  them 
as  a  guard,  furnished  them  with  the  necessary  ammunition,  and  gave  them  instructions 
how  to  conduct  themselves  for  the  common  safety  in  this  time  of  imminent  danger. 
So  faithful  were  they  that  they  not  only  rejected  the  strong  and  repeated  solicitations 
of  the  natives  on  the  main  to  engage  in  hostilities,  but  when  any  landed  from  it,  in 
obedience  to  their  orders  which  had  been  given  them,  they  carried  them,  though  some- 
times their  near  relations,  to  the  governor,  to  attend  his  pleasure.  The  English,  con- 
vinced by  these  proofs  of  the  sincerity  of  their  friendship,  took  no  care  of  their  own 
defence,  but  left  it  entirely  to  the  Indians ;  and  the  storm  of  war  which  raged  on  the 
continent  was  not  suffered  to  approach,  but  these  islands  enjoyed  the  calm  of  peace. 
This  was  the  genuine  and  happy  effects  of  Mr.  Mayhew's  wisdom  and  of  the  introduc- 
tion of  the  Christian  religion  among  the  Indians. 


THIS  town  comprehends  the  central  part  of  the  island,  and  is  10 
miles  long  from  north  to  south,  and  5  miles  in  breadth.  It  was 
incorporated  a  township  in  1671,  at  the  same  time  with  Edgartown, 
while  under  the  government  of  New  York.  As  an  acknowledg- 
ment, the  proprietors  were  to  pay  each  and  every  year  two  barrels 



of  good  merchantable  codfish,  to  be  delivered  at  Fort  James,  in 
New  York.  Before  its  incorporation  it  was  known  by  the  name  of 

The  precise  time  when  the  Congregational  church  was  organ- 
ized is  not  known.  John  May  hew  began  to  preach  at  Tisbury  in 
1673,  but  was  not  ordained.  Josiah  Torrey  was  ordained  in  1701 ; 
Nathaniel  Hancock  in  1727 ,  George  Damon  in  1760,  and  was  dis- 
missed about  1779.  Asa  Morse  was  installed  in  1784,  and  dis- 
missed at  his  request  in  1799.  He  was  succeeded  in  1801  by 
Nymphas  Hatch. 

There  are  two  churches.  1  Congregationalist  and  1  Methodist, 
situated  in  West  Tisbury,  8  miles  and  a  half  from  the  court-house 

Northern  view  at  Holmes'  Hole,  East  Tisbury. 

in  Edgartown,  and  85  S.  S.  E.  of  Boston.  At  Holmes'  Hole,  on 
the  north  side  of  the  island,  is  a  village,  consisting  of  about  100 
dwelling-houses.  There  are  a  Methodist  and  a  Baptist  church ; 
the  last-mentioned  was  built  in  1837.  A  few  houses  on  the  east 
chop  of  the  harbor  fall  within  the  limits  of  Edgartown.  Holmes' 
Hole  is  a  good  harbor.  The  depth  of  water  is  from  8  fathoms  to 
3  ;  the  bottom  good  holding  ground,  bluish  clay.  Several  excel- 
lent pilots  reside  near  the  harbor.  Wickataquay  Pond  communi- 
cates with  Holmes'  Hole  by  an  opening  which  is  only  4  rods  wide 
and  7  feet  deep  at  high  water.  It  is  supposed  formerly  to  have 
been  wider  and  deeper,  and  to  have  been  a  part  of  the  harbor. 
The  pond  is  3  miles  in  length  and  1  mile  in  width,  and  in  several 
places  40  feet  in  depth.  It  is  situated  on  the  Edgartown  side  of 
the  harbor.  Newtown  Pond,  in  the  south  part  of  Tisbury,  is  a 
mile  and  a  half  long,  and  has  a  natural  communication  with  the 
sea,  through  which  "the  tide  rises  and  falls.  The  largest  brooks  in 
the  island  empty  into  the  head  of  this  pond,  not  more  than  100 
rods  apart,  one  running  from  the  west  arid  one  from  the  north- 
west. A  small  brook  in  this  town  discharges  itself  into  Lam- 

]  56  ESSEX     COUNTY. 

bert's  Cove.  The  wells  in  this  town,  and  in  other  parts  of  the 
island,  are  not  deep,  the  water  in  them  being  on  a  level  with  the 
sea.  The  common  depth  is  from  15  to  20  feet.  The  water  in 
them  is  soft  and  of  a  good  quality,  and  will  wash  as  well  as  rain 
water.  The  sandy  beaches  in  every  part  of  the  island  abound 
with  fresh  water,  which  can  be  obtained  by  digging  a  few  feet. 
The  surface  of  this  town  is  mostly  level  plains.  Around  Holmes' 
Hole,  however,  are  hills  of  moderate  elevation,  and  a  range  of 
highland  runs  on  the  north  side  of  the  town  parallel  with  the 
sound.  Most  of  the  improved  land  in  this  township  is  good  and 


ESSEX  COUNTY,  the  north-eastern  section  of  Massachusetts,  was 
incorporated  as  a  county  in  1643.  It  is  thirty-eight  miles  long, 
and  twenty-five  miles  wide ;  and  is  more  densely  populated  than 
any  other  county  of  its  size  in  the  United  States.  It  has  an  exten- 
sive sea-coast,  the  line  of  which  is  very  uneven,  being  indented 
with  numerous  bays,  inlets,  and  harbors.  Much  of  the  shore  is 
rough  and  rocky,  but  it  has  here  and -there  a  sandy  beach.  There 
are  also  great  tracts  of  salt  marsh,  which  produce  large  quantities 
of  grass.  There  are  many  hills  in  the  county,  but  no  mountains. 
The  soil  in  many  places  is  hard  to  cultivate,  but  is  made  produc- 
tive by  the  industry  of  the  farmers.  The  principal  river  in  the 
county  is  the  Merrimac,  which  rises  in  New  Hampshire;  it  passes 
through  the  northern  section,  three  miles  south  of  the  New  Hamp- 
shire line,  and,  owing  to  falls  and  rapids,  is  navigable  only  to 
Haverhill,  about  eighteen  miles  from  its  mouth.  There  is  in  this 
county  a  large  amount  of  wealth,  and  its  commerce  and  fisheries 
are  very  extensive.  The  manufacture  of  shoes,  cloth,  and  other 
articles,  is  carried  on  to  a  considerable  extent.  Courts  for  the 
county  are  held  at  Salem,  Newburyport,  and  Ipswich.  The  fol- 
lowing is  a  list  of  the  towns,  which  are  27  in  number. 


Lynn  field, 

Middle  ton, 

West  Newbury. 

In  1800  the  population  of  the  county  was  61,196 ;  in  1810  it 
was  71,888;  in  1820  it  was  74;655;  in  1830  it  was  82,887;  and 
in  1837  it  was  93,689. 



AMESBURY  was  formerly  a  parish  in  the  town  of  Salisbury,  under 
the  name  of  Salisbury  New-  Town.  It  took  its  name  from  a  town 
in  Wiltshire,  England,  and  in  the  first  records  of  the  town  it  is  writ- 
ten Alnisbury.  The  town  was  incorporated  in  1668.  It  is  six 
miles  in  length  and  three  in  breadth,  and  is  divided  into  three  sec- 
tions :  West  Parish,  or  Jamaica,  the  Ferry,  and  Mills.  The  Ferry 
lies  at  the  south-east  extremity  of  the  town,  at  the  junction  of 
Powow  river  with  the  Merrimac.  Its  name  is  derived  from  the 
ancient  ferry  which  was  established  between  this  part  of  the  town 
and  Newbury.  The  river  alters  its  course  at  this  point  from  a 
north-east  to  a  south-west  direction.  This  was  formerly  the  seat 
of  considerable  trade,  and  many  large  ships  were  owned  in  the  place. 
Ship-building  was  also  carried  on  extensively  on  the  banks  of  the 
river,  and  some  are  still  yearly  launched.  Shad  and  salmon  were 
taken  at  this  place ;  some  are  still  caught,  but  they  are  becoming 
scarce.  The  Mills  are  situated  at  the  north-eastern  border  of  the 
town,  around  the  lower  falls  of  the  Powow,  forming  a  continuous 
settlement  with  the  north-western  village  of  Salisbury,  on  the  oppo- 
site side  of  the  Powow.  The  width  of  the  river  is  about  2  rods, 
and  is  crossed  by  a  number  of  bridges.  There  are  5  dams  at  the 
Mills  within  a  space  of  50  rods ;  the  aggregate  fall  of  water  is 
70  feet.  The  stream  is  rapid,  especially  in  freshet  times,  when  its 
descent  over  the  falls  presents  a  beautiful  scene.  The  stream  is 
seldom  exhausted;  when  so,  Kimball's  Pond  has  been  dammed 
up,  and  converted  into  a  reservoir.  The  canal  which  forms  a 
communication  between  the  pond  and  river  is  nearly  an  eighth  of 
a  mile  in  length.  It  has  been  made  more  than  a  century.  A  part 
of  it  forms  a  tunnel  under  a  high  hill,  which  is  considered  quite  a 
curiosity.  Water  power  in  this  place  was  applied  to  machinery  at 
an  early  date.  As  far  back  as  half  a  century  there  was  a  smelting- 
furnace,  and  much  business  carried  on  in  the  making  of  various 
kinds  of  tools  and  agricultural  implements.  Jacob  Perkins'  machine 
for  cutting  and  heading  nails,  which  was  invented  about  1796,  was 
first  used  in  this  village.  The  town  is  hilly,  and  much  of  the 
natural  scenery  is  of  a  picturesque  character.  Whittier,  Bear, 
and  the  Pond  hills,  are  the  most  elevated,  and  the  prospect  from 
them  is  very  extensive  and  romantic.  The  soil  of  the  town  is  of 
an  average  quality  of  the  other  soil  in  the  county.  The  Amesbnry 
bUniDid  Manufacturing  Company,  which  was  incorporated  in 
1822,  with  a  capital  of  $200,000,  have  two  large  factories  in  ope- 
ration, one  of  which  is  for  the  manufactory  of  flannels,  the  other 
for  satinets.  The  flannel  mills  have  made  annually  15,000  pieces 
of  flannels.  46  yards  each ;  the  satinet  mill,  5,000  pieces  of  sati- 
net, 25  yards  each. 

The  following  is  a  south-eastern  view  of  what  is  called  the  Mills 
Village,  lying  in  the  towns  of  Salisbury  and  Amesbury.  For  many 
purposes,  the  people  on  both  sides  of  the  Powow  (the  dividing  line) 


act  together  as  one  town.  The  village,  in  both  towns,  is  supposed 
to  contain  about  2,500  inhabitants.  There  are  five  churches :  2 
Baptist,  1  Congregational,  1  for  Friends,  and  1  Episcopal.  This 
place  is  5  miles  from  Newburyport,  12  from  Haverhill,  20  from 
Portsmouth,  and  40  from  Boston.  Population  of  the  town,  2,567. 

South-east  view  of  Mills  Village,  in  Salisbury  and  Amesbury. 

One  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  Josiah 
Bartlett,  was  a  native  of  this  town,  and  many  of  his  kindred  still 
live  in  the  place.  He  studied  medicine  in  his  native  place,  and 
removed  to  New  Hampshire,  of  which  state  he  held  the  office  of 
governor  for  a  number  of  years.  He  died  in  1795. 

The  first  church  organized  was  located  at  the  Ferry.  The  first 
pastor,  settled  in  1672,  was  Thomas  Wells,  who  died  1734,  aged 
87.  The  second  pastor  was  the  Rev.  Edmund  March,  of  New- 
bury,  who  was  settled  here  in  1728.  He  was  succeeded  by  Rev. 
Elisha  Odin,  of  Exeter,  N.  H..  who  was  settled  in  1744,  and  died 
in  1752.  His  successor  was  Thomas  Hibbert,  of  Rowley,  who 
was  settled  in  1754,  and  died  in  1793.  The  fifth  pastor  was  Ben- 
jamin Bell,  settled  in  1784,  and  resigned  in  1790;  was  succeeded 
by  Stephen  Hull  in  1799,  who  resigned  in  1811.  The  second  Con- 
gregational church,  located  in  the  west  parish,  was  organized  in 
1726.  The  Congregational  society  of  Amesbury  and  Salisbury 
was  organized  in  1831.  The  Friends  have  a  meeting-house  at  the 
Mills  village.  In  Mr.  NewhalPs  Essex  Memorial,  it  is  stated, 
"  Most  of  the  people  of  Amesbury  belong  to  the  productive  class; 
very  few  are  raised  above  the  necessity  for  personal  exertion. 
All  are  active  and  industrious,  readily  find  employment,  and  com- 
mand good  wages.  They  have  been  distinguished  for  their  zeal 
in  the  cause  of  temperance.  There  has  not  been,  for  several  years, 
and  is  not  now,  a  single  licensed  grocer  in  town."  According  to 
the  Statistical  Tables  published  by  the  state  in  1837,  there  were  in 
the  limits  of  this  town  3  woollen  mills,  having  27  sets  of  machi- 

ANDOVER.  159 

uery;  1,100,000  yards  of  flannel  were  manufactured,  and  150,000 
yards  of  satinet ;  value  of  woollen  goods,  $425,000 ;  males  em- 
ployed, 118;  females,  125;  capital  invested,  $250,000.  In  the 
manufacture  of  chaises,  &c.,  128  hands  were  employed,  and  in  the 
manufacture  of  shoes  and  boots,  84  persons. 


THE  exact  time  of  the  first  settlement  of  Cochichewick,  now  Ando- 
ver,  or  when  the  town  was  first  purchased  of  the  Indians,  does  not 
distinctly  appear.  The  land  was  bought  of  Cutshamache,  the 
sagamore  of  Massachusetts,  by  Mr.  Woodbridge,  in  behalf  of  the 
inhabitants  of  Cochichewick.  The  amount  paid  was  £6  and  a 
coat.  Mr.  Edmund  Faulkner  might  have  assisted  Mr.  Wood- 
bridge,  as  there  is  a  tradition  that  he  purchased  the  town  for  the 
settlers.  In  1646,  the  court  confirmed  this  purchase  and  grant, 
and  the  town  was  incorporated  by  the  name  of  Andover ,  from  the 
fact  that  some  of  the  planters  came  from  Andover,  in  Hampshire, 
England.  The  settlers  bought  the  land  of  the  town,  and  they 
were  received  as  commoners  or  proprietors ;  and,  according  to  a 
vote  of  the  town,  all  householders  were  considered  as  proprietors 
and  voters.  The  first  divisions  were  small  lots,  few  exceeding  ten 
acres.  The  farms  were  rendered  inconvenient,  from  the  fact  that 
plough  land  was  granted  at  a  distance,  in  small  parcels,  on  the 
plains;  the  same  also  with  swamps  and  meadow-land,  wood- 
land, &c.  Much  of  this  inconvenience  is  felt  to  this  day.  There 
is  much  obscurity  about  certain  transactions,  in  consequence  of 
the  early  records  having  been  destroyed  by  the  Indians.  The  land 
was  first  settled  near  Cochichewick  brook,  and  upon  the  Shawshin. 
Various  parts  of  the  town  were  soon  occupied  by  settlers.  The 
chief  settlement  was  for  many  years  in  the  neighborhood  of  the 
meeting-house  and  Cochichewick  brook,  and  was  called  the  town. 

Most  of  the  first  settlers  were  from  England ;  the  names  of  the 
following  were  taken  from  the  town  records.  They  were  written 
in  an  ancient  hand,  without  date,  but  probably  most  of  the  first 
settlers  were  living  when  they  were  written.  "  The  names  of  all 
the  householders  in  order  as  they  came  to  town :  Mr.  Bradstreet, 
John  Osgood,  Joseph  Parker,  Richard  Barker,  John  Stevens, 
Nicholas  Holt,  Benjamin  Woodbridge,  John  Frye,  Edmund  Faulk- 
ner, Robert  Barnard,  Daniel  Poor,  Nathan  Parker,  Henry  Jaques, 
John  Aslett,  Richard  Blake,  William  Ballard,  John  Lovejoy,  Tho- 
mas Poor,  George  Abbot,  John  Russ,  Andrew  Allen,  Andrew  Fos- 
ter, Thomas  Chandler."  Part  of  these  brought  families  with  them. 
The  rest  were  young  unmarried  men.  It  is  probable  that  all  of 
these  and  others  were  in  Andover  before  1644.  Many  followed 
them  in  the  course  of  a  few  years. 

The  first  violence  done  by  the  Indians  took  place  April,  19, 1676. 
They  were  first  discovered  by  Mr.  Ephraim  Stevens,  not  far  from 

160  ANDOVER. 

Bodwell's  Ferry.  He  escaped  upon  his  horse  and  gave  the  alarm. 
The  Indians  pursued  their  way  along  the  main  road,  without  doing 
any  mischief,  till  they  arrived  at  the  south  part  of  the  town;  there 
they  killed  Joseph  Abbot,  and  took  Timothy  Abbot,  both  sons  of 
George  Abbot,  sen.  Joseph  was  strong  and  bold,  and  the  tradition 
is  that  he  killed  one  or  more  of  them  before  he  was  slain :  he  was  in 
his  24th  year.  Timothy  was  in  his  13th  year :  after  being  kept  seve- 
ral months,  he  was  brought  back  by  a  squaw  who  was  friendly  to 
the  family.  At  the  same  time,  they  burnt  Mr.  Faulkner's  house, 
wounded  Roger  Marks,  and  killed  his  horse.  They  killed  some 
cattle,  but  only  had  time  to  cut  out  their  tongues,  as  they  were 
fired  upon  by  the  people  in  the  garrison.  A  few  months  after,  a 
party  of  the  enemy  surprised  and  captured  Mr.  Haggett  and  two 
of  his  sons.  The  10th  of  July,  1671,  John  Parker,  James  Parker, 
John  Phelps,  and  Daniel  Blackhead,  were  surprised  and  slain  at 
Black  Point,  in  Scarborough.  Another  war  with  the  Indians  com- 
menced in  1688.  Andover  suffered  more  in  this  than  in  the  pre- 
ceding war.  In  August,  1689,  John  and  Andrew  Peters  were 
killed  by  the  Indians.  The  same  year,  Lieut.  John  Stevens,  Ben- 
jamin Lovejoy,  Eleazer  Streaton,  and  Robert  Russell,  died  in  the 
war  at  the  eastward.  In  August,  1696,  two  others  were  slain. 

The  greatest  distress  which  the  Andover  people  ever  suffered  from 
the  Indians  was  on  the  fifth  of  March,  1698.  A  company  of  30 
or  40  Indians  surprised  the  town,  slew  5  persons,  burnt  2  houses 
and  2  barns,  with  the  cattle  in  them,  with  other  damage.  The 
names  of  the  persons  killed  were  Simon  Wade,  Nathaniel  Brown, 
Penelope  Johnson,  Capt.  Pascoe  Chubb,  and  Hannah  his  wife, 
daughter  of  Edmund  Faulkner.  Two  years  before,  Chubb  had 
been  captain  at  Pemaquid  fort,  when  he  treacherously  murdered 
two  chiefs  of  the  Indians,  which  had  greatly  enraged  them.  His 
death  caused  them  as  much  joy  as  the  taking  of  the  whole  town. 
Col.  Dudley  Bradstreet  and  his  family  they  took,  and  carried  them 
about  50  rods  from  his  house ;  they  then  halted  and  dismissed  their 
prisoners,  without  offering  them  the  least  injury.  The  tradition  is, 
that  one  Waternummon,  an  Indian  who  lived  at  Newbury,  having  a 
particular  regard  for  Col.  Bradstreet,  offered  to  conduct  the  Indians 
to  his  house,  on  condition  that  they  should  not  kill  nor  capture  any 
of  the  family.  They  took  Abiel  Stevens,  a  lad,  who  pretended  to  be 
lame,  and  kept  behind.  The  Indians  hurried,  expecting  to  be  pur- 
sued. He  turned  back,  and  made  his  escape,  though  fired  upon 
by  the  Indian  who  took  him.  In  consequence  of  the  snow  being 
deep,  the  inhabitants  having  no  snow-shoes,  the  Indians  were  not 
pursued.  Assacumbuit,  their  principal  chief,  had  distinguished 
himself  in  this  war  by  his  cruelties,  which  rendered  their  conduct 
in  releasing  the  captives  the  more  extraordinary.  No  assault  after 
this  has  been  made  upon  Andover,  but  the  towns  near  suffered 
much  many  years  afterward. 

Andover  is  the  largest  township  in  Essex  county ;  it  contains 
35,738  acres.  The  soil  is  excellent,  and  it  is  well  cultivated. 
The  river  Merrimac  runs  along  the  north-west  side;  Cochictie- 



wick  Brook  issues  from  Great  Pond,  in  the  north-east,  and  empties 
into  the  Merrimac.  The  river  Shawshin  rises  in  Lexington,  and, 
passing  through  BiUerica,  Wilmington,  Tewksbury,  and  Andover, 
empties  into  the  Merrimac.  Great  Pond,  in  the  north-east  part 
of  the  town,  is  a  fine  place  for  fish  and  feathered  game.  It  covers 
about  450  acres.  Haggetfs  Pond  is  in  the  west  parish,  and  is  a 
place  of  frequent  resort  in  the  summer  for  parties  of  pleasure.  It 
covers  about  220  acres. 

Western  view  of  the  Theological  Seminary  at  Andover. 

The  south  parish,  in  which  the  Theological  Institution  is  situated, 
nas  a  considerable  village,  extending  northward  of  the  institution, 
easterly  to  some  extent,  and  westerly  near  the  factories.  The 
houses  generally  are  well  built,  and  present  a  fine  appearance.  A 
large  portion  of  them  has  been  erected  within  thirty  years.  There 
are  in  the  village  a  printing-office;  the  "Andover  Bank,"  incorpo- 
rated in  1826,  capital  $200,000;  the  Merrimac  Mutual  Fire  Insu- 
rance Company,  incorporated  in  1828,  and  a  savings  bank,  recently 
instituted.  There  are  5  churches  in  the  village:  1  Congregational, 
1  Episcopal,  1  Baptist.  1  Universalist,  and  1  Methodist.  This 
place  is  10  miles  E.  of  Lowell,  16  from  Salem,  and  20  from  Bos- 
ton. The  Andover  and  Wilmington  railroad  passes  through  the 
village.  Population  of  the  town,  4,878.  In  1837,  there  were  8 
woollen  mills,  26  sets  of  machinery ;  wool  consumed,  524,000  Ibs. ; 
cioth  manufactured.  1.294,000  yards;  value  of  woollen  goods, 
$520,000;  males  employed,  140;  females,  192;  capital'  invested, 
$270,000;  value  of  boots  and  shoes  manufactured,  $46,500. 
There  were  two  manufactories  of  machinery,  employing  50  hands. 

The  above  is  a  western  view  of  the  three  principal  buildings 
of  the  Theological  Institution.  They  stand  on  elevated  ground, 
having  a  commanding,  variegated,  and  beautiful  prospect.  Tire 
buildings  of  the  institution  consist  of  a  dwelling-house  for  each  of 
the  professors:  Phillips  Hall,  of  brick,  90  feet  by  40,  four  stories,  <;on- 

162  ANDOVER. 

taining  32  rooms  for  students,  built  in  1808 ;  Bartlet  Chapel,  an  ele- 
gant brick  building,  94  feet  by  40,  containing  a  chapel,  library,  and 
three  lecture  rooms,  built  in  1818 ;  and  Bartlet  Hall,  an  elegant 
brick  building,  104  feet  by  40,  containing  32  suits  of  rooms,  fur- 
nished, presented  by  Mr.  Bartlet  in  1821. 

This  institution  was  founded  in  1807,  and  richly  endowed  by 
the  donations  of  William  Bartlet,  Esq.,  and  Moses  Brown,  Esq., 
of  Newburyport ;  Widow  Phoebe  Phillips,  John  Phillips,  Esq.,  and 
Samuel  Abbot,  Esq.,  of  Andover,  and  John  Norris,  Esq.,  and  his 
widow,  of  Salem.  The  library  of  the  seminary  contains  between 
twelve  and  thirteen  thousand  volumes.  Besides  this,  there  are 
two  other  libraries :  one,  of  the  Porter  Rhetorical  Society,  contain- 
ing from  two  to  three  thousand  volumes ;  the  other,  belonging  to 
the  Society  of  Enquiry  respecting  Missions,  containing  from  one  to 
two  thousand  volumes.  There  is  an  Athenaeum  and  news-room, 
supported  by  the  students.  Annexed  to  the  institution  is  a  com- 
modious mechanic's  shop,  where  the  students  can  exercise  them- 
selves in  carpentering  or  cabinet  work.  There  is  a  musical  society, 
the  president  of  which  is  paid  by  the  trustees  for  his  services  as 
teacher  of  sacred  music.  The  term  is  three  years.  The  principal 
study  for  the  first  year  is  the  Bible  in  its  original  tongues.  The 
second  year  is  occupied  in  the  study  of  systematic  theology.  The 
third  year  is  chiefly  devoted  to  the  study  of  ecclesiastical  history, 
and  the  composition  of  sermons.  There  is  also  a  Teachers'  Semi- 
nary near  the  Institution,  which  will  accommodate  200  students. 

Western  view  of  Phillips  Academy  at  Andover. 

The  above  is  a  western  view  of  Phillips  Academy,  which  is 
situated  a  few  rods  south  of  the  Theological  Seminary.  It  is  built 
of  brick,  and  is  80  feet  in  length  and  40  in  width,  and  was  erected 
in  1819.  This  academy  was  founded  April  21,  1778,  by  the  Hon. 
Samuel  Phillips,  Andover,  and  Hon.  John  Phillips,  Exeter,  sons  of 
the  Rev.  Samuel  Phillips.  It  was  incorporated  Oct.  4,  1780,  and 
is  one  of  the  first  institutions  of  the  kind  in  the  country.  Its  funds 
are  about  .$50,000.  The  first  object  of  the  institution  is  declared 

A  N  D  O  V  E  R  .  163 

to  be  the  promotion  of  true  piety  and  virtue.  The  principal  studies 
are  the  English,  Latin,  and  Greek  languages,  together  with 
writing,  arithmetic,  music,  and  the  art  of  speaking :  also,  practi- 
cal geometry,  logic,  and  geography,  with  such  other  liberal  arts 
and  sciences  or  languages  as  opportunity  and  ability  may  admit, 
or  as  the  trustees  shall  direct.  Other  schools,  of  a  high  class,  exist 
in  this  town,  for  the  reception  of  male  and  female  pupils.  The 
average  number  of  those  attending  private  schools  and  academies 
is  about  five  hundred. 

The  first  church,  located  in  the  north  parish,  was  founded  Octo- 
ber, 1645.  The  first  pastor  was  Rev.  John  Woodbridge,  who  was 
settled  when  the  church  was  formed.  He  resigned  in  1647,  and 
went  to  England,  where  he  preached  until  ejected  under  Charles 
II.  He  returned  and  lived  at  Newbury,  where  he  died,  March, 
1695.  The  second  pastor  was  Rev.  Francis  Dane,  who  was  set- 
tled 1648.  The  third,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Barnard,  was  settled 
1682.  He  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  John  Barnard,  in  1719.  The 
fifth  was  the  Rev.  William  Symmes,  who  was  settled  1758.  The 
sixth  pastor,  Rev.  Bailey  Loring,  was  settled  here  in  1810.  The 
second  Congregational  church  is  situated  in  the  south  parish,  and 
was  organized  1711.  The  west  parish  Congregational  church  was 
gathered  Dec.  5,  1826,  and  Rev.  Samuel  C.  Jackson  settled  here  in 
1827.  The  Baptist  church,  located  in  south  parish,  was  organ- 
ized 1832. 

During  the  excitement  in  1692,  on  the  subject  of  witchcraft,  the 
people  of  Andover  suffered  their  share  of  the  alarm  and  distress 
which  it  occasioned.  More  than  fifty  in  this  town  were  complained 
of,  for  afflicting  their  neighbors  and  others.  Dudley  Bradstreet, 
Esq.,  having  granted  thirty  or  forty  warrants  for  commitments,  at 
length  refused  to  grant  any  more.  He  and  his  wife  were  imme- 
diately accused ;  he  was  said  to  have  killed  nine  persons  by  witch- 
craft. He  found  it  necessary  for  his  safety  to  make  his  escape. 
Three  persons  who  belonged  to  Andover  were  hung  for  witchcraft, 
viz.  Martha  Carryer,  Samuel  Wardell,  and  Mary  Parker.  The 
following  is  from  Abbot's  History  of  Andover,  published  at  Ando- 
ver, by  Flagg  and  Gould,  in  1829.  It  is  inserted  here  as  a  matter 
of  curiosity,  and  also  as  a  document  which  will  serve  to  illustrato 
the  history  of  the  times. 

The  Indictment  of  Martha  Carryer, 
Essex  S3.     Anno  Regni  Regu  et  Reginae  Wilielm  et  Mariae,  nunc  Anglise,  etc.  quarto. 

The  Jurors  for  our  sovereign  lord  and  lady  the  king  and  queen,  present,  that  Martha 
Carryer,  wife  of  Thomas  Carryer,  of  Andover,  in  the  county  of  Essex,  husbandman, 
the  thirty-first  day  of  May,  in  the  fourth  year  of  the  reign  of  our  sovereign  lord  and 
lady,  William  and  Mary,  by  the  grace  of  God,  of  England,  Scotland,  France  and  Ire- 
land, king  and  queen,  defenders  of  the  faith,  &c.  And  divers  other  days  and  times, 
as  well  before  as  after,  certain  detestable  arts,  called  witchcrafts,  and  sorceries,  wick- 
edly and  feloniously  hath  used,  practised  and  exercised,  at  and  within  the  township  of 
Salem,  in  the  county  of  Essex  aforesaid,  in,  upon,  and  against  one  Mary  Wolcott,  of 
Salem  Village,  single  woman,  in  the  county  of  Essex  aforesaid;  by  which  said  wicked 
arts  the  said  Mary  Wolcott,  the  thirty-first  day  of  May,  in  the  fourth  year  aforesaid, 
and  at  divers  other  days  and  times,  as  well  before  as  after,  was,  and  is  tortured, 
afflicted,  pined,  consumed,  wasted  and  tormented;  against  the  peace  of  our  sovereign 

164  A  N  D  O  V  E  R  . 

lord  and  lady,  William  and  Mary,  king  and  queen  of  England;  their  crown  and  dig- 
nity, and  against  the  form  of  the  statute,  in  that  case  made  and  provided. 


There  was  also  a  second  indictment  for  afflicting  Elizabeth  Hubbard  by  witchcraft. 
The  trial  of  Martha  Carryer,  August  2,  1692,  as  stated  by  Dr.  Cotton  Mather. 

Martha  Carryer  was  indicted  for  the  bewitching  of  certain  persons,  according  to  the 
form  usual  in  such  cases :  Pleading  not  guilty  to  her  indictment,  there  were  first 
brought  in  a  considerable  number  of  the  bewitched  persons;  who  not  only  made  the 
court  sensible  of  an  horrid  witchcraft  committed  upon  them,  but  also  deposed,  that  it 
was  Martha  Carryer,  or  her  shape,  that  grievously  tormented  them  by  biting,  pricking, 
pinching  and  choking  them.  It  was  further  deposed  that  while  this  Carryer  was  on 
her  examination  before  the  magistrates,  the  poor  people  were  so  tortured  that  every 
one  expected  their  death  on  the  very  spot ;  but  that  upon  the  binding  of  Carryer  they 
were  eased.  Moreover,  the  looks  of  Carryer,  then  laid  the  afflicted  people  for  dead, 
and  her  touch,  if  her  eyes  were  at  the  same  time  off  them,  raised  them  again.  Which 
things  were  also  now  seen  upon  her  trial.  And  it  was  testified,  that  upon  the  mention 
of  some  having  their  necks  twisted  almost  round  by  the  shape  of  this  Carryer,  she 
replied,  It's  no  matter,  though  their  necks  had  been  twisted  quite  off. 

2.  Before  the  trial  of  this  prisoner,  several  of  her  own  children  had  frankly  and  fully 
confessed,  not  only  that  they  were  witches  themselves,  bat  that  their  mother  had  made 
them  so.     This  confession  they  made  with  great  shows  of  repentance,  and  with  much 
demonstration  of  truth.     They  related  place,  time,  occasion;  they  gave  an  account  of 
journeys,  meetings,  and  mischiefs  by  them  performed;  and  were  very' credible  in  what 
they  said.     Nevertheless,  this  evidence  was  not  produced  against  the  prisoner  at  the 
bar,  inasmuch  as  there  was  other  evidence,  enough  to  proceed  upon. 

3.  Benjamin  Abbot  gave  in  his  testimony,  that  last  March  was  a  twelvemonth,  this 
Carryer  was  very  angry  with  him,  upon  laying  out  some  land  near  her  husband's. 
Her  expressions  in  this  anger  were,  that  she  would  stick  as  close  to  Abbot,  as  the  bark 
stuck  to  the  tree ;  and  that  he  should  repent  of  it  before  seven  years  came  to  an  end, 
so  as  Dr.  Prescot  should  never  cure  him.     These  words  were  heard  by  others  besides 
Abbot  himself,  who  also  heard  her  say,  she  would  hold  his  nose  as  close  to  the  grind- 
stone as  ever  it  was  held  since  his  name  was  Abbot.     Presently  after  this  he  was  taken 
with  a  swelling  in  his  foot,  and  then  with  a  pain  in  his  side,  and  exceedingly  tor- 
mented.    It  bred  a  sore,  which  was  lanced  by  Dr.  Prescot,  and  several  gallons  of  cor- 
ruption ran  out  of  it.     For  six  weeks  it  continued  very  bad;  and  then  another  sore 
bred  in  his  groin,  which  was  also  lanced  by  Dr.  Prescot.     Another  sore  bred  in  his 
groin,  which  was  likewise  cut,  and  put  him, to  very  great  misery.     He  was  brought  to 
death's  door,  and  so  remained  until  Carryer  was  taken,  and  carried  away  by  the  con- 
stable.    From  which  very  day  he  began  to  mend,  and  so  grew  better  every  day,  and 
is  well  ever  since. 

Sarah  Abbot,  his  wife,  also  testified  that  her  husband  was  not  only  all  this  while 
afflicted  in  his  body;  but  also  that  strange,  extraordinary  and  unaccountable  calami- 
ties befel  his  cattle;  their  death  being  such  as  they  could  guess  no  natural  reason  for. 

4.  Allin  Toothaker  testified  that  Richard,  the  son  of  Martha  Carryer,  having  some 
difference  with  him,  pulled  him  down  by  the  hair  of  the  head;  when  he  rose  again,  he 
was  going  to  strike  at  Richard  Carryer,  but  fell  down  flat  on  his  back  to  the  ground, 
and  had  not  power  to  stir  hand  or  foot,  until  he  told  Carryer  he  yielded;  and  then  he 
saw  the  shape  of  Martha  Carryer  go  off  his  breast. 

This  Toothaker  had  received  a  wound  in  the  wars,  and  he  now  testified,  that  Martha 
Carryer  told  him,  he  should  never  be  cured.  Just  before  the  apprehending  of  Carryer, 
he  could  thrust  a  knitting  needle  into  his  wound  four  inches  deep,  but  presently  after 
her  being  seized,  he  was  thoroughly  healed. 

He  further  testified  that  when  Carryer  and  he  sometimes  were  at  variance,  she  would 
clap  her  hands  at  him,  and  say,  he  should  get  nothing  by  it.  Whereupon  he  several 
times  lost  his  cattle  by  strange  deaths,  whereof  no  natural  causes  could  be  given. 

5.  John  Roger  also  testified  that  upon  the  threatening  words  of  this  malicious  Carryer 
his  cattle  would  be  strangely  bewitched ;  as  was  more  particularly  then  described. 

6.  Samuel  Preston  testified  that  about  two  years  ago,  having  some  difference  with 
Martha  Carryer,  he  lost  a  cow  in  a  strange,  preternatural,  unusual  manner;  and  about 
a  month  after  this,  the  said  Carryer,  having  again  some  difference  with  him,  she  told 
him  he  had  lately  lost  a  cow,  and  it  should  not  be  long  before  he  lost  another!  which 
accordingly  came  to  pass ;  for  he  had  a  thriving  and  well-kept  cow,  which,  without 
any  known  cause,  quickly  fell  down  and  died. 

7.  Phebe  Chandler  testified  that  about  a  fortnight  before  the  apprehension  of  Martha 

BEVERLY.  165 

Carry er,  on  a  Lord's  day,  while  the  psalm  was  singing  in  the  church,  this  Carry er  then 
took  her  by  the  shoulder,  and,  shaking  her,  asked  her  where  she  lived.  She  made  her 
no  answer,  although  as  Carryer,  who  lived  next  door  to  her  father's  house,  could  not 
in  reason  but  know  who  she  was.  Quickly  after  this,  as  she  was  at  several  times 
crossing  the  fields,  she  heard  a  voice  that  she  took  to  be  Martha  Carryer's,  and  it 
seemed  as  if  it  were  over  her  head.  The  voice  told  her,  she  should  within  two  or  three 
days  be  poisoned.  Accordingly,  within  such  a  little  time,  one  half  of  her  right  hand 
became  greatly  swollen  and  very  painful ;  as  also  part  of  her  face ;  whereof  she  can 
give  no  account  how  it  came.  It  continued  very  bad  for  some  days ;  and  several  times 
since  she  has  had  a  great  pain  in  her  breast ;  and  been  so  seized  on  her  legs  that  she 
has  hardly  been  able  to  go.  She  added,  that  lately  going  well  to  the  house  of  God, 
Richard,  the  son  of  Martha  Carryer,  looked  very  earnestly  upon  her,  and  immediately 
her  hand  which  had  formerly  been  poisoned,  as  is  above  said,  began  to  pain  her 
greatly,  and  she  had  a  strange  burning  at  her  stomach;  but  was  then  struck  deaf,  so 
that  she  could  not  hear  any  of  the  prayer,  or  singing,  till  the  two  or  three  last  words 
of  the  psalm. 

8.  One  Foster,  who  confessed  her  own  share  in  the  witchcraft,  for  which  the  prisoner 
stood  indicted,  affirmed,  that  she  had  seen  the  prisoner  at  some  of  their  witch-meetings, 
and  that  it  was  this  Carryer,  who  persuaded  her  to  be  a  witch      She  confessed  that  the 
devil  carried  them  on  a  pole  to  a  witch-meeting,  but  the  pole  broke,  and  she  hanging 
about  Carryer's  neck,  they  both  fell  down,  and  she  then  received  an  hurt  by  the  fall, 
whereof  she  was  not  at  this  very  time  recovered. 

9.  One  Lacy,  who  likewise  confessed  her  share  in  this  witchcraft,  now  testified  that 
she  and  the  prisoner  were  once  bodily  present,  at  a  witch-meeting  in  Salem  Village, 
and  that  she  knew  the  prisoner  to  be  a  witch,  and  to  have  been  at  a  diabolical  sacra- 
ment, and  that  the  prisoner  was  the  undoing  of  her  and  her  children,  by  enticing  them 
into  the  snare  of  the  devil. 

10.  Another  Lacy,  who  also  confessed  her  share  in  this  witchcraft,  now  testified  that 
the  prisoner  was  at  the  witch-meeting  in  Salem  Village,  where  they  had  bread  and  wine 
administered  to  them. 

11.  In  the  lime  of  this  prisoner's  trial,  one  Susanna  Shelden,  in  open  court,  had  her 
hands  unaccountably  tied  together  with  a  wheel-band,  so  fast,  that  without  cutting,  it 
could  not  be  loosened.     It  was  done  by  a  spectre ;  and  the  sufferer  affirmed  it  was  the 


BEVERLY  was  formerly  a  part  of  Salem,  and  was  first  settled 
about  the  year  1630,  by  the  removal  of  John  and  William  Wood- 
bury,  with  others  of  the  companions  of  Roger  Conant,  from  the 
south  to  the  north  side  of  Bass  river.  John  Balch  and  Conant, 
with  others,  soon  came  after.  In  1649  the  settlers  became  numer- 
ous enough  to  desire  of  the  church  of  Salem  that  "  some  course  be 
taken  for  the  means  of  grace  amongst  themselves,  because  of  the 
tediousness  and  difficulties  over  the  water,  and  other  inconve- 
niences." A  meeting-house  was  built  in  1656,  and  a  branch  of  the 
church  of  Salem  established.  The  town  was  incorporated  by  the 
name  of  Beverly  on  the  14th  Oct.,  J668.  The  act  of  incorpora- 
tion ran  thus :  "  The  court,  on  perusal  of  this  return,  (ori  notice  to 
Salem,)  judge  it  meet  to  grant  that  Bass  River  be  henceforth  a 
township  of  themselves,  referring  it  to  Salem  to  accommodate  them 
with  lands  and  bounds  suitable  for  them,  and  that  it  be  called 
Beverly."  The  first  town  meeting  was  held  on  the  23d  of 
November,  1668.  Conant  was  not  satisfied  with  the  name  given 
by  the  court;  in  1671  he  petitioned  to  have  it  changed  to  Budleigh, 
the  name  of  the  town  in  England  from  which  he  came.  The  fol- 


lowing,  from  NewhalVs  Essex  Memorial*  1836,  is  an  extract  from 
the  petition : — 

"  Now  my  umble  suit  and  request  is  unto  this  honorable  Court  onlie  that  the  name 
of  our  town  or  plantation  may  be  altered  or  changed  from  Beverly,  and  be  called  Bud- 
leigh.  I  have  two  reasons  that  have  moved  me  unto  this  request:  the  first  is,  the 
great  dislike  and  discontent  of  many  of  our  people  for  this  name  of  Beverly,  because 
(wee  being  but  a  small  place)  it  hath  caused  on  us  the  constant  nick -name  of  beggarly, 
being  in  the  mouths  of  many,  and  no  order  was  given,  or  consent  by  the  people,  to 
their  agent,  for  any  name  untill  they  were  shure  of  being  a  towne  granted  in  the  first 
place.  Secondly;  I  being  the  first  that  had  house  in  Salem,  (and  neither  had  any  hand 
in  nameing  either  that  or  any  other  towne,)  and  myself,  with  those  that  were  with  me, 
being  all  from  the  western  part  of  England,  desire  this  western  name  of  Budleigh,  a 
market  towne  in  Devonshire,  and  neere  unto  the  sea,  as  wee  are  heere  in  this  place,  and 
where  myself  was  borne.  Now,  in  regard  of  our  firstnesse  and  antiquity  in  this  soe 
famous  a  collony,  we  should  umblie  request  this  small  prevaledg,  with  your  favour  and 
consent,  to  give  this  name  abovesaid  unto  our  towne.  I  never  yet  made  sute  or  request 
unto  the  Generall  Court  for  the  least  matter,  tho  I  think  I  might  as  well  have  done,  as 
many  others  have,  who  have  obtained  much  without  hazard  of  life,  or  preferring  the 
public  good  before  their  own  interest,  which  I  praise  G-od  I  have  done.  If  this  my 
sute  may  find  acceptation  with  your  worships,  I  shall  rest  umbly  thankful  1,  and  my 
praiers  shall  not  cease  unto  the  throne  of  grace  for  God's  guidance  and  his  blessing 
to  be  on  all  your  waigh tie  proceedings,  and  that  iustice  and  righteousness  may  be  eve- 
rie  where  administered,  and  sound  doctrine,  truth,  and  holiness  everie  where  taught 
and  practised  throughout  this  wilderness  to  all  posterity,  which  God  grant.  Amen." 
This  petition  was  signed  by  thirty-three  or  four  other  names  But  it  appears  that  the 
petition  was  not  granted. 

Beverly  is  11  miles  from  Ipswich,  17  north-east  of  Boston,  and 
14  south-west  of  Gloucester.  Its  greatest  length  is  six  and  two 
thirds  and  width  three  and  a  half  miles.  It  is  divided  into  two 
territoral  parishes ;  the  westerly  called  the  Precinct  of  Salem  and 
Beverly,  and  the  easterly  called  the  First  Parish.  "  This  last 
contains  two  thirds  of  the  territory,  and  five  sixths  of  the  popula- 
tion." Part  of  Wenham  Pond  lies  within  the  limits  of  this  town. 
There  are  several  conspicuous  hills  in  the  town ;  that  called 
Brown's  Folly  is  the  highest.  From  the  hill  the  observer  has  a 
view  of  a  large  portion  of  the  bay,  the  towns  of  Salem,  Danvers, 
and  Marblehead,  with  the  surrounding  country. 

There  is  raised  in  this  town  about  1,550  tons  of  hay,  14,000  bush- 
els of  grain,  and  1.100  head  of  cattle  are  pastured.  The  orchards 
yield  an  abundant  supply  of  apples.  Considerable  quantities  of 
butter  and  cheese  are  made,  but  of  the  last,  not  enough  for  home 
consumption.  There  are  about  12,000  bushels  of  Indian  corn  pro- 
duced annually.  The  whole  quantity  of  grain  raised  is  about 
equal  to  half  of  the  consumption  of  bread  stuffs ;  of  other  vega- 
table  food  the  quantity  produced  exceeds  the  consumption.  The 
great  extent  of  sea-coast  furnishes  an  abundant  supply  of  sea 
manure  for  improving  the  soil.  The  amount  of  capital  employed 
in  the  cod  fishery  is  greater  than  that  of  any  other  business.  There 
are  fifty  vessels,  making  an  aggregate  of  3,500  tons ;  valued,  includ- 
ing the  stores  and  outfits,  at  $100,000 ;  manned  by  400  men  and 
boys.  The  income  of  this  fishery  may  be  estimated  at  $150,000. 

*  The  author  would  here  mention  that  he  is  deeply  indebted  to  this  valuable  and 
interesting  work  for  much  historical  information  respecting  the  various  towns  in 
Essex  county.  The  work  is  entitled  "  The  Essex  Memorial  for  1836,  embracing  a  Regis 
terfor  the  County,  by  James  R.  Nemhall." 



There  viv  en  \ployed  in  the  manufacture  of  shoes  about  300  males 
and  200  females.  The  value  of  boots  and  shoes  manufactured  in 
1837  was  $60,000.  Population  of  the  town,  4,609. 

Southwest  view  of  Beverly. 

The  above  is  a  view  of  the  southern  part  of  Beverly  village,  as 
it  is  seen  from  near  the  bridge  connecting  it  with  Salem.  The  act 
for  incorporating  the  proprietors  of  this  bridge  passed  in  1787.  It 
is  1,484  feet  long  and  34  wide.  It  is  built  on  93  wooden  piers  of 
oak  timber,  driven  into  the  mud.  It  has  a  draw  for  vessels.  The 
first  pier  was  driven  in  May,  1788.  The  proprietors  are  authorized 
to  receive  toll  seventy  years  from  this  date,  after  which  the  bridge 
reverts  to  the  commonwealth.  This  is  a  large  village,  mostly  built 
on  a  single  street.  There  are  4  churches,  3  Congregational,  1  of 
which  is  Unitarian,  and  1  Baptist.  There  is  an  academy,  and  a 
bank,  "  The  Beverly  Bank."  There  are  two  Cpngregational 
churches  in  the  upper  parish,  and  a  Baptist  at  the  Farms.  The 
lamented  Capt.  Lathrop,  and  a  number  of  his  men,  who  fell  in  an 
ambuscade  of  the  Indians  at  Bloody  Brook,  at  Deerfield,  were  from 
this  place. 

The  first  church  was  organized  in  1667.  and  the  Rev.  John  Hale, 
the  first  pastor,  was  ordained  at  the  formation  of  the  church.  The 
duties  of  the  sexton  of  the  church,  about  this  period,  as  they  appear 
on  the  town  book,  were  "  to  ring  the  bell  at  nine  o'clock  every 
night  a  sufficient  space  of  time  as  is  usual  in  other  places,"  and 
"  keep  and  turn  the  glass."  An  hourglass  was  kept  near  the  pulpit, 
in  view  of  the  minister.  He  was  expected  to  close  his  sermon  in 
the  course  of  an  hour,  and  if  he  went  over  or  fell  short  of  the  time 
it  was  a  sufficient  cause  for  complaint.  Mr.  Hale  died  in  1700. 
His  successor  was  the  Rev.  Thomas  Blowers,  who  was  ordained 
in  1701,  and  died  1729.  Rev.  Joseph  Champney  succeeded  Mr. 
Blowers,  was  ordained  1729,  and  died  in  1773.  His  successor 
was  Rev.  Joseph  Willard,  who  was  ordained  1772,  and  dismissed 
in  1781,  he  having  been  elected  president  of  Harvard  University. 

108  BOXFORD. 

He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Joseph  McKeen,  who  was  ordained 
in  1785,  and  dismissed  by  mutual  consent  in  1802.  In  1803  Rev. 
Ab'>I  Abbot  was  installed,  and  died  1828.  The  second  Congre- 
gational chur<?h  was  organized,  and  the  first  minister,  the  Rev. 
John  Chipman,  ordained,  in  1715.  The  first  Baptist  church  was 
organized  in  1801.  The  third  Congregational  church  was  organ- 
ized in  1802.  The  society  was  incorporated  in  1803.  The  second 
Baptist  was  of  the  Christian  denomination,  and  was  formed  in 
1828.  The  Rev.  Benjamin  Knight  was  ordained  in  1829.  He 
has  been  dismissed,  and  the  church  have  changed  to  the  Calvinistic 


BOXFORD  was  taken  from  Rowley  in  1685,  and  incorporated 
separate  town.  For  the  last  thirty  years,  the  population  has  re- 
mained nearly  stationary:  in  1800  it  was  852,  in  1830  957,  and  in 
1837  it  was  964.  The  fertility  of  the  soil  is  not  very  great;  but 
the  inhabitants  by  their  industry  have  overcome  many  natural 
deficiencies.  The  main  business  of  the  inhabitants  is  agriculture. 
There  is  a  cotton  factory  in  the  place,  which  does  some  business 
in  the  preparation  of  batting.  Shoemaking  is  also  carried  on  to  a 
considerable  extent.  The  value  of  shoes  manufactured  in  1837 
was  $52,975.  This  place  is  10  miles  from  Ipswich,  13  from 
Newburyport,  and  24  from  Boston.  It  contains  2  postofficeSj  one 
in  the  east,  the  other  in  the  west  parish. 

At  the  commencement  of  the  Revolution,  the  inhabitants  dis- 
played much  ardor  in  the  cause  of  freedom.  At  the  battle  of  Bunkei 
Hill,  eight  persons  from  the  town  were  killed.  The  Hon.  Aaron 
Wood,  a  native  resident  of  this  town,  at  his  death,  which  took  place 
in  1791,  left  a  legacy  of  2,061  dollars  for  the  support  of  Latin  and 
Greek  grammar-schools. 

The  town  enjoys  some  useful  water  privileges,  derived  from  seve- 
ral ponds,  which  form  the  head  waters  of  Rowley  and  Parker 
rivers,  and  the  source  of  a  branch  of  Ipswich  river.  In  1680  the 
manufacture  of  iron  was  commenced  here,  but  the  business  was 
soon  discontinued. 

The  first  Congregational  church  was  organized  in  1702.  The 
Rev.  Thomas  Symmes  was  the  first  pastor ;  he  was  settled  in  1702, 
and  resigned  1708.  The  Rev.  John  Rogers  was  second  pastor;  he 
was  settled  in  1709,  and  left  about  1743,  and  resided  with  his  son  at 
Leominster  till  his  death,  which  took  place  1775.  His  successor 
was  the  Rev.  Elizur  Hoi  yoke,  who  was  settled  in  1759,  preached 
until  1793,  and  died  1806.  He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Isaac 
Briggs,  who  was  installed  in  1808,  resigned  Dec.  3,  1833.  The 
second  Congregational  church  was  organized  in  1736.  The  Rev. 
John  Gushing  was  the  first  pastor.  He  was  settled  in  1736,  and 
died  1772.  His  successor  was  Rev.  Moses  Hale,  who  was  settled 
in  1774,  and  died  1786.  The  next  pastor  was  Dr.  Eaton,  settled 
here  in  1789. 



THIS  town  was  taken  from  Rowley.  Its  first  name  was  called 
Merrimac.  After  that  it  was  known  by  the  name  of  Rowley  Vil- 
lage. In  1^73  it  was  incorporated  by  its  present  name  The 
lands  of  this  town  were  granted  by  the  general  court  to  Rev.  Ezekiel 
Rogers,  first  minister  of  Rowley,  and  others.  In  1658,  a  commit- 
tee of  Rowley  laid  out  tracts  of  land  for  the  Rev.  Samuel  Phillips, 
John  and  Robert  Haseltine,  widow  Mighill.  widow  Hobson, 
Thomas  Kimball.  Joseph  Jewett,  Joseph  Chaplin,  John  Simmons, 
Abraham  Foster,  Jonathan  Hopkinson,  John  Eastman,  James 
Dickinson,  and  Maximilian  Jewett,  had  lands  granted  them. 
These  divided  the  lands  in  various  proportions  in  1671,  and  Avere 
most  of  them  the  first  settlers  of  the  town.  Bradford  is  very  plea- 
santly located  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Merrimac.  The  length 
of  the  town  is  about  six  miles,  and  from  one  to  two  and  a  half 
miles  in  breadth.  It  contains  about  10,000  acres  of  land.  The 
surface  is  uneven  and  the  soil  varied.  Much  of  it  is  of  the  first 
quality,  especially  the  upland,  which  is  verdant  amidst  the  droughts 
of  summer.  Many  of  the  hills  are  considerably  elevated,  from 
which  are  fine  views  of  rural  scenery.  There  are  extensive  forests 
of  oak,  walnut,  pine  and  maple,  with  beds  of  peat,  that  afford  a 
supply  of  fuel  for  the  inhabitants.  The  ponds  in  the  town  arc  well 
stocked  with  pickerel  and  perch.  Salmon  in  small  quantities  are 
yet  taken.  Shad  and  alewivcs  are  taken  in  great  abundance  from 
the  river.  A  handsome  bridge  of  three  arches  connects  this  town 
with  Haverhill.  The  width  of  the  river  is  about  800  feet  at  the 
lower  part  of  the  town,  but  narrower  at  the  upper  part.  The  depth 
of  water  at  low  tide  is  from  four  to  five  feet.  There  are  serious 
impediments  to  navigation,  resulting  from  the  short  turn  in  the 
river  and  the  shoals  between  the  chain  ferry  and  Haverhill ;  but 
hulls  of  vessels  built  at  Bradford  and  Haverhill,  of  the  burthen  of 
400  tons,  have  passed  down,  while  those  of  90  or  100  tons  have 
come  up  loaded.  The  scenery  on  the  banks  of  the  Merrimac,  be- 
tween this  town  and  Haverhill,  is  exceedingly  beautiful.  Ship- 
building is  now  almost  totally  abandoned,  as  easier  labor  and  more 
profit  is  derived  from  the  manufacturing  of  boots  and  shoes,  of 
which  it  is  estimated  that  about  360,000  pairs  arc  made  annuaily. 
The  village  in  Bradford,  on  the  opposite  side  the  Merrimac  from 
Maverhill,  contains  about  30  dwelling-houses  and  a  church.  Brad- 
ford is  30  miles  N.  of  Boston.  Population,  2,275. 

Bradford  Academy,  in  the  west  parish,  Avas  established  i*i  1803. 
Its  location  is  on  an  elevated  site,  and  commands  a  delightful  view 
of  the  surrounding  country,  comprising  the  entire  villages  of  Brad- 
ford and  Haverhill.  The  names  of  Mrs.  Judson  and  tfarriet  New- 
ell, who  were  pupils  in  this  school,  will  not  soon  be  forgotten  by 
the  Christian  world.  This  academy  is  extensively  known,  and 
has  been  generally  attended  by  a  large  number  of  pupils.  Merri- 
mac Academy  is  located  in  the  east  parish,  and  was  established 
in  1821,  and  is  in  successful  operation. 


At  the  time  of  the  Indian  wars  the  people  were  much  alarmed 
for  their  safety,  and  fortified  three  houses ;  but  they  were  not  much 
molested  by  the  savages.  The  following  is  from  a  discourse  de- 
livered by  Gardner  B.  Perry  in  1820.  He  says : 

"  I  have  found  but  one  record  of  any  violence  experienced  from  them.  This  is  con- 
tained in  a  note  attached  to  one  of  the  town  books,  by  Shnbal  Walker,  who  was  the  town- 
clerk.  He  observes  in  this  note  that  Thomas  Kimball  was  shot  by  an  Indian,  the  third 
of  May,  1676,  and  his  wife  and  five  children,  Joannah  Thomas,  Joseph,  Prescilla  and 
John,  were  carried  captives.  These,  however,  he  observes  in  another  note,  re- 
turned home  again  the  13th  of  June,  the  same  year.  The  house  in  which  Mr.  Kim- 
ball  lived,  stood  on  the  road  leading  to  Boxford,  the  cellar  of  which  may  still  be  seen. 
"It  is  traditionally  reported,"  continues  Mr.  Perry,  "  that  the  Indians  who  committed 
this  violence  set  out  from  their  homes  near  Dracut  with  the  intention  of  killing  some 
one  in  Rowley  who  they  supposed  had  injured  them,  but  finding  the  night  too  far  spent, 
they  did  not  dare  to  proceed  farther,  and  so  revenged  themselves  on  Mr.  Kimball. 
There  was  also  a  Mr.  Nehemiah  Carlton  shot  from  across  the  river,  at  the  time  of  the 
attack  upon  Haverhill ;  and  it  is  said,  further,  that  one  of  the  workmen  employed  in 
felling  timber  on  the  Haverhill  side  of  the  river  was  also  shot.  Besides  these  I  have 
heard  of  no  particular  injury  received  from  them.' 

The  first  burial  in  the  east  parish  burying-place  was  in  1723, 
Mrs.  Martha  Hale.  The  following  is  taken  from  the  foot-stone : 

"  If  you  will  look  it  will  appear 
She  was  the  first  buried  here." 

The  most  remarkable  occurrence  ever  witnessed  here  was  a  great 
freshet  in  1818.  The  snow  had  been  melted  by  a  violent  rain,  which 
rushed  down  the  valley  of  the  Merrimac  with  great  fury,  tearing 
up  the  ice,  which  was  nearly  two  feet  thick,  with  the  noise  and 
convulsions  of  an  earthquake  ;  driven  into  immense  dams,  it  rolled 
and  flew  about  in  every  possible  direction  on  its  way  to  the  ocean. 
The  river  was  raised  21  feet  above  common  high- water  mark. 
The  country  around  was  inundated,  and  in  many  houses  the  water 
was  from  two  inches  to  five  feet  in  depth.  The  ice  was  driven  far 
upon  the  land,  and  pyramids  of  fragments  were  thrown  up  above 
the  level  of  the  flood.  Buildings  were  removed  and  destroyed, 
cattle  and  sheep  were  drowned,  and  ruin  spread  on  all  sides. 

Mr.  Penny  says,  in  his  historical  discourse,  "  that  the  eels  go  up 
the  river  the  beginning  of  May  in  a  ribband  or  stream  of  about  a 
foot  wide  upon  the  average,  and  three  or  four  inches  in  depth,  and 
every  year  in  the  same  course.  They  are  from  two  to  six  inches 
in  length,  move  with  considerable  velocity,  and  continue  to  pass 
along  without  interruption  for  about  four  days.  Almost  an  incon- 
ceivable number  must  pass  during  this  time."  They  are  said  to 
be  from  the  ocean,  and  are  said  to  pass  into  the  ponds  and  brooks 
connected  with  the  river. 

The  first  Congregational  church,  located  in  the  west  parish,  was 
organized  in  1682.  The  first  pastor  was  Rev.  Zachariah  Symmes, 
who  was  settled  in  1682,  died  1707.  He  was  succeeded  by  his 
son,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Symmes,  in  1708,  who  died  in  1725.  The 
Rev.  Joseph  Parsons  succeeded  Mr.  Symmes,  and  was  settled  in 
1726,  and  died  in  1765.  The  next  was  the  Rev.  Samuel  Williams, 
who  was  settled  in  1765,  and  resigned  in  1780.  His  successor  was 

D  A  N  V  E  R  S.  171 

Rev.  Jonathan  Allen,  who  was  settled  in  1781.  The  sixth  pastor 
was  the  Rev.  Ira  Ingraham,  who  settled  here  in  1824,  resigned  in 
1830.  The  seventh  pastor  was  the  Rev.  Loammi  J.  Hoadly.  who 
was  settled  in  1830,  resigned  January,  1833.  His  successor  was 
the  Rev.  Moses  C.  Searle,  who  was  settled  in  1833,  and  resigned 
in  1834. 

The  second  Congregational  church,  in  the  east  parish,  was  formed 
in  1728.     The  Methodist  society  was  established  in  1832. 


DANVERS  was  formerly  a  part  of  Salem,  known  by  the  name  of 
Salem  village.  It  was  settled  by  Gov.  Endicott  and  his  associates 
in  1628.  The  settlement  was  incorporated  as  a  district  in  1752, 
and  as  a  town  June  16,  1757.  Tradition  says  it  received  its  name 
from  Earl  D' Anvers,  a  nobleman  in  the  north  of  England,  but  why 
his  name  was  adopted  does  not  appear.*  The  population  of  the 
town  in  1837  was  4,804.  There  are  seven  houses  of  public  wor- 
ship, viz.,  2  Congregational,  2  Universalist,  1  Unitarian,  1  Baptist, 
and  1  Methodist.  The  principal  village  in  Danvers  is  large  and 
thickly  settled  ;  its  principal  street  joins  the  main  street  in  Salem, 
forming  but  one  continuous  settlement.  The  New  Mills  village, 
situated  at  the  head  of  navigation  on  Porter  river,  in  the  north- 
eastern part  of  the  township,  was  settled  in  1754.  During  the 
revolutionary  war,  four  20  gun  ships,  and  eight  or  ten  privateers, 
were  built  here.  In  1837,  there  were  manufactured  in  this  town 
14,000  pairs  of  boots,  615.000  pairs  of  shoes;  the  value  of  boots 
and  shoes  was  §435.900;  males  employed,  666;  females,  411. 
There  were  28  tanneries :  hides  tanned,  66.200 ;  value  of  the  lea- 
ther tanned  and  curried.  $264,400;  hands  employed,  110;  capital 
invested,  §203,700.  There  were  3  manufactories  of  morocco;  skins 
manufactured,  98,000,  valued  at  $39.400;  hands  employed,  35; 
capital  invested,  $30,000.  Nails,  chocolate,  bricks  and  various 
other  articles  are  manufactured  here.  The  center  of  the  princi- 
pal village  is  about  two  miles  distant  from  the  central  part  of 
Salem,  and  about  15  from  Boston.  There  are  two  banks,  the 
Danvers  Bank,  incorporated  in  1825,  capital  $150,000 ;  the  War- 
ren Bank,  incorporated  in  1832,  capital  $120,000;  and  an  insu- 
rance company,  incorporated  in  1829. 

The  inhabitants  of  Danvers  have  always  been  distinguished  for 
their  patriotism,  and  its  citizens  bore  their  full  share  in  the  great 
contest  of  the  Revolution.  Gen.  Israel  Putnam,  so  celebrated  for 
his  courage  and  his  important  services  in  the  French,  Indian,  and 
Revolutionary  wars,  was  a  native  of  Danvers.  Col.  Hutchinson, 
another  commander  in  the  revolutionary  army  from  this  town,  re- 
ceived the  marked  approbation  of  Washington  for  his  services  at 
the  crossing  of  the  Delaware.  He  also  commanded  a  company  at 

*  The  author  is  indebted  to  Mr.  Poole  for  a  number  of  particulars  respecting  the  his 
tory  of  this  town. 

172  DANVERS. 

the  siege  and  capture  of  Quebec  by  Gen.  Wolfe,  and  was  at  Lake 
George,  and  at  the  defeat  of  Ticonderoga,  with  Gen.  Abercrombie. 
At  the  battle  of  Lexington  he  commanded  a  company  of  minute 
men.  Jeremiah  Page,  another  hero  from  this  town,  commanded 
a  company  at  Lexington,  and  afterwards  became  a  colonel  in  the 
army.  Capt.  Samuel  Page  also  fought  at  Lexington,  and  com- 
manded a  company  in  the  revolutionary  army.  Gen.  Gideon  Fos- 
ter, another  commander  at  the  battle  of  Lexington,  still  survives,  at 
the  age  of  90  years. 

Southern  werv  of  the  Collins  House,  Danvers. 

As  early  as  June  5th,  1774;  General  Gage,  the  royal  governor, 
came  here  from  Boston  with  two  companies  of  the  king's  troops, 
from  Castle  William,  belonging  to  the  64th  regiment,  and  had  his 
head-quarters  at  the  mansion  of  Hon.  R.  Hooper,  since  the  pro- 
perty of  the  late  Judge  Collins,  of  which  the  above  cut  is  a  repre- 
sentation. The  troops  were  encamped  about  the  house;  but  they 
had  been  there  scarcely  three  months  before  the  rebellious  spirit 
of  the  people  became  so  manifest  that  a  large  part  of  this  force  was 
kept  under  arms  every  night,  to  prevent  a  surprise,  and  on  the 
10th  of  September  Gov.  Gage  marched  back  to  Boston. 

It  was  in  the  vicinity  of  this  house  that  the  witchcraft  excitement 
of  1692  first  manifested  itself.  In  Felt's  Annals  of  Salem,  it  is 
thus  noticed:  [Feb.]  "25th.  Tituba,  an  Indian  servant  of  Rev. 
S.  Parris,  is  complained  of  for  witchcraft.  Before  this,  John,  her 
husband,  another  Indian  servant  of  Mr.  P.,  had  been  persuaded  by 
Mary  Sibley  to  make  a  superstitious  experiment  for  discovering 
persons,  who,  they  supposed,  secretly  afflicted  Mr.  P.'s  daughter, 
Elizabeth,  M.  9,  and  his  niece  Abigail  Williams,  M.  11,  and  Ann 
Putnam,  a  girl  of  the  neighborhood.  March  1st.  Sarah  Osborn, 
Sarah  and  Dorothy  Good,  Tituba,  servant  of  Mr.  Parris,  Martha 
Cory,  Rebecca  Nurse,  Sarah  Cloyce,  John  Proctor  and  his  wife 
Elizabeth,  all  of  Salem  village,  are  committed  to  Boston  jail,  on 
charge  of  witchcraft,  llth.  Mr.  Parris  and  other  ministers  observe 
a  Fast  at  Salem  village  because  witchcraft  had  appeared  there. — 

DAN  VERB.  173 

Mary  Sibley,  having  confessed  that  she  innocently  councilled  John, 
the  Indian,  to  attempt  a  discovery  of  witches,  is  permitted  to  com- 
mune with  Mr.  P.'s  church.  She  had  been  previously  disciplined 
for  such  council  and  appeared  well." 

The  following  statement  is  from  the  records  of  the  first  church, 
where  it  appears  in  Mr.  Parris'  own  hand-writing. 

"27th  March,  Sab.  1692.     Sacrament  Pay. 

"After  the  common  auditory  were  dismissed,  and  before  the  church  communion  of 
the  Lord's  table,  the  following  Testimony  against  the  Error  of  our  sister  Mary  Sibley 
who  had  given  direction  to  my  Indian  man  in  an  unwarrantable  way  to  find  out 
witches,  was  read  by  the  Pastor.  It  is  altogether  undenyable  that  our  great  and 
blessed  God  hath  suffered  many  persons,  in  several  Families  of  this  little  village,  to 
be  grievously  vexed  and  tortured  in  body,  and  to  be  deeply  tempted,  to  the  endanger- 
ing of  the  destruction  of  their  souls,  and  all  these  amazing  facts  (well  known  to  many 
of  us)  to  be  done  by  Witchcraft  and  Diabolical  Operations.  It  is  also  well  known 
that  when  these  calamities  first  began,  which  was  in  my  own  family,  the  affliction 
xvas  several  weeks  before  such  hellish  operations  as  Witchcraft  was  suspected.  Nay 
it  never  brake  forth  to  any  considerable  light  until  diabolical  means  was  used  by  the 
making  of  a  cake  by  my  Indian  man,  who  had  his  directions,  from  this  our  sister 
Mary  Sibley,  since  which  apparitions  have  been  plenty,  and  exceeding  much  mischief 
hath  followed.  But  by  this  means  it  seems  the  Devil  hath  been  raized  amongst  us, 
and  his  rage  is  vehement  and  terrible,  and  when  he  shall  be  silenced  the  Lord  only 

The  First  Congregational  church  was  located  in  the  north 
parish,  and  organized  1671.  Rev.  James  Bailey  was  the  first 
pastor;  he  was  settled  in  1671,  and  resigned  1680.  His  successor 
\vas  the  Rev.  George  Burroughs,  who  was  settled  1680,  and  re- 
signed 1683,  and  on  the  19th  August,  1692,  was  executed  for 
witchcraft  on  "Gallows  Hill,"  Salem.  He  was  succeeded  by 
the  Rev.  Deodab  Lawson  in  1683,  who  resigned  in  1688.  The 
next  in  order  was  Rev.  Samuel  Parris,  who  was  settled  in  1689, 
and  resigned  in  1696.  It  was  in  Mr.  Parris'  family  that  witch- 
craft excitement  first  made  its  appearance.  His  successor  was 
the  Rev.  Joseph  Green,  who  was  settled  in  1698,  and  died  1715. 
The  Rev.  Peter  Clark  succeeded  him  in  1717,  and  died  in  1768. 
His  successor,  Rev.  Benjamin  Wadsworth,  was  settled  1772,  and 
died  1826. 

The  Second  Congregational  church,  located  in  the  south  parish, 
was  organized  in  1713.  The  Baptist  society  was  organized  1793, 
located  at  New  Mills.  The  Unitarian  society  was  incorporated  in 
1825.  The  Rev.  Mr.  Sewall  was  settled  in  1827.  This  church  is 
located  at  south  parish.  The  First  Universalist  church,  located 
at  New  Mills,  organized  in  1829.  Pastor,  Rev.  William  Henry 
Knapp,  installed  1834.  Second  Universalist,  located  in  south 
parish.  The  Methodist  society  was  recently  organized.  • 

The  public  acts  of  the  inhabitants  of  Danvers  in  those  fearful 
times  immediately  preceding  the  open  rupture  with  the  mother 
country,  as  shown  by  their  town  records,  display  an  ardor  and  de- 
termination in  view  of  the  great  struggle  before  them,  unsurpassed 
in  any  other  part  of  the  country.  These  acts  were  followed  by 
prompt  personal  effort  and  the  sacrifice  of  the  best  blood  of  her 
.sons.  Of  those  who  fell  at  the  battle  of  Lexington  one  sixth  part 

174  DANVERS. 

were  inhabitants  of  this  town.  A  monument  to  their  memory  was 
laid  in  1835,  on  the  60th  anniversary  of  the  battle,  by  Gen.  Gideon 
Foster,  one  of  the  survivors,  and  captain  of  a  company  of  minute 
men  from  this  town,  which  fought  on  that  day.  Gen.  Foster  then 
addressed  the  multitude  assembled  to  witness  the  ceremony,  among 
which  were  nineteen  survivors  of  the  revolutionary  army ;  after 
which  religious  services  were  performed,  and  an  address  delivered 
by  Danl.  P.  King,  Esq.,  in  that  ancient  church  where  sixty  years 
before  religious  services  were  had  over  the  remains  of  the  slain. 

"  The  occasion  will  long  be  remembered, — as  calculated  to 
deepen  our  feelings  of  veneration  for  the  events  commemorated — 
for  the  exercise  of  generous  feelings  in  the  discharge  of  an  honor 
due  to  the  glorious  dead, — and  the  ceremonies  of  the  day  will  re- 
mind us  of  our  obligations  to  those  who  spilled  their  blood  in  the 
first  offering  at  the  shrine  of  liber ty." 

Monument  and  Bell  Tavern,  Danvers. 

The  above  is  a  view  of  the  monument,  which  is  built  of  hewn 
sienite,  is  22  feet  in  height  and  7  feet  broad  at  the  base.  It  was 
completed  in  1837,  at  an  expense  somewhat  exceeding  $1,000. 
The  following  inscriptions,  carved  in  Italian  marble,  appear  on  two 
sides  of  the  monument. 

[On  the  east.] 

Battle  of  Lexington,  April  19th,  1775.     Samuel  Cook,  aged  33  years  ;  Benj.  Daland. 
25  ;  George  Southwick,  25  ;  Jotham  Webb,  22  ;  Henry  Jacobs,  22  •   Ebenr.  Gold- 
thwait,  22  ;  Perley  Putnam,  21 ;  Citizens  of  Delivers,  fell  on  that  day. 
Dulce  et  decorum  est  pro  patria  mori. 

[On  the  reverse.] 
Erected  by  Citizens  of  Danvers  on  the  60th  Anniversary,  1835. 

In  the  back-ground  is  a  view  of  an  ancient  building  which  was 
formerly  much  celebrated  as  the  Old  Bell  Tavern,  for  many  years 
kept,  by  a  Mr.  Francis  Symonds,  who,  besides  being  the  landlord, 
claimed  the  honor  of  being  the  poet  laureate  of  the  village.  A 

E  S  S  E  3  .  175 

wooden  representation  of  a  bell  hung  from  his  sign-post,  on  which 
he  caused  to  be  inscribed, 

"  I'll  toll  you  in  if  you  have  need 
And  feed  you  well  and  bid  you  speed." 

To  the  business  of  publican  he  united  that  of  chocolate  dealer, 
and  on  a  sign  projecting  from  the  post  below  the  bell,  was  the  fol- 
lowing couplet : 

"  Francis  Symonds  makes  and  sells 
The  best  of  Chocolate,  also  Shells." 

This  house  was  formerly  a  place  of  much  resort,  it  being  on  the 
great  thoroughfare  from  the  east  and  north  to  Boston.  It  was 
here  that  the  Salem  regiment,  under  the  late  Col.  Timo.  Pickering, 
halted  for  refreshment  on  their  march  to  Bunker  Hill  on  the  17th 
of  June,  1775. 

It  may  not  be  uninteresting  to  state  that  this  ancient  building 
was  once  the  temporary  residence  of  Elizabeth  Whitman,  whose 
singular  history  in  fictitious  narrative,  and  under  the  fictitious 
name  of  Eliza  Wharton,  has  excited  so  much  interest  with  read- 
ers of  romance.  It  was  here  she  lived  a  transient  visiter,  a  mys- 
tery to  all,  and  here,  among  strangers,  she  died.  She  is  described 
by  those  who  saw  her  as  a  lady  of  agreeable  manners  and  con- 
versation, of  strong  mind,  intelligent  and  accomplished.  In  form 
she  was  above  the  common  height,  and  had  considerable  personal 
beauty.  Her  fate  appears  to  have  excited  much  sympathy  in  the 
village,  and  her  remains  were  followed  by -a  large  number  of  the 
inhabitants  to  the  village  burial-ground,  where  the  mutilated  head- 
stone of  her  grave  still  remains.  The  foot-stone  has  long  since 
been  entirely  demolished  by  the  depredations  of  visiters,  who  make 
their  pilgrimages  to  the  spot  and  carry  away  some  portion  as  a 
relic,  and,  unless  some  measures  are  taken  to  prevent  it,  the  re- 
maining stone  will  also  soon  disappear.  These  monuments  to  her 
memory  are  made  from  a  reddish  freestone,  and  were  placed  at  her 
grave  by  some  unknown  friends  of  the  deceased.  The  head-stone 
bears  the  following  inscription,  which  differs  from  that  recorded 
in  the  book  purporting  to  be  her  history,  only  in  the  name. 

"  This  humble  stone  in  memory  of  ELIZABETH  WHITMAN,  is  inscribed  by  her  weep- 
ing friends  to  whom  she  endeared  herself  by  uncommon  tenderness  and  affection. 
Endowed  with  superior  genius  and  acquirements,  she  was  still  more  endeared  by 
humility  and  benevolence.  Let  candor  throw  a  veil  over  her  frailties,  for  great  was 
her  charity  to  others.  She  sustained  the  last  painful  scene  far  from  every  friend,  and 
exhibited  an  example  of  calm  resignation.  Her  departure  was  on  the  25th  of  July, 
A.  D.  1788,  in  the  37th  year  of  her  age,  and  the  tears  of  strangers  watered  her  grave." 


ESSEX  was  for  121  years  a  parish  of  the  ancient  town  of  Ipswich, 
and  was  called  Chebacco.  It  became  a  separate  town  in  3819. 
The  fishing  business  was  formerly  extensively  carried  on  in  this 



town.  It  is  well  situated  for  ship-building.  During  five  years 
preceding  1837,  there  were  220  vessels  built,  the  tonnage  of  which 
was  12,500  tons ;  valued  at  $337,500 ;  hands  employed  in  ship- 
building, 120.  There  were  14  vessels  employed  in  the  cod  and 
mackerel  fishery.  The  timber  for  ship-building  is  rafted  from  the 
Merrimac  into  Plum  Island  Sound,  and  thence  through  a  canal 
which  has  been  cut  across  the  marshes  from  Ipswich  bay.  The 
farms  in  Essex  are  good.  Much  fruit  is  raised,  and  many  tons  of 
hay  annually  sold  in  the  Boston  and  Salem  markets.  Another 
source  of  profit,  to  some  of  the  inhabitants,  are  the  clam-banks  of 
Essex.  Upwards  of  a  thousand  barrels  of  clams  are  dug  here 
annually,  and  sold  (exclusive  of  barrels  and  salt)  for  $2,50  to  $3 
per  barrel.  There  is  one  fact  which  is  indicative  of  the  attach- 
ment of  the  people  to  the  place :  that  of  196  families,  of  which  the 
town  consisted  in  1820,  fifty- two  were  of  the  name  of  Burnham, 
and  a  large  proportion  of  the  residue  were  of  the  names  of  Cogs- 
well and  Choate.  The  village  in  the  central  part  of  the  town 
consists  of  about  50  dwelling-houses  and  two  churches,  about  5 
miles  from  Ipswich,  and  25  from  Boston.  Population  of  the  town, 

A  Congregational  church  was  formed  here  in  1681.  The  next 
year  the  Rev.  John  Wise  was  ordained  pastor.  His  successor  was 
Rev.  Theophilus  Pickering,  who  was  settled  in  1725.  In  1745, 
the  second  society  was  formed,  and  in  1747  the  Rev.  John  Cleave- 
land  was  ordained  pastor.  In  1774,  the  two  churches  united  under 
Mr.  Cleaveland.  Rev.  Josiah  Webster  succeeded  Mr.  Cleaveland 
in  1799.  His  successor  was  Rev.  Thomas  Holt,  who  was  installed 
1809.  The  Rev.  Robert  Crowell  was  settled  1814. 

The  Christian  society  was  organized  in  1808,  and  their  house 
erected  1809. 

A  Universalist  society  was  formed  1829. 


THIS  town  Avas  incorporated  in  1838,  previous  to  which  it  was 
the  western  part  of  Rowley,  and  called  New  Rowley.  It  appears 
that  the  first  Congregational  church  in  this  town  was  organized  in 
1731,  and  the  first  pastor  was  James  Chandler,  a  native  of  Ando- 
ver,  who  settled  here  in  1732,  and  died  in  1788.  The  highest  land 
in  the  county  is  "  Bald  Pate"  From  this  elevation  an  extensive 
and  delightful  view  may  be  obtained,  comprehending  a  portion  of 
the  valley  of  the  Merrimac,  and  the  adjacent  settlements, '  toge- 
ther with  the  beautiful  town  of  Haverhill. 


GLOUCESTER  is  a  maritime  town,  comprising  Cape  Ann,  and 
an  inland  parish.  This  promontory  was  named  Cape  Ann,  by 
Prince  Charles,  out  of  respect  to  his  mother.  It  is  joined  to  the 


main  land  by  a  narrow  isthmus  of  about  fifty  yards  wide,  called  the 
Cut,  over  which  the  road  passes  into  the  harbor.  The  name  Cut 
was  derived  from  an  early  grant,  in  these  words :  "  Upon  the  26th 
of  the  5th  month,  1643,  it  is  ordered  that  Mr.  Richard  Blynman, 
Pastor,  is  to  cut  the  beach  through  and  to  maintaine  it,  and  hath 
given  him  three  ackers  of  upland,  and  hee  is  to  have  the  benefit  to 
himself  and  his  forever,  giveing  the  Inhabitantes  of  the  town  free 
passage."  This  afforded  an  easier  and  shorter  passage  to  vessels 
bound  to  or  from  the  eastward. 

In  1624,  the  Dorchester  (Eng.)  company  commenced  a  fishing 
and  planting  station  here.  Thomas  Gardner  was  appointed  over- 
seer of  the  planting,  and  John  Tilley  of  the  fishing,  that  year.  Ro- 
ger Conant,  who  had  been  appointed  overseer  of  both  departments, 
removed  here  the  year  after,  bringing  Lyford  as  minister,  with 
others.  But  this  settlement  was  broken  up  in  1626,  and  Conant, 
with  most  of  the  company,  removed  to  Salem.  A  few  years  after, 
a  permanent  settlement  was  formed  here  by  the  Rev.  Mr.  Blynman, 
an  ejected  minister  of  Wales,  with  about  fifty  others.  In  1639,  the 
place  was  incorporated  as  a  fishing  plantation.  In  1642,  Glouces- 
ter was  created  a  town  by  the  general  court.  It  was  named  after 
Gloucester,  England,  the  native  place  of  some  of  the  first  settlers. 

First  Parish,  or  Harbor. — The  first  church  was  formed  in  1642,  and  for  many  years  its  location  waa 
in  the  Town  parish.  It  was  the  19th  church  gathered  in  Massachusetts  Bay. 

In  1738,  a  new  meeting-house  was  erected  by  the  society  at  the  Harbor.  Its  pastors  have  been,  Rev. 
Richard  Blyman,  settled  in  1642;  Rev.  John  Emerson,  in  1658;  Rev.  John  White,  in  1703;  Rev.  Samuel 
Chandler,  in  1751 ;  Rev.  Eli  Forbes,  in  1776 ;  Rev.  Perez  Lincoln,  in  1805  ;  Rev.  Levi  Hartshorn,  in  1815 ; 
Rev.  Hosea  Hildreth,  in  1825;  Rev.  Luther  Hamilton,  in  1834;  Rev.  Josiah  K.  Waite,  in  1836.  This 
church  is  now  Unitarian.  The  Universalist  Society  was  formed  in  1774,  under  the  preaching  of  Rev. 
John  Murray,  the  first  teacher  of  that  denomination.  In  1792  it  was  incorporated  as  the  Independent 
Christian  Society.  Rev.  Thomas  Jones,  first  pastor,  was  settled  1804 ;  Rev.  Daniel  D.  Smith  as  colleague 
pastor  in  1838.  since  dismissed.  The  Baptist  Church  was  organized  in  1830.  Rev.  Samuel  Adlam  settled 
in  1831:  Rev.  William  Lamson  in  1837;  Rev.  J.  A.  B.  Stone  in  1839.  The  Methodist  Society  was  or* 
ganized  in  1826 ;  church  built  in  1827.  The  Evangelical  Congregational  Church  was  organized  in  1829. 
Rev.  Charles  Porter  was  settled  in  1831 ;  Rev.  Christopher  M.  Nickels  in  1835. 

Second,  or  West  Parish.— The  Congregational  Society  was  organized  in  1716.  Pastors :  Rev.  Samuel 
Thompson  was  settled  in  1716;  Rev.  Richard  Jacques  in  1725;  Rev.  Daniel  Fuller  in  1770.  A  large 
majority  of  the  society  having  become  Universalists,  the  meeting-house  and  other  property  of  the  society 
have  since  belonged  to  that,  denomination. 

The  church  has  been  revived  by  the  addition  of  members  to  the  few  persons  that  remained  of  the  old 
church,  and  a  new  meeting-house  was  built  in  1834,  and  Rev.  Isaac  Brown  was  ordained  In  1340.  This 
is  called  the  Trinitarian  Congregational  Church  and  Society. 

Third,  or  Squam  Parish.— It  was  incorporated  in  1728.  Pastors  :  Rev.  Benjamin  Bradstreet  was  set- 
tled in  1728;  Rev.  John  Wyeth  in  1766;  Rev.  Obadiah  Parsons  in  1772;  Rev.  Ezra  Leonard  in  1804. 
Mr.  Leonard  was  ordained  as  a  Congregational  minister,  but  in  1815  he  embraced  the  Universalist  doc- 
trine, and  the  society  is  now  of  that  order.  The  Christian  Society  was  organized  in  1810.  It  has  since 
become  a  Baptist  Society.  Rev.  Epes  Davis  was  settled  in  1813.  This  society  is  now  almost  extinct. 
The  Congregational  Society  at  Lane's  Cove,  Squam  Parish,  was  formed  in  1828.  Chutch  organized  in 
1830.  Pastors :  Rev.  Moses  Sawyer  was  settled  in  1831 ;  Rev.  David  Tilton  in  1840. 

Fourth,,  or  Town  Parish.— The  oldest  in  the  town,  being  the  location  of  the  first  settlers,  and  the 
place  of  worship  and  seat  of  business  for  about  a  century.  In  1742  the  parish  was  divided,  and  the 
northern  part  was  incorporated  and  set  off  as  a  separate  parish,  (the  fourth.)  Rev.  John  Rogers  was 
ordained  in  1744,  died  in  1782.  Since  that  period  there  has  been  no  regular  ordained  minister,  and  the 
society  is  now  extinct.  A  Methodist  church  was  set  off  from  the  Harbor  church  in  1838,  and  a  meeting- 
house was  erected  the  same  year. 

The  town  of  Gloucester  comprises  two  villages.     The  Harbor, 



so  called,  is  the  principal  village,  and  is  finely  located  on  the  south 
side  of  the  cape.     The  engraving  shows  the  appearance  of  the  vil- 

South-western  view  of  Gloucester. 

lage  as  it  is  approached  from  the  south-west.  The  settlement  is 
compact ;  many  of  the  houses  are  built  of  brick.  The  sea  views 
from  this  place  are  very  extensive,  and  rarely  equalled  in  grandeur 
and  sublimity  by  any  on  the  coast,  and  the  inhabitants  truly  dwell  at 

"  the  noise  of  the  sounding  surge !  when  the  dark  rolling  wave  is  near,  with  its  back 
of  foam ! " 

The  village  of  Sandy  Bay  is  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  cape, 
about  five  miles  from  the  Harbor.  A  pier  and  breakwater  have  been 
constructed  here  for  the  security  of  shipping.  The  village  of  Squam 
is  on  the  north  side  of  the  cape,  about  five  miles  from  the  Harbor. 
Opposite  this  place  is  the  sand  beach,  which  once  supplied  with 
sand  all  the  towns  from  Portsmouth  to  Boston,  at  the  time  when  it 
\vas  used  on  floors  instead  of  paint  or  carpets. 

The  mackerel  fishery  is  carried  on  to  a  great  extent  in  this  town. 
The  following  is  an  account  of  the  business  that  has  been  done  in 
this  branch  in  the  years  1832,  '33  and  '34.  The  year  1835  was  an 
unfortunate  year  to  the  mackerel  catchers.  There  were  inspected 
in  1832,  8,138  barrels  of  No.  1,  and  6,202  half  barrels;  of  No.  2, 
15,421  barrels  and  7,163  half  barrels;  of  No.  3,  15,010  barrels  and 
547  half  barrels.  In  1834,  there  were  inspected  of  No.  1,  18.835 
barrels,  and  9,432  half  barrels;  of  No.  2,  20,638  barrels,  and  6^591 
half  barrels;  of  No.  3,  13,763  barrels,  and  143  half  barrels. 

The  following  is  from  the  state  Statistical  Tables  in  1837.  Ves- 
sels employed  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery,  221 ;  tonnage  of  the 
same,  9,824;  cod-fish  caught,  55,181  quintals;  value  of  the  same, 
$186,516;  mackerel  caught,  43,934  barrels;  value  of  the  same, 
$335,566;  salt  used  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery,  113,760 
bushels;  hands  employed,  1,580;  capital  invested,  $349,000. 


Immense  quarries  of  light  and  gray  granite  are  found  in  this 
town ;  this  is  split  into  regularly  formed  blocks.  It  is  of  a  fine 
grain,  easily  dressed,  and  can  be  loaded  into  vessels  at  little  expense. 
There  is  an  increasing  demand  for  it.  The  quarries  employ  about 
three  hundred  men,  who  get  out  about  100,000  tons  yearlv,  and 
this  is  sold  at  an  average  price  of  $2  per  ton.  Gloucester  Bank 
commenced  operation  in  1796,  with  a  capital  of  $40,000,  and  it 
was  incorporated  Jan.  27,  1800.  Subsequent  acts  of  the  legisla- 
ture increased  the  capital  to  $200,000,  its  present  amount.  Here  is 
an  insurance  company,  with  a  capital  of  $100,000,  and  an  institu- 
tion for  savings.  There  is  a  newspaper  printed  in  this  place, 
called  the  Gloucester  Telegraph.  There  are  14  churches  in  this 
town,  of  which  5  are  Universalist,  4  Orthodox,  3  Baptist,  1  Unita- 
rian, and  1  Methodist.  Five  are  located  in  the  Harbor  parish,  2 
in  the  West  parish,  3  in  Squam,  1  in  Town  parish,  and  3  in  Sandy 

It  has  been  stated  in  some  ancient  publications  that  lions  have 
been  seen  in  this  section  of  country.  William  Wood,  the  author 
of  "New  England's  Prospect,"  says,  concerning  lions,  "I  will  not 
say  that  I  ever  saw  any  myself,  but  some  affirm  that  they  have 
seen  a  lion  at  Cape  Ann,  which  is  not  above  ten  leagues  from  Bos- 
ton. Some  likewise  being  lost  in  the  woods,  have  heard  such  ter- 
rible roarings,  as  have  made  them  much  aghast ;  which  must  be 
either  devils  or  lions,  there  being  no  other  creatures  which  use  to 
roar,  saving  bears,  which  have  not  such  a  terrible  kind  of  roaring." 

This  place  was  visited  by  a  severe  storm  in  August,  1635,  in 
which  a  melancholy  shipwreck  took  place.  There  had  been  a 
strong  wind  blowing  from  the  south  and  south-east  for  a  week;  at 
midnight  it  changed  to  the  north-east,  when  a  tremendous  storm 
set  in.  Trees  were  torn  up  by  their  roots,  vessels  were  driven  from 
their  anchorage,  and  houses  were  blown  down.  The  tide  rose 
twenty  feet  in  height.  During  the  storm,  Mr.  Allerton's  bark  was 
cast  away  upon  the  cape,  twenty-one  persons  were  drowned,  of 
which  number  was  the  Rev.  Mr.  A  very,  of  Wiltshire,  (Eng.)  with 
his  wife  and  six  small  children.  All  were  lost  except  Mr.  Thacher 
and  his  wife,  who  were  cast  upon  the  shore  of  an  island  and  saved. 
The  island  where  the  two  were  saved  was  afterward  called  Thach- 
er's  Island.  The  rock  on  which  the  vessel  struck  is  still  called 
Avery's  rock.  In  1671,  a  whirlwind  of  about  forty  feet  in  breadth 
passed  through  the  neck  that  makes  one  side  of  the  harbor,  bearing 
all  before  it  with  such  power  that  a  large  rock  in  the  harbor  came 
near  being  overturned. 

In  1692,  memorable  in  the  annals  of  mystery,  many  strange  oc- 
currences took  place  at  Gloucester. 

The  people  thought  they  saw  armed  Frenchmen  and  Indians  running  about  their 
houses  and  fields  ;  these  they  often  shot  at  when  within  a  short  distance ;  the  shot  ap- 
peared to  take  effect,  so  much  so  as  to  cause  them  to  fall,  but  on  coming  up  they  rose 
and  ran  away.  The  "  unaccountable  troublers"  in  return  shot  at  the  inhabitants  of 
the  town,  who  said  that  they  heard  the  shot  whiz  by  their  ears.  One  man  heard  the 
report  of  a  gun,  the  bullet  of  which  whizzed  by  him  and  cut  off  a  pine  bush  near  at 


hand,  and  lodged  in  a  hemlock  tree.  Turning  round,  he  saw  four  men  advancing  to- 
ward him  with  guns  on  their  shoulders.  There  were  others  who  saw  where  the  bullet 
had  lodged  and  cut  off  the  pine  bush.  For  three  weeks  the  alarm  was  so  great  that 
two  regiments  were  raised,  and  a  company  of  sixty  men  from  Ipswich,  under  the  com- 
mand of  Major  Appleton,  was  sent  to  their  succor.  The  Rev.  John  Emerson,  the  cler- 
gyman of  the  town,  says  "  all  rational  persons  will  be  satisfied  that  Gloucester  was  not 
alarmed  for  a  fortnight  together  by  real  Frenchmen  and  Indians,  but  that  the  devil  and 
his  agents  were  the  cause  of  all  that  befel  the  town."  Another  writer  asks  "  whether 
Satan  did  not  set  ambushments  against  the  good  people  of  Gloucester,  with  demons,  in 
the  shape  of  armed  Indians  and  Frenchmen,  appearing  to  a  considerable  number  of  the 
inhabitants,  and  mutually  firing  upon  them  for  the  best  part  of  a  month  together." 

The  following  is  taken  from  a  pamphlet,  entitled  "  Report  of  a 
Committee  of  the  Linnsean  Society  of  New  England,  relative  to  a 
large  Marine  Animal,  supposed  to  be  a  Serpent,  seen  near  Cape 
Ann,  Massachusetts,  August,  1817."  The  letter  is  from  the  Hon. 
Lonson  Nash,  of  Gloucester. 

Gloucester,  Sept.  9, 1817. 

SIR  :  Your  favor  of  the  second  inst.  has  been  received.  The  vote  of  thanks  of  the 
Linnsean  Society  for  my  services  was  highly  gratifying  to  me,  not  simply  on  account 
of  the  high  consideration  I  entertain  for  the  members  of  that  laudable  institution, 
but  likewise  for  the  agreeable  manner  and  respectable  channel  through  which  their  vote 
of  thanks  was  communicated  to  me. 

I  have  seen  and  conversed  with  the  woman  who  was  said  to  have  seen  the  serpent 
dormant  on  the  rocks,  near  the  water,  to  whom  you  refer  in  yours  ;  but  she  can  give 
no  material  evidence.  She  says  that  she  saw  something  resembling  a  large  log  of  wood 
on  the  rocks,  on  the  extreme  eastern  point  of  Ten  Pound  Island,  (a  small  island  in  our 
harbor,)  resting  partly  on  the  rocks  and  partly  in  the  water.  The  distance  was  about 
half  a  mile.  She  took  a  glass,  looked  at  the  object,  and  saw  it  move.  Her  attention 
was  for  a  short  time  arrested  by  some  domestic  avocation,  and  when  she  looked  for  the 
object  again  it  had  disappeared. 

You  request  a  detailed  account  of  my  observations  relative  to  the  serpent.  I  saw 
him  on  the  fourteenth  ultimo,  and  when  nearest  I  judged  him  to  be  about  two  hundred 
and  fifty  yards  from  me.  At  that  distance  I  judged  him  in  the  larger  part  about  the 
size  of  a  half  barrel,  gradually  tapering  towards  the  two  extremes.  Twice  I  saw  him 
with  a  glass,  only  for  a  short  time,  and  at  other  times  with  the  naked  eye  for  nearly 
half  an  hour.  His  color  appeared  nearly  black — his  motion  nearly  vertical.  When 
he  moved  on  the  surface  of  the  water,  the  track  in  his  rear  was  visible  for  at  least  half 
a  mile. 

His  velocity,  when  moving  on  the  surface  of  the  water,  I  judged  was  at  the  rate  of  a 
mile  in  about  four  minutes.  When  immersed  in  the  water,  his  speed  was  greater, 
moving,  I  should  say,  at  the  rate  of  a  mile  in  two,  or  at  most  in  three  minutes.  When 
moving  under  water,  you  could  often  trace  him  by  the  motion  of  the  water  on  the  sur- 
face, and  from  this  circumstance  I  conclude  he  did  not  swim  deep.  He  apparently 
went  as  straight  through  the  water  as  you  could  draw  a  line.  When  he  changed  his 
course,  it  diminished  his  velocity  but  little — the  two  extremes  that  were  visible  appear- 
ed rapidly  moving  in  opposite  directions,  and  when  they  came  parallel  they  appeared  not 
more  than  a  yard  apart.  With  a  glass  I  could  not  take  in  at  one  view  the  two  extremes 
of  the  animal  that  were  visible.  I  have  looked  at  a  vessel  at  about  the  same  distance, 
and  could  distinctly  see  forty-five  feet.  If  he  should  be  taken,  I  have  no  doubt  that 
his  length  would  "be  found  seventy  feet,  at  least,  and  I  should  not  be  surprised  if  he 
should  be  found  one  hundred  feet  long.  When  I  saw  him  I  was  standing  on  an  emi- 
nence on  the  sea-shore,  elevated  about  thirty  feet  above  the  surface  of  the  water,  and  the 
sea  was  smooth.  If  I  saw  his  head  I  could  not  distinguish  it  from  his  body,  though 
there  were  sea-faring  men  near  me  who  said  they  could  distinctly  see  his  head.  I 
believe  they  spoke  truth,  but,  not  having  been  much  accustomed  to  look  through  a 
glass,  I  was  not  so  fortunate. 

I  never  saw  more  than  seven  or  eight  distinct  portions  of  him  above  the  water 
at  any  one  time,  and  he  appeared  rough,  though  I  suppose  this  appearance  was  pro- 
duced by  his  motion.  When  he  disappeared  he  apparently  sunk  directly  down  like  a 
rock.  Capt.  Beach  has  been  in  Boston  for  a  week  past,  and  I  am  informed  that  he  is 


stillthere.  An  engraving  from  his  drawing  of  the  serpent  has  been  or  is  now  making 
in  Boston,  but  I  have  not  been  able  to  ascertain  how  far  his  drawing  is  thought  a 
correct  representation. 

Respectfully,  Sir,  your  most  ob't. 


HAMILTON  was  formerly  a  part  of  Ipswich,  and  was  called  Ips- 
wich  Hamlet  until  1793,  when  it  was  incorporated  as  a  separate 
town.  Agriculture  is  the  principal  employment  of  the  inhabitants, 
though  shoes  are  made  to  a  considerable  extent  annually.  In 
1837,  boots  and  shoes  were  manufactured  to  the  value  of  $14,702. 
Population,  827.  Distance  from  Boston,  26  miles. 

The  town  is  pleasantly  located,  and  the  soil  good  ;  but  the  in- 
habitants are  so  much  scattered  that  there  is  no  compact  village. 
Chebacco  river  takes  its  rise  here,  from  Chebacco  pond,  and  seve- 
ral other  smaller  ponds  near  the  south-east  boundary  of  the  town. 
Wenharn  swamp  extends  into  the  southern  parts  of  the  town.  Ips- 
wich river  runs  along  the  western  border. 

Hamilton  has  only  one  religious  society ;  this  is  Congregational, 
and  was  organized  in  1714,  as  the  third  of  Ipswich.  The  Rev. 
Samuel  Wigglesworth,  the  first  pastor,  was  settled  in  1714,  died  in 
1768.  He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Manasseh  Cutler,  in  1771, 
who  died  in  1823.  His  successor  was  the  Rev.  Joseph  B.  Felt, 
who  was  installed  in  1824,  resigned  in  1833. 

Mr.  Felt  is  author  of  Annals  of  Salem,  History  of  Ipswich,  Ham- 
ilton and  Essex.  The  following  is  an  extract  from  his  history  of 
this  place.  "  There  are  four  families  in  this  town  called  bleeders  ; 
three  of  them  are  immediately  and  the  other  mediately  related. 
The  number  of  individuals  so  denominated  are  five.  They  are 
thus  named  from  an  unusual  propensity  in  their  arteries  and  veins 
to  bleed  profusely,  even  from  slight  wounds.  A  cut  or  other  hurt 
upon  them  assumes  at  first  the  common  appearance ;  but  after 
a  week  or  fortnight  the  injured  part  begins  and  continues,  for  seve- 
ral days,  to  send  forth  almost  a  steady  stream  of  blood,  until  this 
disappears,  and  it  becomes  nearly  as  colorless  as  water.  A  por- 
tion of  the  coagulated  blood  forms  a  cone,  large  or  small  according 
to  the  wound.  The  bleeding  ceases  when  the  cone,  which  has  a 
minute  aperture  and  is  very  fostid,  falls  off.  The  persons  thus 
constituted  dare  not  submit  to  the  operation  of  the  lancet. 
They  often  bleed  abundantly  at  the  nose,  and  are  subject  to  se- 
vere and  premature  rheumatism.  Some  of  their  predecessors  have 
come  to  their  end  by  wounds  which  are  not  considered  by  any 
means  dangerous  for  people  in  general.  This  hemorrhage  first 
appeared  in  the  Appleton  family,  who  brought  it  with  them  from 
England.  None  but  males  are  bleeders,  whose  immediate  children 
are  not  so,  and  whose  daughters  only  have  sons  thus  disposed. 
As  to  the  precise  proportion  of  these  who  may  resemble  their  grand- 
fathers in  bleeding  of  this  kind,  past  observation  furnishes  no  data ; 
it  has  been  found  altogether  uncertain." 



THE  precise  time  of  the  settlement  of  Haverhill  is  not  known. 
Gov.  Winthrop,  in  his  journal,  says,  "  Mo.  3,  1643.  About  this 
time  two  plantations  began  to  be  settled  upon  Merrimack  river : 
Pentuckett,  called  Haverhill,  and  Cochichewick,  called  Andover." 
The  settlement,  it  is  believed,  was  begun  in  1640  or  41.  The  town 
is  said  to  have  been  called  Haverhill  in  compliment  to  Mr.  Ward, 
the  first  minister,  who  was  born  in  Haverhill,  in  Essex  county,  in 
England.  "  The  town  at  first  extended  six  miles  north  of  the 
Merrimack,  and  was  fourteen  miles  upon  the  river.  It  was  inte- 
rested in  the  long  dispute  about  the  boundaries  between  the  pro- 
vinces of  Massachusetts  and  New  Hampshire,  which  was  at  length 
settled  by  commissioners  in  1737.  Col.  Richard  Saltonstall,  Rich- 
ard Hazzen,  and  Dea.  James  Ayer,  represented  the  town  before 
these  commissioners."  The  township  formerly  embraced  within 
its  limits  a  part  of  the  towns  of  Methuen,  Salem,  Atkinson,  and 
the  town  of  Plaistow,  in  New  Hampshire.  The  following  is  a 
copy  of  the  Indian  deed  of  the  town. 

"  Know  all  Men  by  these  Presents,  that  wee  Passaquo  and  Saggahew,  with  the  concent 
of  Passaconnaway,  have  sold  unto  the  inhabitants  of  Pentuckett  all  the  land  wee  have 
in  Pentuckett ;  that  is,  eight  miles  in  length  from  the  little  river  in  Pentuckett  west- 
ward, six  miles  in  length  from  the  aforesaid  river  northward,  and  six  miles  in  length 
from  the  aforesaid  river  eastward,  with  the  islands  and  the  river  that  the  islands  stand 
in,  as  far  in  length  as  the  land  lyes,  as  formerly  expressed,  that  is,  fourteene  myles  in 
length;  and  wee  the  said  Passaquo  and  Saggahew,  with  the  consent  of  Passaconnaway, 
have  sold  unto  the  said  inhabbittants  all  the  right  that  wee  or  any  of  us  have  in  the 
said,  ground,  and  islands  and  river;  and  do  warrant  it  against  all  or  any  other  Indians 
whatsoever,  unto  the  said  inhabbittants  of  Pentuckett,  and  to  their  heirs  and  assigns 
forever.  Dated  fifteenth  day  of  November:  Anno  Dom:  1642.  Witness  our  hands 
and  seals  to  this  bargayne  of  sale,  the  day  and  yeare  above  written,  (in  the  presents  of 
us.)  Wee  the  said  Passaquo  and  Saggahew  have  received  in  hand,  for  and  in  consi- 
deration of  the  same,  three  pounds  and  ten  shillings." 

The  two  Indians  above  named  signed  the  above  by  making  their 
marks,  each  a  bow  and  arrow,  and  is  witnessed  by  John  Ward, 
Robert  Clements,  Tristam  Coffin,  Hugh  Sherrit,  William  White, 
and  Thomas  Davis. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  those  persons  who  accompanied 
Mr.  Ward,  the  minister,  and  began  the  first  settlement  of  Haverhill. 
Those  in  italics  were  from  Newbury.  William  White,  Samuel 
Crile,  James  Davis,  Henry  Palmer,  John  Robinson,  Abraham  Tyler, 
Daniel  Ladd,  Joseph  Merrie,  Christopher  Hursey,  Job  Clement, 
John  Williams,  Richard  Littlehale.  Before  the  town  was  settled, 
it  was  covered  with  a  dense  forest,  except  the  lowlands  or  meadows. 
These  were  cleared  by  the  Indians,  perhaps  centuries  before  the 
arrival  of  the  English  settlers,  and  they  were  covered  with  a  heavy 
growth  of  grass,  so  thick  and  high,  it  is  said,  that  it  was  impossi- 
ble to  discover  man  or  beast  at  a  distance  of  five  rods.  On  account 
of  the  grass,  these  lands  were  prized  above  all  others  by  the  settlers, 
on  account  of  procuring  hay  for  their  cattle.  The  first  house  was 

H  A  V  E  R  H  I  L  L 


erected  near  the  old  burying-ground,  about  one  fourth  of  a  mile 
past  of  the  Haverhill  bridge. 

Eastern  mem  of  Haverhill. 

The  above  shows  the  appearance  of  Haverhill  from  the  road  on 
the  northern  bank  of  the  Merrimac,  as  the  village  is  entered  from 
the  eastward.  Haverhill  bridge,  the  one  seen  in  the  view,  is  hardly 
excelled  by  any  structure  of  the  kind  in  New  England  for  strength 
and  durability.  The  location  of  the  village  is  uncommonly  beau- 
tiful. It  is  built  on  the  south  side  of  a  gentle  acclivity,  which  rises 
gradually  from  the  river,  which  winds  before  it  in  the  form  of  a 
crescent.  Water  and  Main  streets,  the  principal  streets  in  the 
village,  are  somewhat  irregular.  Water  street  is  a  mile  or  more 
in  length;  it  runs  parallel  with  the  river,  and  is  thickly  built  on 
both  sides  with  buildings  of  various  kinds.  Main  street  intersects 
with  Water  street  opposite  the  bridge,  and  runs  north.  On  it  are 
a  number  of  elegant  buildings.  Summer  street,  which  was  opened 
a  few  years  since,  on  the  brow  of  the  hill,  intersecting  Main  street, 
is  the  pleasantest  in  the  village,  and  is  adorned  with  elegant 
dwelling-houses.  The  "  Merrimac  Bank,"  in  this  place,  was 
incorporated  in  1814,  with  a  capital  of  $270,000.  There  is  an 
institution  for  savings,  an  academy,  and  two  printing-offices,  each 
of  which  issues  a  weekly  paper.  There  are  8  houses  of  worship 
in  the  town,  viz.  4  Congregational,  2  Baptist,  1  Universalist,  arid 
1  Christian.  Population,  4,726.  Distance,  14  miles  from  New- 
buryport,  15  from  Ipswich,  30  from  Portsmouth,  and  29  from  Bos- 
ton. In  1837,  there  were  manufactured  in  this  town  12,003  pairs 
of  boots;  1,387,118  pairs  of  shoes;  the  value  of  boots  and  shoes, 
$1,005,424  55;  males  employed,  1,715;  females,  1,170.  There 
were  4  tanneries;  hides  tanned,  8,050;  value  of  leather  tanned 
and  curried,  $115,630,  (part  of  the  leather  tanned  in  other  towns)  ; 
hands  employed,  47.  Six  hat  manufactories ;  hats  manufactured, 
125,593 ;  value  of  hats,  $75,365 ;  males  employed,  83 ;  females, 



39.     One  woollen  mill,  which  manufactured  $78,000's  worth  nf 
woollen  goods. 

For  more  than  seventy  years,  Haverhill  was  a  frontier  town, 
and  often  suffered  the  horrors  of  savage  warfare.  The  following 
accounts  are  taken  from  Mirictfs  History  of  Haverhill,  published 
in  Haverhill,  in  1832.  The  accounts  are  evidently  drawn  up  with 
a  good  deal  of  care  and  accuracy. 

On  the  15th  of  March,  1697,  a  body  of  Indians  made  a  descent  on  the  westerly  part 
of  the  town,  and  approached  the  house  of  Mr.  Thomas  Dustin.  They  came,  as  they 
were  wont,  arrayed  with  all  the  terrors  of  a  savage  war  dress,  with  their  muskets 
charged  for  the  contest,  their  tomahawks  drawn  for  the  slaughter,  and  their  scalpine: 
knives  unsheathed  and  glittering  in  the  sunbeams.  Mr.  Dustin  at  this  time  was 
engaged  abroad  in  his  daily  labor.  When  the  terrific  shouts  of  the  blood-hounds  first 
fell  on  his  ear,  he  seized  his  gun,  mounted  his  horse,  and  hastened  to  his  house,  with 
the  hope  of  escorting  to  a  place  of  safety  his  family,  which  consisted  of  his  wife,  whom 
he  tenderly  and  passionately  loved,  and  who  had  been  confined  only  seven  days  in 
childbed,  her  nurse,  Mrs.  Mary  Neff,  and  eight  young  children.  Immediately 
upon  his  arrival,  he  rushed  into  his  house,  and  found  it  a  scene  of  confusion — 
the  women  trembling  for  their  safety,  and  the  children  weeping  and  calling  on  their 
mother  for  protection.  He  instantly  ordered  seven  of  his  children  to  fly  in  an  oppo- 
site direction  from  that  in  which  the  danger  was  approaching,  and  went  himself  to 
assist  his  wife.  But  he  was  too  late — before  she  could  arise  from  her  bed,  the  enemy 
were  upon  them. 

Mr.  Dustin,  seeing  there  was  no  hope  of  saving  his  wife  from  the  clutches  of  the 
foe,  flew  from  the  house,  mounted  his  horse,  and  rode  full  speed  after  his  flying  chil- 
dren. The  agonized  father  supposed  it  impossible  to  save  them  all,  and  he  determined 
to  snatch  from  death  the  child  which  shared  the  most  of  his  affections.  He  soon  came 
up  with  the  infant  brood  ;  he  heard  their  glad  voices  and  saw  the  cheerful  looks  that 
overspread  their  countenances,  for  they  felt  themselves  safe  while  under  his  protection. 
He  looked  for  the  child  of  his  love — where  was  it  ?  He  scanned  the  little  group  from 
the  oldest  to  the  youngest,  but  he  could  not  find  it.  They  all  fondly  loved  him — they 
called  him  by  the  endearing  title  of  father,  were  flesh  of  his  flesh,  and  stretched  out 
their  little  arms  toward  him  for  protection.  He  gazed  upon  them,  and  faltered  in  his 
resolution,  for  there  was  none  whom  he  could  leave  behind  ;  and,  indeed,  what  parent 
could,  in  such  a  situation,  select  the  child  which  shared  the  most  of  his  affections  ? 
He  could  not  do  it,  and  therefore  resolved  to  defend  them  from  the  murderers,  or  die 
at  their  side. 

A  small  party  of  the  Indians  pursued  Mr.  Dustin  as  he  fled  from  the  house,  and 
soon  overtook  him  and  his  flying  children.  They  did  not,  however,  approach  very 
near,  for  they  saw  his  determination,  and  feared  the  vengeance  of  a  father,  but  skulked 
behind  the  trees  and  fences,  and  fired  upon  him  and  his  little  company.  Mr.  Dustin 
dismounted  from  his  horse,  placed  himself  in  the  rear  of  his  children,  and  returned  the 
fire  of  the  enemy  often  and  with  good  success.  In  this  manner  he  retreated  for  more 
than  a  mile,  alternately  encouraging  his  terrified  charge,  and  loading  and  firing  his 
gun,  until  he  lodged  them  safely  in  a  forsaken  house.  The  Indians,  finding  that  they 
could  not  conquer  him,  returned  to  their  companions,  expecting,  no  doubt,  that  they 
should  there  find  victims,  on  which  they  might  exercise  their  savage  cruelty. 

The  party  which  entered  the  house  when  Mr.  Dustin  left  it,  found  Mrs.  Dustin  in 
bed,  and  the  nurse  attempting  to  fly  with  the  infant  in  her  arms.  They  ordered  Mrs. 
Dustin  to  rise  instantly,  while  one  of  them  took  the  infant  from  the  arms  of  the  nurse, 
carried  it  out,  and  dashed  out  its  brains  against  an  apple-tree.  After  plundering  the 
house  they  set  it  on  fire,  and  commenced  their  retreat,  though  Mrs.  Dustin  had  but 
partly  dressed  herself,  and  was  without  a  shoe  on  one  of  her  feet.  Mercy  was  a  stran- 
ger to  the  breasts  of  the  conquerors,  and  the  unhappy  women  expected  to  receive  no 
kindnesses  from  their  hands.  The  weather  at  the  time  was  exceedingly  cold,  the 
March-wind  blew  keen  and  piercing,  and  the  earth  was  alternately  covered  with  snow 
and  deep  mud. 

They  travelled  twelve  miles  the  first  day,  and  continued  their  retreat,  day  by  day, 
following  a  circuitous  route,  until  they  reached  the  home  of  the  Indian  who  claimed 
them  as  his  property,  which  was  on  a  small  island,  now  called  Dustin's  Island,  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Contoocook  river,  about  six  miles  above  the  state-house  in  Concord, 
New  Hampshire.  Notwithstanding  their  intense  suffering  for  the  death  of  the  child 
— their  anxiety  for  those  whom  they  had  left  behind,  and  who  they  expected  had  been 


cruelly  butchered — their  sufferings  from  cold  and  hunger,  and  from  sleeping  on  the 
damp  earth,  with  nothing  but  an  inclement  sky  for  a  covering — and  their  terror  for 
themselves,  lest  the  arm  that,  as  they  supposed,  had  slaughtered  those  whom  they 
dearly  loved,  would  soon  be  made  red  with  their  blood, — notwithstanding  all  this  they 
performed  the  journey  without  yielding,  and  arrived  at  their  destinatioa  ia  compara 
tive  health. 

The  family  of  their  Indian  master  consisted  of  two  men,  three  women,  and  seven 
children  ;  besides  an  English  boy,  named  Samuel  Lennardson,  who  was  taken  pri- 
soner about  a  year  previous,  at  Worcester.  Their  master,  some  years  before,  had 
lived  in  the  family  of  Rev.  Mr,  Rowlandson,  of  Lancaster,  and  he  told  Mrs.  Dustin 
that  "  when  he  prayed  the  English  way  he  thought  it  was  good,  but  now  he  found  the 
French  way  better." 

These  unfortunate  women  had  been  but  a  few  days  with  the  Indians,  when  they 
were  informed  that  they  must  soon  start  for  a  distant  Indian  settlement,  and  that,  upon 
their  arrival,  they  would  be  obliged  to  conform  to  the  regulations  always  required  of 
prisoners,  whenever  they  entered  the  village,  which  was,  to  be  stripped,  scourged,  and 
run  the  gauntlet  in  a  state  of  nudity.  The  gauntlet  consisted  of  two  files  of  Indians, 
of  both  sexes  and  of  all  ages,  containing  all  that  could  be  mustered  in  the  village ; 
and  the  unhappy  prisoners  were  obliged  to  run  between  them,  when  they  were 
scoffed  at  and  beaten  by  each  one  as  they  passed,  and  were  sometimes  marks  at 
which  the  younger  Indians  threw  their  hatchets.  This  cruel  custom  was  often  prac- 
tised by  many  of  the  tribes,  and  not  unfrequently  the  poor  prisoner  sunk  beneath  it. 
Soon  as  the  two  women  were  informed  of  this,  they  determined  to  escape  as  speedily 
as  possible.  They  could  not  bear  to  be  exposed  to  the  scoffs  and  unrestrained  gaze 
of  their  savage  conquerors — death  would  be  preferable.  Mrs.  Dustin  soon  planned  a 
mode  of  escape,  appointed  the  31st  inst.  for  its  accomplishment,  and  prevailed  upon 
her  nurse  and  the  boy  to  join  her.  The  Indians  kept  no  watch,  for  the  boy  had  lived 
with  them  so  long  they  considered  him  as  one  of  their  children,  and  they  did  not 
expect  that  the  women,  unadvised  and  unaided,  would  attempt  to  escape,  when  suc- 
cess, at  the  best,  appeared  so  desperate. 

On  the  day  previous  to  the  31st,  Mrs.  Dustin  wished  to  learn  on  what  part  of  the 
body  the  Indians  struck  their  victims  when  they  would  despatch  them  suddenly,  and 
how  they  took  off  a  scalp.  With  this  view  she  instructed  the  boy  to  make  inquiries 
of  one  of  the  men.  Accordingly,  at  a  convenient  opportunity,  he  asked  one  of  them 
where  he  would  strike  a  man  if  he  would  kill  him  instantly,  and  how  to  take  off  a 
scalp.  The  man  laid  his  finger  on  his  temple — "  Strike  'em  there,"  said  he  ;  and  then 
instructed  him  how  to  scalp.  The  boy  then  communicated  his  information  to  Mrs. 

The  night  at  length  arrived,  and  the  whole  family  retired  to  rest,  little  suspecting 
that  the  most  of  them  would  never  behold  another  sun.  Long  before  the  break  of  day, 
Mrs.  Dustin  arose,  and,  having  ascertained  that  they  were  all  in  a  deep  sleep,  awoke 
her  nurse  and  the  boy,  when  they  armed  themselves  with  tomahawks,  and  despatched 
ten  of  the  twelve.  A  favorite  boy  they  designedly  left ;  and  one  of  the  squaws,  whom 
they  left  for  dead,  jumped  up,  and  ran  with  him  into  the  woods.  Mrs.  Dustin  killed 
her  master,  and  Samuel  Lennardson  despatched  the  very  Indian  who  told  him  where 
to  strike,  and  how  to  take  off  a  scalp.  The  deed  was  accomplished  before  the  day 
began  to  break,  and,  after  securing  what  little  provision  the  wigwam  of  their  dead 
master  afforded,  they  scuttled  all  the  boats  but  one,  to  prevent  pursuit,  and  with  that 
started  for  their  homes.  Mrs.  Dustin  took  with  her  a  gun  that  belonged  to  her  master, 
and  the  tomahawk  with  which  she  committed  the  tragical  deed.  They  had  not  pro- 
ceeded far,  however,  when  Mrs.  Dustin  perceived  that  they  had  neglected  to 
take  their  scalps,  and  feared  that  her  neighbors,  if  they  ever  arrived  at  their  homes, 
would  not  credit  their  story,  and  would  ask  them  for  some  token  or  proof.  She  told 
her  fears  to  her  companions,  and  they  immediately  returned  to  the  silent  wigwam,  took 
off  the  scalps  of  the  fallen,  and  put  them  into  a  bag.  They  then  started  on  their  jour 
ney  anew,  with  the  gun,  tomahawk,  and  the  bleeding  trophies, — palpable  witnesses 
of  their  heroic  and  unparalleled  deed. 

A  long  and  weary  journey  was  before  them,  but  they  commenced  it  with  cheerful 
hearts,  each  alternately  rowing  and  steering  their  little  bark.  Though  they  had 
escaped  from  the  clutches  of  their  unfeeling  master,  still  they  were  surrounded  with 
dangers.  They  were  thinly  clad,  the  sky  was  still  inclement,  and  they  were  liable  to 
be  re-captured  by  strolling  bands  of  Indians,  or  by  those  who  would  undoubtedly  pur- 
sue them  so  soon  as  the  squaw  and  the  boy  had  reported  their  departure,  and  the  ter- 
rible vengeance  they  had  taken  ;  and  were  they  again  made  prisoners,  they  well  knew 
that  a  speedy  death  would  follow.  This  array  of  danger,  however,  -did  not  appall  them 



for  home  was  their  beacon-light,  and  the  thoughts  of  their  firesides  nerved  their  hearts. 
They  continued  to  drop  silently  down  the  river,  keeping  a  good  lookout  for  strolling 
Indians  ;  and  in  the  night  two  of  them  only  slept,  while  the  third  managed  the  boat. 
In  this  manner  they  pursued  their  journey,  until  they  arrived  safely,  with  their  trophies, 
at  their  homes,  totally  unexpected  by  their  mourning  friends,  who  supposed  that  they 
had  been  butchered  by  their  ruthless  conquerors.  It  must  truly  have  been  an  affect- 
ing meeting  for  Mrs.  Dustin,  who  likewise  supposed  that  all  she  loved — all  she  held 
dear  on  earth — was  laid  in  the  silent  tomb. 

After  recovering  from  the  fatigue  of  the  journey,  they  started  for  Boston,  where  they 
arrived  on  the  21st  of  April.  They  carried  with  them  the  gun  and  tomahawk,  and 
their  ten  scalps — those  witnesses  that  would  not  lie ;  and  while  there,  the  general 
court  gave  them  fifty  pounds,  as  a  reward  for  their  heroism.  The  report  of  their 
daring  deed  soon  spread  into  every  part  of  the  country,  and  when  Colonel  Nicholson, 
governor  of  Maryland,  heard  of  it,  he  sent  them  a  very  valuable  present,  and  many 
presents  were  also  made  to  them  by  their  neighbors. 

The  following  lines,  descriptive  of  the  foregoing,  were  written  by 
Mrs.  Sarah  J.  Hale,  editor  of  the  Ladies'  Magazine,  recently  pub- 
lished in  Boston.  They  contain  much  of  the  "  soul  of  poetry.'7 


Now  fly,  as  flies  the  rushing  wind — 

Urge,  urge  thy  lagging  steed  ! 
The  savage  yell  is  fierce'behind, 

And  life,  is  on  thy  spaed. 

And  from  those  dear  ones  make  thy  choice ; 

The  group  he  wildly  eyed, 
When  "father!"  burst  from  every  voice, 

And  "child  !"  his  heart  replied. 

There's  one  that  now  can  share  his  toil, 

And  one  he  meant  for  fame, 
And  one  that  wears  her  mother's  smile, 

And  one  that  bears  her  name ; 

And  one  will  prattle  on  his  knee, 

Or  slumber  on  his  breast ; 
And  one  whose  joys  of  infancy 

Are  still  by  smiles  expressed. 

They  feel  no  fear  while  he  is  near  ; 

He'll'shield  them  from  the  foe ; 
But  oh !  his  ear  must  thrill  to  hear 

Their  shriekings,  should  he  go. 

In  vain  his  quivering  lips  would  speak  ; 

No  words  his  thoughts  allow ; 
There's  burning  tears  upon  his  cheek — 

Death's  marble  on  his  brow. 

And  twice  he  smote  his  clenched  hand — 

Then  bade  his  children  fly  ! 
And  turned,  and  e'en  that  savage  band 

Cowered  at  his  wrathful  eye. 

Swift  as  the  lightning,  winged  with  death, 
Flashed  forth  the  quivering  flame! 

Their  fiercest  warrior  bows  beneath 
The  father's  deadly  aim. 

Not  the  wild  cries,  that  rend  the  skies, 

His  heart  of  purpose  move ; 
He  saves  his  children,  or  he  dies 

The  sacrifice  of  love. 

Ambition  goads  the  conqueror  on, 
Hate  points  the  murderer's  brand — 

But  love  and  duty,  these  alone 
Can  nerve  the  good  man's  hand. 

The  hero  may  resign  the  field, 

The  coward  murd'rer  flee ; 
He  cannot  fear,  he  will  not  yield, 

That  strikes,  sweet  love,  for  thee. 

They  come,  they  Cv*ne — he  heeds  no  cry, 

Save  the  soft  child-J-    "•  wail, 
"  O,  father,  save !"  "  My  v  'IdiM,  fly  I" 

Were  mingled  on  the  gale. 

And  firmer  still  he  drew  his  bi^atn, 

And  sterner  flash'd  his  eye, 
As  fast  he  hurls  the  leaden  death, 

Still  shouting,  "  Children,  fly !" 

No  shadow  on  his  brow  appeared, 

Nor  tremor  shook  his  frame, 
Save  when  at  intervals  he  heard 

Some  trembler  lisp  his  name. 

In  vain  the  foe,  those  fiends  unchained, 

Like  famished  tigers  chafe, 
The  sheltering  roof  is  near'd,  is  gain'd, 

All,  all  the  dear  ones  safe ! 

The  29th  of  August,  1708,  a  party  of  French  and  Indians,  from 
Canada,  fell  upon  Haverhill,  and  killed  and  captured  about  forty 
inhabitants.  The  following  is  from  Mirick's  History  of  Haverhill. 

It  is  said  that  their  first  design  was  to  attack  Portsmouth,  and  then,  marching  rap'dly 
onward  to  other  settlements,  spread  terror  and  desolation  along  the  whole  frontier. 
But  being  unable  to  accomplish  this  on  account  of  the  unexpected  desertions,  they 
were  obliged  to  compress  their  views.  Their  whole  force  was  now  about  250,  a  small 
number  when  compared  with  that  which  started  from  Canada.  Probably  the  French 
officers  felt  ashamed  to  return  without  effecting  something,  after  they  had  been  at  so 
much  trouble  and  expense ;  accordingly,  Haverhill,  a  compact  village,  consisting  of 
about  thirty  houses,  was  selected  for  the  slaughter. 

At  the  break  of  day,  on  the  29th  of  August,  they  passed  the  frontier  garrisons  undis- 
covered, and  were  first  seen  near  the  pound,  marching  two  and  two,  by  John  Keezar, 
wno  was  returning  from  Amesbury.  He  immediately  ran  into  the  village  and  alarmed 

H  A  V  E  R  H  I  L  L  .  187 

the  inhabitants,  who  seem  to  have  slept  totally  unguarded,  by  firing  his  gun  near  the 
meeting-house.  The  enemy  soon  appeared,  making  the  air  ring  with  terrific  yells, 
with  a  sort  of  whistle,  which,  says  tradition,  could  be  heard  as  far  as  a  horn,  and 
clothed  in  all  the  terrors  of  a  savage  war-dress.  They  scattered  in  every  direction 
over  the  village,  so  that  they  might  accomplish  their  bloody  work  with  more  despatch. 
The  first  person  they  saw  was  Mrs.  Smith,  whom  they  shot  as  she  was  flying  from 
her  house  to  a  garrison.  The  foremost  party  attacked  the  house  of  Rev.  Benjamin 
Eolfe,  which  was  then  garrisoned  with  three  soldiers,  and  he,  and  a  part  of  his 
beloved  and  accomplished  family,  were  suddenly  awakened  from  their  slumbers,  only 
to  hear  the  horrid  knell  for  their  departure.  Mr.  Rolfe  instantly  leaped  from  his  bed, 
placed  himself  against  the  door,  which  they  were  endeavoring  to  beat  in,  and  called 
on  the  soldiers  for  assistance ;  but  these  craven-hearted  men  refused  to  give  it,  for 
they  were  palsied  with  fear,  and  walked  to  and  fro  through  the  chambers,  crying  and 
swinging  their  arms.  Had  they  displayed  but  half  the  ordinary  courage  of  men,  no 
doubt  they  would  have  successfully  defended  the  house.  But,  instead  of  that,  they  did 
not  fire  a  gun,  or  even  lift  a  finger  towards  its  defence.  The  enemy,  finding  their 
entrance  strenuously  opposed,  fired  two  balls  through  the  door,  one  of  which  took 
effect,  and  wounded  Mr.  Rolfe  in  the  elbow.  They  then  pressed  against  it  with  their 
united  strength,  and  Mr.  Rolfe,  finding  it  impossible  to  resist  them  any  longer,  fled 
precipitately  through  the  house,  and  out  at  the  back  door.  The  Indians  followed, 
overtook  him  at  the  well,  and  despatched  him  with  their  tomahawks.  They  then 
searched  every  part  of  the  house  for  plunder,  and  also  for  other  victims,  on  whom  they 
might  inflict  their  savage  cruelties.  They  soon  found  Mrs.  Rolfe  and  her  youngest 
child,  Mehitable,  and  while  one  of  them  sunk  his  hatchet  deep  in  her  head,  another 
took  the  infant  from  her  dying  grasp,  and  dashed  its  head  against  a  stone  near  the 

Two  of  Mr.  Rolfe's  children,  about  six  and  eight  years  of  age,  were  providentially 
saved  by  the  sagacity  and  courage  of  Hagar,  a  negro  slave,  who  was  an  inmate  of  the 
family.  Upon  the  first  alarm,  she  leaped  from  her  bed,  carried  them  into  the  cellar, 
covered  them  with  two  tubs,  and  then  concealed  herself.  The  enemy  entered  the 
cellar  and  plundered  it  of  every  thing  valuable.  They  repeatedly  passed  the  tubs  that 
covered  the  two  children,  and  even  trod  on  the  foot  of  one,  without  discovering  them. 
They  drank  milk  from  the  pans,  then  dashed  them  on  the  cellar  bottom,  and  took  meat 
from  the  barrel,  behind  which  Hagar  was  concealed. 

Anna  Whittaker,  who  was  then  living  in  the  family  of  Mr.  Rolfe,  concealed  herself 
in  an  apple-chest  under  the  stairs,  and  escaped  unharmed.  But  it  fared  differently 
with  the  cowardly  soldiers.  They  earnestly  begged  for  mercy  of  their  inhuman  con- 
querors, but  their  cries  were  unheeded,  and,  when  the  massacre  was  over,  their  bodies 
were  numbered  with  the  slain. 

The  family  of  Thomas  Hartshorne  suffered  as  severely  as  that  of  Mr.  Rolfe.  He 
saw  a  party  approaching  to  assault  his  house,  which  stood  a  few  rods  west  of  the 
meeting-house,  and  escaped  out  of  it,  followed  by  two  of  his  sons,  to  call  assistance  ; 
but  all  three  were  shot  dead  immediately  after  leaving  it.  A  third  son  was  toma- 
hawked as  he  was  coming  out  at  the  door.  Mrs.  Hartshorne,  with  that  presence  of 
mind  which  is  a  characteristic  of  her  sex  when  surrounded  with  danger,  instantly  took 
the  rest  of  her  children — except  an  infant  which  she  left  on  a  bed  in  the  garret,  and 
which  she  was  afraid  would,  by  its  cries,  betray  their  place  of  concealment,  if  she  took 
it  with  her — through  a  trap-door  into  the  cellar.  The,  enemy  entered  the  house,  and 
began  to  plunder  it,  but  happily  did  not  discover  them.  They  went  into  the  garret, 
took  the  infant  from  its  bed,  and  threw  it  out  at  the  window.  It  fell  on  a  pile  of  clap- 
boards, and  when  the  action  was  over  it  was  found  completely  stunned.  It  lived, 
however,  and  became  a  man  of  uncommon  stature,  and  of  remarkable  strength.  His 
neighbors  would  frequently  joke  him,  and  say  that  the  Indians  stunted  him  when  they 
threw  him  from  the.  garret-window. 

One  of  the  parties  proceeded  towards  the  river,  and  attacked  the  of  Lieut. 
John  Johnson.  Mr.  Johnson  and  his  wife,  with  an  infant  a  year  old  in  her  arms, 
were  standing  at  the  door  when  the  enemy  made  their  appearance.  Mr.  Johnson 
was  shot,  and  his  wife  fled  through  the  house  into  the  garden,  carrying  her  babe, 
where  she  was  overtaken  by  the  foe,  and  immediately  despatched.  But  when  she  fell, 
she  was  careful  not  to  injure  her  child,  and  it  seemed  as  if  her  last  thoughts  were  for 
its  safety.  The  enemy,  it  appears,  did  not  murder  it,  and  it  is  somewhat  remarkable 
that  they  did  not,  for  they  always  took  great  delight  in  torturing  and  dashing  out  the 
brains  of  innocent  babes.  Perhaps  it  was  because  the  mother  was  not  alive  to  witness 
its  agonies.  After  the  massacre  was  over,  it  was  found  at  the  breast  of  its  dead 


Another  party  rifled  and  burnt  the  house  of  Mr.  Silver,  which  stood  within  ten  rods 
of  the  meeting-house,  and  others  attacked  the  watch-house,  which  was,  however,  suc- 
cessfully defended.  Another  party  went  to  the  house  of  Capt.  Simon  Wainwright, 
whom  they  killed  at  the  first  fire.  The  soldiers  stationed  in  the  chambers  were  pre- 
paring to  defend  the  house  till  the  last,  when  Mrs.  Wainwright  fearlessly  unbarred  the 
door  and  let  them  in.  She  spoke  to  them  kindly,  waited  upon  them  with  seeming 
alacrity,  and  promised  to  procure  them  whatever  they  desired.  The  enemy  knew  not 
what  to  make  of  this; — the  apparent  cheerfulness  with  which  they  were  received,  and 
the  kindness  with  which  they  were  treated,  was  so  different  from  what  they  expected 
to  meet  with,  that  it  seemed  to  paralyze  their  energies.  They,  however,  demanded 
money  of  Mrs.  Wainwright,  and  upon  her  retiring  "to  bring  it,"  as  she  said,  she  fled 
with  all  of  her  children,  except  one  daughter,  who  was  taken  captive,  and  were  not 
afterwards  discovered.  The  enemy,  so  soon  as  they  found  out  how  completely  they 
had  been  deceived,  were  greatly  enraged,  and  attacked  the  chambers  with  great  vio- 
lence ;  but  the  soldiers  courageously  defended  them,  and,  after  attempting  to  fire  the 
house,  they  retreated,  taking  with  them  three  prisoners.  In  the  mean  time,  two 
Indians  skulked  behind  a  large  stone,  which  stood  in  the  field  a  few  rods  east  of  the 
house,  where  they  could  fire  upon  its  inmates  at  their  leisure.  The  soldiers  in  the 
chambers  fired  upon  them,  and  killed  them  both.  They  were  afterwards  buried  in  the 
same  field,  a  few  rods  south,  and  but  a  few  years  since  the  water  washed  their  skele- 
tons from  their  places  of  repose. 

Two  Indians  attacked  the  house  of  Mr.  Swan,  wmch  stood  m  the  field  now  called 
White's  lot,  nearly  opposite  to  the  house  of  Capt.  Emerson.  Swan  and  his  wife  saw 
them  approaching,  and  determined,  if  possible,  to  save  their  own  lives,  and  the  lives  of 
their  children,  from  the  knives  of  the  ruthless  butchers.  They  immediately  placed 
themselves  against  the  door,  which  was  so  narrow  that  two  could  scarcely  enter 
abreast.  The  Indians  rushed  against  it,  but  finding  that  it.  could  not  be  easily  opened, 
they  commenced  their  operations  more  systematically.  One  of  them  placed  his  back 
to  the  door,  so  that  he  could  make  his  whole  strength  bear  upon  it,  while  the  other 
pushed  against  him.  The  strength  of  the  besiegers  was  greater  than  that  of  the 
besieged,  and  Mr.  Swan,  being  rather  a  timid  man,  said  our  venerable  narrator,  almost 
despaired  of  saving  himself  and  family,  and  told  his  wife  that  he  thought  it  would  be 
better  to  let  them  in.  But  this  resolute  and  courageous  woman  had  no  such  idea. 
The  Indians  had  now  succeeded  in  partly  opening  the  door,  and  one  of  them  was 
crowding  himself  in,  while  the  other  was  pushing  lustily  after.  The  heroic  wife  saw 
there  was  no  time  for  parleying — she  seized  her  spit,  which  was  nearly  three  feet  in 
length,  and  a  deadly  weapon  in  the  hands  of  woman,  as  it  proved,  and,  collecting  all 
the  strength  she  possessed,  drove  it  through  the  body  of  the  foremost.  This  was  too 
warm  a  reception  for  the  besiegers — it  was  resistance  from  a  source  and  with  a 
weapon  they  little  expected  ;  and,  surely,  who  else  would  ever  think  of  spitting  a  man  ? 
The  two  Indians,  thus  repulsed,  immediately  retreated,  and  did  not  molest  them 
again.  Thus,  by  the  fortitude  and  heroic  courage  of  a  wife  and  mother,  this  family 
was  probably  saved  from  a  bloody  grave. 

One  of  the  parties  set  fire  to  the  back  side  of  the  meeting-house,  a  new  and,  for  that 
period,  an  elegant  building.  These  transactions  were  all  performed  about  the  same 
time  ;  but  they  were  not  permitted  to  continue  their  work  of  murder  and  conflagration 
long,  before  they  became  panic-struck.  Mr.  Davis,  an  intrepid  man,  went  behind 
Mr.  Rolfe's  barn,  which  stood  near  the  house,  struck  it  violently  with  a  large  club, 
called  on  men  by  name,  gave  the  word  of  command,  as  though  he  were  ordering  an 
attack,  and  shouted  with  a  loud  voice,  "  Come  on  !  come  on !  we  will  have  them  ! " 
The  party  in  Mr.  Rolfe's  house,  supposing  that  a  large  body  of  the  English  had  come 
upon  them,  began  the  cry  of  «  The  English  are  come  !  "  and,  after  attempting  to  fire 
the  house,  precipitately  left  it.  About  this  time  Major  Turner  arrived  with  a  company 
of  soldiers,  and  the  whole  body  of  the  enemy  then  commenced  a  rapid  retreat,  taking 
with  them  a  number  of  prisoners.  The  retreat  commenced  about  the  rising  of  the 
sun.  Meantime  Mr.  Davis  ran  to  the  meeting-house,  and  with  the  aid  of  a  few  others 
succeeded  in  extinguishing  the  devouring  element ;  but  it  was  mostly  owing  to  his 
exertions  that  the  house  was  saved. 

The  town,  by  this  time,  was  generally  alarmed.  Joseph  Bradley  collected  a  small 
party,  in  the  northerly  part  of  it,  and  secured  the  medicine-box  and  packs  of  the 
enemy,  which  they  had  left  about  three  miles  from  the  village.  Capt.  Samuel  Ayer, 
a  fearless  man,  and  of  great  strength,  collected  a  body  of  about  twenty  men,  and  pur- 
sued the  retreating  foe.  He  came  up  with  them  just  as  they  were  entering  the  woods. 
when  they  faced  about,  and  though  they  numbered  thirteen  or  more  to  one,  still  Capl. 
Ayer  did  not  hesitate  to  give  them  battle.  These  gallant  men  were  soon  reinforced 


by  another  party,  under  the  command  of  his  son ;  and  after  a  severe  skirmish,  which 
lasted  about  an  hour,  they  re-took  some  of  the  prisoners,  and  the  enemy  precipitately 
retreated,  leaving  nine  of  their  number  dead. 

The  first  minister  of  Haverhill,  Rev.  John  Ward,  is  represented 
as  a  person  of  quick  apprehension,  facetious  conversation,  "an 
exact  grammarian,  an  expert  physician,  and,  which  was  the  top 
of  all,  a  thorough  divine ;  but,  which  rarely  happens,  these  endow- 
ments of  his  mind  were  accompanied  with  a  most  healthy,  hardy, 
and  agile  constitution  of  body,  which  enabled  him  to  make  nothing 
of  walking,  on  foot,  a  journey  as  long  as  thirty  miles  together."  He 
preached  (says  Dr.  Mather)  an  excellent  sermon  in  the  eighty- 
eighth  year  of  his  age.  He  died  in  1693,  and  was  succeeded  by 
Rev.  Benjamin  Rolfe,  who  was  killed  in  the  descent  of  the  Indians 
upon  Haverhill,  in  1708.  The  next  minister  was  Rev.  Joshua 
Gardner,  who  was  ordained  in  1711,  and  died  in  1715.  Rev.  John 
Brown,  the  next,  was  ordained  in  1719,  and  died  in  1742.  His  suc- 
cessor was  Rev.  Edward  Barnard,  was  ordained  in  1743,  and  died 
in  1774.  The  next  minister  was  Rev.  John  Shaw,  settled  in  1777, 
and  died  suddenly  1794,  and  was  succeeded  in  1795  by  Rev.  Abiel 
Abbot,  D.  D.,  who  was  dismissed  at  his  own  request  in  1803,  on 
account  of  an  unhappy  controversy  having  arisen  on  account  of 
the  insufficiency  of  his  salary.  Rev.  Josiah  Dodge,  his  successor, 
was  ordained  in  1808.  Mr.  Dodge  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Dud- 
ley Phelps,  in  1828.  .  The  Central  church  was  organized  in  1833, 
and  Rev.  Joseph  Whittlesey  settled  as  pastor  the  same  year.  The 
North  church  was  gathered  in  1728  ;  the  Third  church  was  formed 
in  1735,  and  the  fast  church  in  1743.  The  first  Baptist  church  in 
the  county  of  Essex  was  gathered  in  this  town,  by  Rev.  Hezekiah 
Smith,  in  1765.  Mr.  Smith  conducted  himself  with  great  prudence, 
and  gradually  obtained  general  esteem  and  respect.  He  was  an 
eminent  clergyman,  and  in  1797  received  a  degree  of  D.  D.  from 
Providence  college,  of  which  institution  he  was  a  faithful  friend 
and  trustee.  He  died  in  1805,  and  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev. 
William  Bachelder. 

The  following  historical  items  were  principally  obtained  from 
the  records  of  the  town  : 

The  first  bell  was  purchased  in  1748.  Before  that  time  there  was  a  singular  sub- 
stitute, as  appears  by  a  vote  passed  in  1650  :  "  That  Abraham  Tyler  blow  his  horn 
half  an  hour  before  meeting,  on  the  Lord's  day,  and  on  lecture  days,  and  receive  one 
pound  of  p<jrk  annually  for  his  services  from  each  family." 

In  1650,  a  vote  was  passed  "  that  the  freeholders  attend  town  meeting  within  half 
an  hour  after  the  time  notified,  and  continue  in  town  meeting  till  sunset,  unless  the 
same  is  sooner  closed,  on  penalty  of  paying  half  a  bushel  of  corn." 

Johnson,  in  his  account  of  this  town,  says,  "The  people  are  wholly  bent  to  improve 
their  labour  by  tilling  the  earth  and  keeping  of  cattel,  whose  yearly  increase  incou- 
rages  them  to  spend  their  days  in  those  remote  parts."  So  wholly  bent  were  they  upon 
husbandry,  as  to  suffer  for  the  want  of  mechanics.  There  is  in  the  town  records  a 
contract  signed  by  Mr.  "Ward,  the  minister,  and  nineteen  others,  dated  February  67 
1058,  in  which  they  agree  to  pay  their  proportion  of  20  pounds  for  the  purchase  of  a 
house  and  land  for  Mr.  Jewett,  provided  he  live  here  seven  years,  following  the  trade  of  a 
blacksmith  in  doing  the  town's  work ;  "  also  the  said  Jewett  doth  promise  to  refuse  to  work 
fur  any  that  refuse  to  pay  towards  this  purchase,  until  they  bring  under  the  selectmen's 
hands  that  they  will  pay." 

The  first  meeting-house  for  the  first  church  stood  in  front  of  the  grave-yard,  halt  a 

1 90  HAVERHIL. 

mile  below  the  bridge.  In  this  vicinity  the  settlement  began.  In  1666,  John  Hatch- 
ings had  "  liberty  to  build  a  gallarie  at  the  west  end  of  the  meeting-house,  provided  he 
give  notice  to  the  town  at  the  next  training  day  whether  he  will  or  noe,  so  that  any 
inhabitant  of  the  town  that  has  a  mind  to  join  with  him  may  give  in  his  name."  In 
1681,  it  was  voted  "to  enlarge  the  room  in  the  east  end  of  it  by  making  a  gallerie 
therein  for  the  women."  The  second  house  was  built  in  1699,  and,  after  a  great  con- 
tention whether  it  should  be  built  where  the  first  stood,  a  majority  voted  to  erect  it  about 
fifty  feet  in  front  of  where  the  third  church  was  built  in  1766. 

Col.  Nath.  Saltonstall,  one  of  the  assistants  of  the  colony,  was  the  clerk  or  recorder 
of  the  town  from  1668  to  1700,  and  his  records  are  in  a  very  superior  style,  although 
he  took  the  liberty  occasionally  of  adding  his  own  comments.  In  1689,  the  town  passed 
a  vote  "  to  pay  Mr.  Ward  his  full  salary  for  the  next  year,  provided  that  he,  upon  his 
own  cost,  do  for  the  next  ensuing  year  board  Mr.  Rolfe."  The  record  begins,  "  The 
town  then  (Mr.  Ward  and  his  son  Salstonstall  being  absent)  voted,  &c.  The  mar- 
ginal reference  is  £20  taken  from  Mr.  Ward  for  Mr.  Rolfe's  diet,  in  '90,  without  his 
consent."  Three  lines,  which  probably  contained  some  severe  remark  are  blotted  out, 
and  the  marginal  note  says  it  was  "  blotted  out  by  order  of  the  town." 

Mr.  Rolfe,  the  second  minister,  began  to  preach  in  Haverhill  in 
1689,  and  was  ordained  in  January,  1693-4.  Mr.  Ward,  the  first 
minister,  who  died  in  1693,  agreed  to  abate  all  his  salary  except 
£20,  half  in  merchantable  wheat,  Indian,  (fee,  and  half  in  money, 
and  fifty  cords  of  wood  annually,  upon  condition  that  the  town 
should  pay  all  arrearages  of  his  salary,  and  appoint  a  committee 
"  to  attend  at  his  house  upon  a  sett  day  to  receive  and  take  account 
of  what  shall  be  brought  in,  and  sett  the  price  thereof  if  it  be  not 
merchantable,  that  so  it  come  not  in  by  pitiful  driblets  as  former- 
ly." Mr.  Rolfe's  salary  was  £60,  half  in  corn  and  other  articles. 
He  was  graduated  at  Cambridge  in  1684.  This  worthy  minis- 
ter was  killed  in  what  since  has  been  called  the  "  great  descent" 
of  the  Indians  upon  Haverhill.  The  following  is  the  inscription 
on  his  monument : 


(Inclosed  in  this  tomb  is  the  body  of  the  reverend,  pious,  and  learned  Benjamin 
Rolfe,  the  faithful  pastor  of  the  Church  of  Christ  in  Haverhill ;  who  was  barbarously 
slain  in  his  own  house  by  the  enemy.  He  rested  from  his  labors  early  on  the  day  of 
sacred  rest,  Aug.  29,  1708,  in  the  46th  year  of  his  age.) 

The  following  is  the  inscription  on  the  monument  of  Dr.  Smith, 
the  first  Baptist  minister  in  this  place. 

In  memory  of  the  Rev.  HEZEKIAH  SMITH,  D.  D.,  who  was  born  at  Long  Island,  state 
of  New  York,  21  April,  A.  D.  1737,  graduated  at  Princeton  College,  A.  D.J758.  He 
was  ordained  as  an  evangelist,  in  Charleston,  South  Carolina,  and  was  the  first  pastor 
of  the  Baptist  church  in  Haverhill,  and  took  charge  of  the  flock  12  November,  A.  D. 
1766.  He  departed  this  life  24  January,  A.  D.  1805,  after  forty  years  faithfully  per- 
forming the  pastoral  duties.  He  was  laborious  and  successful  in  his  preaching,  and 
an  able  defender  of  the  Christian  faith.  His  discourses  were  delivered  with  fervency 
and  a  becoming  solemnity.  He  was  a  vigilant  watchman  in  the  various  stations  of 
his  office.  In  his  social  circle  he  shone  conspicuously.  His  deportment  through  life 
exhibited  the  humble  Christian  and  faithful  minister  of  Jesus  Christ. 

There's  a  hast'ning  hour,  it  comes,  it  comes, 
To  rouse  the  sleeping  dead,  to  burst  the  tombs, 
And  place  the  saints  in  view. 

IPSWICH.  191 


THE  Indian  name  of  Ipswich  was  Agawam,  a  word,  it  is  said, 
which  denoted  a  place  where  fish  of  passage  resorted  :  it  was  ap- 
plied to  several  places  in  Massachusetts.  This  is  said  to  have 
been  the  first  place  in  Essex  county  known  to  have  been  visited 
by  Europeans.  In  1611,  Capt.  Edward  Hardie  and  Nicholas 
Hobson  sailed  for  North  Virginia ;  they  touched  at  this  place  and 
were  kindly  received.  In  1614,  Capt.  John  Smith,  in  his  descrip- 
tion of  North  Virginia,  or  New  England,  thus  speaks  of  Agawam : 
"  Here  are  many  rising  hills,  and  on  their  tops  and  descents  are 
many  corne  fields  and  delightfull  groues.  On  the  east  is  an  isle  of 
two  or  three  leagues  in  length,  the  one  halfe  plaine  marish  ground, 
fit  for  pasture,  or  salt  ponds,  with  many  faire  high  groues  of  mul- 
berry trees.  There  are  also  okes,  pines,  walnuts,  and  other  wood, 
to  make  this  place  an  excellent  habitation."  The  first  permanent 
settlement  was  commenced  in  March,  1633,  by  Mr.  John  Winthrop 
jr.  and  twelve  others,  among  whom  were  Mr.  William  Clerk,  Ro- 
bert Coles,  Thomas  Howlet,  John  Biggs,  John  Gage,  Thomas 
Hardy,  William  Perkins,  Mr.  John  Thorndike,  and  William  Ser- 
jeant. The  next  year  (1634)  Agawam  was  incorporated  by  the 
name  of  Ipswich. 

Johnson  remarks  of  Ipswich  dwellings  about  1646,  "  their 
houses  are  many  of  them  very  faire  built,  with  pleasant  gardens." 
In  1638,  Masconnoment,  the  sagamore  of  Agawam,  sold  his  right 
to  Ipswich  for  £20.  This  chief  appears  to  have  died  about  1658. 
He  lived  to  see  his  people  become  almost  extinct.  He  was  buried 
on  Sagamore  Hill,  now  within  the  bounds  of  Hamilton.  As  late 
as  1726,  there  were  three  families,  each  having  a  wigwam  back 
of  Wigwam  Hill,  at  the  Hamlet.  It  is  probable  that  not  long  after 
this  year  the  tribe  became  entirely  extinct. 

Ipswich  is  one  of  the  three  shire  towns  in  Essex  county.  The 
principal  village  is  compactly  built  on  both  sides  of  Ipswich 
river,  a  large  mill  stream.  A  substantial  stone  bridge  was  built 
over  this  stream  in  1764,  having  two  arches.  It  was  built  at  an 
expense  of  £1000,  and  named  Choate  Bridge,  from  the  Hon.  John 
Choate,  one  of  the  committee  intrusted  with  its  erection.  There  are 
three  Congregational  churches,  one  of  which  is  Unitarian,  and  one 
Methodist.  There  is  in  the  village  a  court-house,  jail,  a  bank, 
incorporated  in  1833,  with  a  capital  of  $100,000,  and  the  Ipswich 
Female  Seminary,  incorporated  in  1828. 

The  central  part  of  the  village  is  uneven  and  rocky.  The 
engraving  shows  the  appearance  of  the  Congregational  church, 
court-house,  and  part  of  the  Female  Seminary,  as  seen  from  a 
building  on  the  western  side  of  open  ground,  or  common,  in  the 
central  part  of  the  place. 

The  manufacture  of  thread  and  silk  lace  was  formerly  carried  on 
here  to  a  great  extent.  As  early  as  1790,  about  42,000  yards  were 
made  annually.  The  Boston  and  Ipswich  Lace  Factory  was  in- 
corporated in  1824,  and  the  "  New  England  Lace  Factory"  in 



South-west  view  in  Ipswich,  (central  part.) 

1833 ;  both  have  ceased  operation,  and  the  business  has  declined. 
There  is  a  cotton  factory  in  the  village,  with  3000  spindles.  Value 
of  cotton  goods  manufactured  in  1837,  $50,000.  The  value  of 
boots  and  shoes  manufactured  in  1837  was  $46,000.  Population 
of  the  town,  2,855.  Distance,  12  miles  from  Salem,  10  from  New- 
buryport,  and  27  from  Boston. 

The  following,  extracted  from  the  town  records  of  Ipswich,  and 
other  sources,  is  taken  from  Mr.  Felt's  History  of  Ipswich,  published 
in  1834. 

1642.  "  Whosoever  kills  a  wolf  is  to  have and  the  skin,  if  he  nail  the  head  up 

at  the  meeting-house,  and  give  notice  to  the  constables.  Also  for  the  better  destroying 
or  fraying  away  wolves  from  the  town,  it  is  ordered,  that  1st  day  of  7th  mo.,  every 
householder  whose  estate  is  rated  £500,  and  upward,  shall  keep  a  sufficient  mastive 
dog;  or  £100  to  £500,  shall  provide  a  sufficient  hound  or  beagle,  to  the  intent  that 
they  be  in  readiness  to  hunt  and  be  employed  for  the  ends  aforesaid." 

1648.  "  The  heads  of  wolves,  in  order  to  receive  the  premiums,  must  be  brought 
to  the  constable  and  buried."  Josselyn  informs  us,  1663,  how  such  animals  are  taken. 
"  Four  mackerel  hooks  are  bound  with  a  brown  thread,  and  then  some  wool  is  wrapped 
round  them  and  they  are  dipped  into  melted  tallow,  till  they  be  big  and  round  as  an 
egg.  This  thing,  thus  prepared,  is  laid  by  some  dead  carcass  which  toles  the  wolves. 
It  is  swallowed  by  them,  and  is  the  means  of  their  being  taken."  Down  to  1757,  it 
was  a  common  thing  to  hear  them  commence  their  howl  soon  after  sunset  j  when  it  wa» 
very  dangerous  to  go  near  the  woods. 

1642.  The  "  Seven  men"  are  to  see  that  children,  neglected  by  their  parents,  arc 
employed,  learned  to  read  and  "  understand  the  principles  of  religion  and  the  capital 
laws  of  this  country,"  and,  if  necessary,  be  bound  out  to  service. 

1661.  As  an  inhabitant  of  Ipswich,  living  at  a  distance,  absented  himself  with  his 
wife  from  public  worship,  the  General  Court  empower  the  seven  men  to  sell  his  farm, 
so  that  they  may  live  nearer  the  sanctuary  and  be  able  more  conveniently  to  attend  on 
its  religious  services.  Individuals  are  appointed  to  keep  order  in  the  meeting-house. 

1670.  Constables  are  instructed  to  prevent  young  persons  from  being  out  late  in  the 
evening,  especially  Sabbath,  lecture,  and  training-day  evenings.  1672.  Laborers  are 
forbidden  to  have  intoxicating  liquors.  1678.  All  persons  in  town  are  required  to 
have  some  employment.  1681.  Single  persons,  who  are  under  no  gpvernment,  are 
ordered  to  put  themselves  under  the  care  of  some  head  of  a  family.  Daniel  Weldron 
is  required  to  return  to  his  wife  according  to  law.  An  inhabitant  is  complained  of  by 
a  tything  man  because  he  had  a  servant  many  years  and  had  not  taught  him  to  read. 

1667.  A  man  of  this  place  is  prosecuted  for  digging  up  the  bones  of  the  Sagamore, 
and  for  carrying  his  scull  on  a  pole. 

LYNN.  193 

The  first  Congregational  church  was  organized  in  1834,  the  same 
year  the  town  was  incorporated.  The  first  regular  pastor  was 
Rev.  Nathaniel  Ward,  who  was  born  at  Ipswich,  England,  and 
was  a  preacher  near  London.  Having  expressed  himself  against 
the  "  Book  of  Sports,"  and  against  some  of  the  ceremonies  of  the 
church  of  England,  he  was  suspended  and  required  to  make  a 
public  recantation.  Rather  than  comply,  he  forsook  his  country 
and  came  to  this.  He  arrived  in  1634,  and  soon  took  charge  of 
the  Ipswich  church.  He  appears  to  have  possessed  much  legal 
knowledge,  and  aided  the  legislature  of  Massachusetts  colony  in 
forming  their  laws.  He  returned  to  England,  where  he  died,  1653, 
aged  83.  In  1647  he  published  the  "  Simple  Cobbler  of  Agawam" 
a  satirical  and  witty  performance.  Besides  this  he  published  a 
number  of  other  works.  Nathaniel  Rogers  and  John  Norton  were 
the  next  ministers.  Mr.  Rogers  was  a  descendant  of  the  mar- 
tyr ;  he  came  to  New  England  in  1636,  and  died  in  1655.  Mr. 
Norton  and  Mr.  Rogers  were  settled  in  1638.  Mr.  Norton  was  an 
able  writer  and  a  man  of  great  influence  in  the  colony.  He  died 
in  1663,  aged  about  fifty-seven.  Rev.  William  Hubbard  was 
settled  here  in  1656 ;  he  was  born  in  England.  In  1677  his  first 
historical  work  received  the  approbation  of  the  colonial  licensers, 
and  was  soon  published  in  Boston.  It  contained  "  Narrative  of 
the  Troubles  with  the  Indians  in  New  England  in  1676  and  1677, 
with  a  Supplement  concerning  the  War  with  the  Pequods  in  1637, 
and  a  Table  and  Postscript ;  also,  a  Narrative  of  the  Troubles  with 
the  Indians  from  Piscataqua  to  Pemaquid.  '  The  same  book  was 
licensed  in  London,  and  was  printed  there  under  the  title,  "  Present 
State  of  New  England."  What  he  thus  gave  to  the  public  was  after- 
wards thrown  into  the  present  form  of  his  "  Indian  Wars.11  This 
history  was  long  under  the  supervision  of  an  intelligent  com- 
mittee appointed  by  the  general  court.  In  1682  the  legislature 
voted  him  £50  for  his  History  of  New  England,  and  the  next  year 
they  order  half  this  sum  to  be  paid  him  now  if  "he  procure  a 
fayre  coppie  to  be  written,  that  it  be  fitted  for  the  presse."  Such  a 
copy  was  obtained,  and  was  amended  by  his  own  hand.  The 
Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  aided  by  a  liberal  donation  from 
the  general  court,  had  it  printed  in  a  volume  distinct  from  those  of 
their  Collections,  which  contain  it,  in  1815.  Mr.  Hubbard  died  in 
1704,  aged  83. 


THE  town  of  Lynn,  formerly  Saugust,  received  its  present  name 
in  1637.  The  name  was  given  in  respect  to  Mr.  Whiting,  who 
came  from  the  town  of  Lynn  Regis,  or  King's  Lynn,  in  Norfolk, 
England.  The  record  of  the  court  on  this  occasion  consists  of  only 
four  words,  "  Saugust  is  called  Lin."  "  The  Indian  name  of  the 
river  which  forms  part  of  the  western  boundary  of  the  town  is 
Saugus.  The  eastern  extremity  was  called  Swampscot,  -vhich 

194  LYNN. 

name  it  still  retains.  Nahant,  an  Indian  word  signifying  an 
island,  is  the  original  name  of  the  peninsula  which  has  become  so 
celebrated.  Lynn  is  the  oldest  town  excepting  Salem  in  Essex 
county,  and  since  its  settlement,  in  1629,  nine  other  towns  have 
been  settled  from  it,  viz.  Saugus,  Lynnfield,  Reading,  South  Read- 
ing, Sandwich,  and  Yarmouth ;  Hampton  and  Amherst  in  New 
Hampshire ;  and  Southampton  on  Long  Island.  The  first  white 
inhabitants  of  the  town  were  Edmund  Ingalls  and  his  brother, 
Francis  Ingalls.  Edmund  Ingalls  came  from  Lincolnshire,  in  Eng- 
land, to  Lynn  in  1629.  He  was  a  farmer,  and  settled  in  the  east- 
ern part  of  the  town,  near  a  small  pond,  in  Payette  street.  The 
spot  where  he  resided  is  still  pointed  out  by  his  descendants.  The 
brother  of  Edmund  was  a  tanner,  and  lived  at  Swampscot.  He 
built  his  tannery  on  Humfrey's  brook,  where  it  is  crossed  by 
a  stone  bridge.  The  vats  were  filled  up  in  1825.  This  was  the 
first  tannery  in  New  England.  The  emigrants  found  the  place 
inhabited  by  a  tribe  of  Indians  of  a  great  nation,  called  A  berginians. 
Their  settlements  extended  from  Charles  river  to  the  Merrimac. 
The  name  of  the  sachem  who  formerly  governed  them  was  Nane- 
pashemet,  or  the  New  Moon,  who  was  killed  about  1619.  The 
government  was  continued  by  his  queen,  called  "  Squaw  Sachem." 
Most  of  the  tribes  in  Massachusetts  were  subject  to  her.  She  had 
a  second  husband  in  1635,  whose  name  was  Wappacowet.  Mon- 
towampate,  son  of  Nanepashemet,  sachem  of  the  Saugus  Indians, 
lived  near  the  eastern  end  of  the  beach  on  Sagamore  Hill,  and  had 
the  government  of  Lynn  and  Marblehead.  The  proprietor  of  Na- 
hant was  an  Indian  chief  called  by  the  English  "  Duke  William," 
more  commonly  ."  Black  Will."  He  was  killed  by  some  of  the 
whites  in  1633.  The  following  is  taken  from  Mr.  Lewis'  History 
of  Lynn,  published  in  L829 ;  a  well- written  work,  full  of  interest- 
ing details  respecting  the  history  of  this  town. 

The  first  settlers  of  Lynn  were  principally  farmers,  and  possessed  a  large  stock  of 
horned  cattle,  sheep,  and  goats.  For  several  years,  before  the  land  was  divided  and 
the  fields  fenced,  the  cattle  were  fed  in  one  drove,  and  guarded  by  a  man,  who,  from 
his  employment,  was  called  a  hay  ward.  The  sheep,  goats,  and  swine  were  kept  on 
Nahant,  where  they  were  tended  by  a  shepherd.  Nahant  seems  to  have  been  sold 
several  times,  to  different  individuals,  by  Black  William,  who  also  gave  it  to  the  plan- 
tation for  a  sheep  pasture.  A  fence  of  rails,  put  near  together,  was  made  across  the 
reach  near  Nahant,  to  keep  out  the  wolves,  as  it  is  said  those  animals  do  not  climb. 
When  the  people  were  about  building  this  fence,  Captain  Turner  said,  "  Let  us  make 
haste,  lest  the  country  should  take  it  from  us."  In  autumn  the  swine  were  let  loose  in 
the  woods,  that  they  might  fatten  themselves  on  nuts  and  acorns.  The  people  of 
Lynn,  for  some  years,  seem  to  have  lived  in  the  most  perfect  democracy.  They  had 
town  meetings  every  three  months,  for  the  regulation  of  their  public  affairs.  They 
cut  their  wood  in  common,  and  drew  lots  for  the  grass  in  the  meadows  and  marshes. 
These  proved  very  serviceable  to  the  farmers,  in  furnishing  them  with  sustenance  for 
»heir  cattle,  which  was  probably  the  reason  why  there  were  more  farmers  at  Lynn 
than  in  any  other  of  the  early  settlements.  Mr.  Johnson  says,  "The  chiefest  corn 
they  planted,  before  they  had  Plowes,  was  Indian  grain. — And  let  no  man  make  a 
jest  at  Pumpkins,  for  with  this  food  the  Lord  was  pleased  to  feed  his  people  to  their 
good  content,  till  Corne  and  Cattell  were  increased."  Their  corn  at  the  first  was 
pounded  with  a  wooden  or  stone  pestle,  in  a  mortar  made  of  a  large  log,  hollowed  out 
at  one  end.  They  also  cultivated  large  fields  of  barley  and  wheat.  Much  of  the  for- 
mer was  made  into  malt  for  beer,  which  they  drank  instead  of  ardent  spirit.  They 
raised  considerable  quantities  of  flax,  which  was  rotted  in  one  of  the  ponds  thence 



called  the  Flax  Pond.  Their  first  houses  were  rude  structures,  with  steep  roofs,  covered 
with  thatch,  or  small  bundles  of  sedge  or  straw,  laid  one  over  another.  The  fire- 
places were  made  of  rough  stones,  and  the  chimneys  of  boards,  or  short  sticks,  cross- 
ing each  other,  and  plastered  inside  with  clay.  Beside  the  haste  and  necessity  which 
prevented  the  construction  of  more  elegant  habitations,  the  people  who  had  wealth 
were  advised  to  abstain  from  all  superfluous  expense,  and  to  reserve  their  money  for 
the  public  use.  Even  the  deputy  governor,  Mr.  Dudley,  was  censured  for  wainscot- 
ting  his  house.  In  a  few  years,  houses  of  a  better  order  began  to  appear.  They 
were  built  with  two  stories  in  front,  and  sloped  down  to  one  in  the  rear.  The  windows 
were  small,  and  opened  outward  on  hinges.  They  consisted  of  very  small  diamond 
panes,  set  in  sashes  of  lead.  The  fire-places  were  large  enough  to  admit  a  four-foot 
log,  and  the  children  might  sit  in  the  corners  and  look  up  at  the  stars.  On  whichevei 
side  of  the  road  the  houses  were  placed,  they  uniformly  faced  the  south,  that  the  sun 
at  noon  might  "shine  square."  Thus  each  house  formed  a  domestic  sun-dial,  by 
which  the  good  matron,  in  the  absence  of  the  clock,  could  tell,  in  fair  weather,  when 
to  call  her  husband  and  sons  from  the  field — for  the  industrious  people  of  Lynn,  then 
as  well  as  now,  always  dined  exactly  at  twelve.  It  was  the  custom  of  the  first  settlers 
to  wear  long  beards,  and  it  is  said  that  "  some  had  their  overgrown  beards  so  frozen 
together,  that  they  could  not  get  their  strong  water  bottells  into  their  mouths."  In 
very  hot  weather,  "  servants  were  priviledged  to  rest  from  their  labours,  from  ten  of 
the  clocke  till  two."  The  common  address  of  men  and  women  was  Goodman  and 
Goodwife ;  none  but  those  who  sustained  some  office  of  dignity,  or  belonged  to  some 
respectable  family,  were  complimented  with  the  title  of  Master.  In  writing  they  seem 
to  have  had  no  capital  F,  and  thus  in  the  early  records  we  find  two  small  ones  used 
instead ;  and  one  m  with  a  dash  over  it  stood  for  two.  The  following  song,  which 
appears  to  have  been  written  about  this  time,  exhibits  some  of  the  peculiar  customs 
and  modes  of  thinking  among  the  early  settlers. 

The  place  where  we  live  is  a  wilderness  wood, 
Where  gra--s  is  much  wanting  that's  fruitful  and  good  ; 
Our  mountains  and  hills,  and  our  valleys  below, 
Being  commonly  covered  with  ice  and  with  snow. 

And  when  the  north-west  wind  with  violence  blows, 
Then  every  man  pulls  his  cap  over  his  nose ; 
But  if  any  is  hardy  and  will  it  withstand, 
He  forfeits  a  finger,  a  foot,  or  a  hand. 

But  when  the  spring  opens  we  then  take  the  hoe, 
And  make  the  ground  ready  to  plant  and  to  sow ; 
Our  corn  being  planted,  and  seed  being  sown, 
The  worms  destroy  much  before  it  is  grown. 

And  while  it  is  growing  some  spoil  there  is  made 
By  birds,  and  by  squirrels,  that  pluck  up  the  blade; 
And  when  it  is  come  to  full  corn  in  the  ear, 
It  is  often  destroyed  by  raccoon  and  by  deer. 

And  now  our  old  garments  begin  to  grow  thin, 
And  wool  is  much  wanted  to  card  and  to  spin  ; 
If  we  can  get  a  garment  to  cover  without, 
Our  other  in-garments  are  clout  upon  clout. 

Our  clothes  we  brought  with  us  are  apt  to  be  torn, 
They  need  to  be  clouted  soon  after  they're  worn  ; 
But  clouting  our  garments,  they  hinder  us  nothing, 
Clouts  double  are  warmer  than  single  whole  clothing. 

If  fresh  meat  be  wanting  to  fill  up  our  dish, 

We  have  carrots,  and  pumpkins,  and  turnips,  and 


And  if  there's  a  mind  for  a  delicate  dish, 
We  haste  to  the  clam  banks,  and  there  we  catch 


'Stead  of  pottage,  and  puddings,  and  custards,  and 


Our  turnips  and  parsnips  are  cpmmon  supplies; 
We  have  pumpkins  at  morning,  and  pumpkins  at 

If  it  was  nut  for  pumpkins  we  should  be  undone. 

If  barley  be  wanting  to  make  into  malt, 

We  must  then  be  contented,  and  think  it  no  fault ; 

For  we  can  make  liquor,  to  sweeten  our  lips, 

Of  pumpkins,  and  parsnips,  and  walnut  tree  chips. 

Now  while  some  are  going,  let  others  be  coming, 
For  while  liquor's  boiling  it  must  have  a  scumming ; 
But  I  will  not  blame  them,  for  birds  of  a  feather, 
By  seeking  their  fellows,  are  nocking  together. 

Then  you  whom  the  Ixird  intends  hither  to  bring, 
Forsake  not  the  honey  for  fear  of  the  sting ; 
But  bring  both  a  quiet  and  contented  mind, 
And  all  needful  blessings  you  surely  will  find. 

The  following  are  the  names  of  some  of  the  persons  who  appear 
to  have  been  inhabitants  of  Lynn  in  1630. 

Joseph  Armitage, 
Allen  Breed, 
Wm.  Ballard, 
Nicholas  Brown, 
Edward  Baker, 
Samuel  Bennet, 
Nicholas  Brown, 
Thomas  Cold  am, 
Clement  Coldam, 
Thomas  Chadwell, 

"William  Cowdrey, 
Henry  Collins, 
Thomas  Dexter, 
William  Dixey, 
Robert  Driver, 
George  Farr, 
Jeremy  Fitch, 
Edmund  Farrington, 
Adam  Hawkes, 
Edward  Holyoke, 

Edward  Howe, 
Lieut.  Danl.  Howe; 
Ephraim  Howe, 
William  Hathorne, 
Thomas  Hudson, 
Christopher  Hussey, 
Christopher  Lyndsey, 
Thomas  Newhall, 
Robert  Potter, 
John  Ramsdell, 

John  Taylor, 
Capt.  Ed.  Tomlins, 
Timothy  Tomlins, 
Capt.  Nath.  Turner, 
Capt.  Rich.  Walker 
Thomas  Willis, 
John  White, 
William  Witter, 
John  Wood, 
William  Wood. 



The  following  persons  were  also  at  Lynn  as  early  as  1637. 

Abraham  Belknap, 
Edmund  Bridges, 
Jenkin  Davis, 
Joseph  Floyd, 
Christopher  Foster, 
George  Fraile, 
Nathaniel  Handforth, 
Thomas  Ivory, 
Richard  Johnson, 
Thomas  Keysar, 
Thomas  Laighton, 
.Richard  Longley, 
John  Pierson, 
Richard  Roolton, 

Richard  Sadler, 
"William  Andrews, 
Richard  Brooks, 
Goodman  Cox, 
Goodman  Crosse, 
John  Deacon, 
John  Elderkin, 
William  George, 
Francis  Godson, 
Henry  Gaines, 
John  Gillow, 
Thomas  Halsye, 
James  Hewes, 
Robert  Hewes, 

William  Hewes, 
Jeremy  Howe, 
John  Hudson, 
Samuel  Hutchinson, 
Thomas  Hutphinson, 
Philip  Kneeland, 
Thomas  Paine, 
Robert  Parsons, 
Thomas  Parker, 
Joseph  Pell, 
Nicholas  Poor, 
Wm.  Partridge, 
Thomas  Read, 
Isaac  Robinson, 

Jarett  Spenser, 
Michael  Spenser, 
Josias  Stanbury, 
George  Taylor, 
William  Thorn, 
Mr.  Wathin, 
George  Welbye, 
Richard  Wells, 
Edward  West, 
Thomas  Wheeler, 
Nathanl.  Whiteridge, 
John  Humfrey, 
Edward  Howe. 

Lynn  in  its  present  limits  extends  nearly  six  miles  on  the  sea- 
coast,  on  the  northern  shore  of  Massachusetts  Bay,  and  extends 

Western  entrance  of  the  central  part  of  Lynn. 

about  four  miles  into  the  woods.  From  the  center  of  the  southern 
side  a  beach  of  sand  projects  into  the  sea  nearly  two  miles,  and 
terminates  in  a  peninsula,  called  Nahant.  The  whole  town  con- 
tains 9,360  acres.  The  south-eastern  part  is  a  tract  of  excellent 
salt  marsh ;  and  the  northern  part  is  a  range  of  wood-land  and 
pasture.  The  inhabited  part  of  the  town  is  an  extensive  plain, 
gently  undulating  toward  the  extremities  into  graceful  elevations, 
skirted  on  the  south  by  the  sea,  and  defended  on  the  north  by  a 
range  of  rocky  hills.  A  considerable  degree  of  attention  is  given 
to  agriculture.  The  farmers  have  much  improved  their  lands  by 
cultivation,  and  by  procuring  sea  weed  and  rock  weed  from  the 
beaches  for  manure.  These  substances  have  been  freely  mingled 
with  the  soil,  and  since  their  use  the  crops  of  English  grass  have 
been  increased  in  nearly  a  tenfold  proportion.  The  other  princi- 
pal products  are  Indian  corn,  barley,  and  the  common  vegetable 
productions.  The  cold  and  damp  sea  breezes,  which  frequently 
prevail,  have  an  unfavorable  effect,  and  the  soil  appears  to  b<* 
uncongenial  to  the  finer  sorts  of  grain. 

LYNN.  197 

The  foregoing  view  was  taken  at  the  western  entrance  of  Lynn. 
The  entrance  to  the  common  is  seen  on  the  right.  This  is  a  level 
tract  of  about  twenty  acres.  A  handsome  circular  pond  has  been 
recently  dug  near  the  center,  and  other  improvements  have  been 
made.  The  village  is  principally  built  on  a  plain,  back  of  which 
are  hills  composed  of  rough  rocks,  partially  covered  with  bushes 
and  trees.  On  the  side  next  the  ocean  and  on  Saugus  river  are  salt 
marshes.  To  the  south-west  of  the  village  the  turnpike  from  Bos- 
ton to  Salem  passes  over  an  extensive  tract  of  marsh  land.  There 
are  8  churches  in  this  place,  3  Methodist,  2  Congregational,  1  for 
Friends,  1  Baptist,  and  1  Universalist.  There  are  two  banks,  the 
Lynn  Mechanics  Bank,  incorporated  in  1814,  and  the  Nahant 
Bank,  incorporated  in  1832,  each  with  a  capital  of  $150,000. 
There  is  a  savings  bank,  incorporated  in  1826,  and  three  insu- 
rance companies.  The  Lynn  Academy,  an  incorporated  institution, 
was  first  opened  in  1805.  A  newspaper  is  published  here.  Lynn 
is  5  miles  from  Salem,  and  9  from  Boston.  Population,  9,323.  In 
1837  there  were  manufactured  in  this  town  2,220  pairs  of  boots, 
2,543,929  pairs  of  shoes;  value  of  boots  and  shoes,  $1,689,793; 
males> employed,  2,631 ;  females,  2,554.  There  were  6  morocco 
leather  manufactories ;  value  of  leather  manufactured,  $153,000 ; 
males  employed,  90 ;  females,  16.  There  were  5  vessels  employed 
in  the  whale  fishery,  and  14  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery.  A 
manufactory  of  India  rubber  cloth  has  been  recently  established. 

"  Nahant  is  a  peninsula  on  the  south  of  Lynn.  In  the  beauty  and  sublimity  of  its 
scenery,  combined  with  its  peculiar  advantages  of  health  and  pleasure,  it  is  not  sur- 
passed by  any  place  on  the  coast  of  America.  It  consists  of  two,  elevated,  rock-engir- 
dled islands,"  called  Great  and  Little  Nahants,  united  together  by  a  beach,  half  a 
mile  in  length,  and  connected  to  the  main  land  by  another  beach,  one  mile  and  a 
half  in  length.  From  the  center  of  the  town,  the  Long  beach  projects  directly  into  the 
sea,  and  is  washed  by  the  waves  of  the  great  ocean  on  the  eastern  side<  and  on  the 
western  by  the  waters  of  the  harbor.  It  is  a  gently  curving  bar,  of  fine,  silvery,  gray 
sand,  rising  so  high  in  the  center  as  generally  to  prevent  the  waves  from  passing  over 
it,  and  almost  imperceptibly  sloping  to  the  water  on  each  side.  It  is  unbroken  by  land, 
or  rock,  or  shrub,  for  its  whole  extent,  and  the  broad  ridge  of  dry  sand,  which  passes 
through  its  center,  is  interspersed  with  shells,  and  pebbles,  and  fragments  of  coral  and 
other  substances,  which  the  storms  have  cast  upon  it,  among  which  the  white  gull  lays 
her  spotted  eggs,  in  little  cavities  scooped  in  the  sand,  and,  soaring  overhead,  startles 
the  traveller  by  her  shrilling  shriek.  The  portion  of  the  beach  which  is  left  by  the 
tide,  is  broad  enough  for  fifty  carriages  to  pass  abreast,  and  presents  a  perfectly 
smooth  surface  of  pure,  fine  sand,  beaten  hard  and  polished  by  the  constant  breaking 
of  the  waves,  on  which  the  horse's  hoof  leaves  no  print,  and  the  wheel  passes,  with- 
out sound  or  trace,  like  a  velvet  roller  on  marble.  The  hard  sand  frequently  retains 
sufficient  water,  for  an  hour  after  the  tide  has  left  it,  to  give  it  the  appearance  of  glass, 
in  which  objects  are  reflected  as  in  a  mirror. 


"  Little  Nahant  is  a  hill,  consisting  of  two  graceful  elevations,  rising  eighty  feet  above 
the  sea,  and  defended  by  battlements  of  rock,  from  twenty  to  sixty  feet  in  height. 
It  is  about  half  a  mile  in  length,  and  contains  forty-two  acres,  seventeen  of  which  are 

in  good  cultivation The  outer  portion  of  the  peninsula,  called  Great 

Nahant,  is  about  two  miles  in  length,  and  in  some  parts  half  a  mile  broad,  containing 
four  hundred  and  sixty-three  acres.  The  surface  is  uneven,  rising  into  elevations, 
from  forty  to  one  hundred  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  The  shores  are  extremely 
irregular,  being  composed,  in  many  places,  of  huge  precipitous  rocks,  in  some  places 
resembling  iron,  rising  from  twenty  to  sixty  feet  above  the  tide,  with  a  great  depth  of 
water  below ;  and  in  others,  stretching  out  into  beautiful  beaches,  or  curving  into 
drlightful  recesses  and  coves,  filled  with  pebbles,  of  every  variety  of  form  and  color, 



from  burning  red  to  stainless  white.  The  whole  outline  presents  the  most  agreeable 
interchange  of  scenery,  from  the  low  beach,  that  glistens  beneath  the  thin  edge  of  the 
wave,  to  lofty  precipices,  and  majestic  cliffs  that  rise 

Like  moonlight  battlements,  and  towers  decayed  by  time. 

Naitant  Hotel,  Long  Beach,  Lynn. 

"  Nahant  is  much  visited  by  persons  for  the  improvement  of  health,  and  by  parties  of 
pleasure,  from  the  neighboring  towns,  for  whom  it  furnishes  every  accommodation. 
Two  steamboats  are  constantly  running  from  Boston  during  the  pleasant  season,  but 
a  ride  by  land,  over  the  beaches,  is  much  more  delightful.  A  spacious  and  elegant 
hotel  has  been  erected,  of  stone,  near  the  eastern  extremity.  It  contains  nearly  a 
hundred  rooms,  and  is  rurrounded  by  a  double  piazza,  commanding  the  most  delight- 
ful prospects.  Several  other  hotels  and  boarding-houses  are  situated  in  the  village, 
and  about  twenty  beautiful  cottages,  the  summer  residence  of  gentlemen  of  fortune,  are 
scattered  over  the  peninsula.  There  is  also  a  neat  stone  building  erected  for  a  chapel, 
which  serves  for  a  library  and  school-room." — Lewis'  Hist,  of  Lynn. 

The  church  at  Lynn  was  gathered  in  June,  1632,  and  was  the 
fifth  in  Massachusetts.  The  first  meeting-house  was  a  plain  small 
building,  without  bell  or  cupola,  and  stood  on  the  eastern  side  of 
Shepard  street.  It  was  placed  in  a  small  hollow,  that  it  might  be 
the  better  sheltered  from  the  winds,  and  was  approached  by  descend- 
ing several  steps.  Before  this,  part  of  the  people  of  Lynn  attended 
public  worship  at  Salem.  Rev.  Stephen  Batchelor,  the  first  min- 
ister, on  his  arrival  in  Lynn  in  1632,  immediately  commenced  the 
exercise  of  his  ministerial  duties,  without  installation.  About  four 
months  afterwards  a  complaint  was  made  of  some  irregularities  in 
his  conduct.  He  was  arraigned  before  the  court  at  Boston,  Oct. 
3d,  when  the  following  order  was  passed :  "  Mr.  Bachelr-  is  re- 
quired to  forbeare  excerciseing  his  giftes  as  pastr-  or  teacher  pub- 
liquely  in  or-  Patent,  unlesse  it  be  to  those  he  brought  with  him,  for 
his  contempt  of  authority,  and  till  some  scandals  be  removed." 
This  was  the  commencement  of  a  series  of  difficulties  which  agi- 
tated the  unhappy  church  for  several  years. 

The  Rev.  Samuel  Whiting  arrived  from  England  in  June,  ana 
was  installed  pastor  of  the  church  in  November,  1636.  The  next 
year  Rev.  Thomas  Gobbet  who  also  came  from  England,  was 


installed  a  colleague  pastor  with  Mr.  Whiting.  Mr.  W.  was  styled 
the  pastor,  as  being  the  principal,  and  Mr.  Gobbet  was  called 
teacher,  an  office  in  some  degree  subordinate,  though  his  talents 
were  superior.  Rev.  Jeremiah  Shepard  was  the  first  minister  of 
Lynn  who  was  born  and  educated  in  America.  He  was  ordained 
in  1680,  and  died  in  1720,  having  preached  at  Lynn  forty  years. 
He  was  distinguished  for  his  unaffected  piety  and  his  untiring 
exertions  for  the  spiritual  welfare  of  his  people.  The  following 
epitaph  was  transcribed  from  his  grave-stone  with  difficulty ;  hav- 
ing become  greatly  obliterated  by  the  hand  of  time,  for  a  period 
of  more  than  one  hundred  years. 

Elijah's  mantle  drops,  the  prophet  dies, 

His  earthly  mansion  quits,  and  mounts  the  skies. 

So  Shepard's  gone. 

His  precious  dust,  death's  prey,  indeed  is  here, 
But's  nobler  breath  'mong  Seraphs  does  appear ; 
He  joins  adoring  crowds  about  the  throne, 
He's  conquered  all,  and  now  he  wears  the  crown. 


THIS  town  was  originally  called  Lynn  End,  having  been 
granted  to  Lynn  soon  after  the  settlement  of  the  town.  A  meeting- 
house was  built  in  1715.  It  was  incorporated  into  a  district  in 
1782.  In  1814  it  became  a  separate  town.  The  town  abounds 
with  wild  and  romantic  scenery,  its  surface  being  broken  and 
uneven,  and  its  hills  clothed  with  dense  forests.  Farming  is  the 
principal  employment  of  the  inhabitants.  In  1837  there  were  100 
pairs  of  boots  and  54.000  shoes  manufactured,  valued  at  $40,250 ; 
males  employed,  93 ;  females,  80.  Population,  674.  Distance, 
12  miles  from  Boston. 

The  Congregational  church  in  this  place  was  the  second  of 
Lynn,  was  formed  1720.  The  first  pastor,  Rev.  Nathaniel  Spar- 
hawk,  settled  here  at  the  formation  of  the  church ;  he  resigned 
1731.  He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Stephen  Chase  in  1731, 
and  resigned  1755.  His  successor  was  the  Rev.  Benjamin  Adams, 
who  was  settled  in  1755,  died  1777.  He  was  succeeded  by  the 
Rev.  Joseph  Motley  in  1782,  who  died  in  1821.  The  next  was  the 
Rev.  Joseph  Searl,  who  was  settled  here  in  1824,  resigned  in  1827. 
There  is  also  a  society  of  Methodists  in  the  town. 

The  following  is  from  the  inscription  on  the  monument  of  Mr. 
Daniel  Townsend  in  this  place,  who  was  killed  in  Lexington, 
April  19th,  1775.  He  was  bom  in  1738. 

Lie,  valiant  Townsend,  in  the  peaceful  shades,  we  trust 

Immortal  honors  mingle  with  thy  dust. 

What  though  thy  body  struggle  in  its  gore-? 

So  did  thy  Savior's  body  long  before  ; 

And  as  he  raised  his  own  by  power  divine, 

So  the  same  power  shall  also  quicken  thine, 

And  in  eternal  glory  mayst  thou  shine ! 



M  A  ?f  c  a 


MANCHESTER  was  once  known  by  the  name  of  Jeffrey's  Creek 
and  formed  a  part  of  Salem.  Upon  the  petition  of  several  of  the 
inhabitants  it  was  incorporated,  in  1645,  by  its  present  name. 
The  surface  of  the  township  is  rocky  and  uneven,  and  in  many 
places  is  covered  with  extensive  forests.  Here  is  found  the  Mag- 
nolia, a  low  tree,  bearing  many  beautiful  and  sweet-scented  flowers. 
Here  is  a'variety  of  soil,  which  is  in  a  good  state  of  culture.  The 
fishing  business  was  commenced  at  this  place  at  a  very  early  pe- 
riod, but  of  late  years  this  business  has  somewhat  declined.  Some 
of  the  most  enterprising  ship-masters  of  Boston  and  vicinity  are 
natives  of  this  town.  There  is  about  1000  tons  of  shipping  em- 
ployed. The  vessels  are  of  small  size.  The  depth  of  water  will 
not  allow  vessels  exceeding  120  tons  to  come  up  to  the  town.  The 
harbor  is  good,  and  affords  anchorage  for  vessels  of  any  size. 

South-western  vieiv  of  Manchester. 

There  is  a  Congregational  society  here,  which  was  gathered  in 
1716,  under  the  ministry  of  the  Rev.  Amos  Cheever.  Before  this 
year  no  church  records  of  Manchester  are  found.  The  Universal- 
ists  have  a  small  society,  which  was  organized  in  1820.  The  busi- 
ness of  making  cabinet  furniture  is  carried  on  here  with  great 
activity,  employing  150  men  or  more.  In  1837  there  were  12  manu- 
factories of  chairs  and  cabinet  ware :  value  of  articles  manufac- 
tured, $84,500 ;  hands  employed,  120.  There  were  14  vessels 
employed  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery,  employing  65  hands. 
Population,  1,346. 

The  above  shows  the  appearance  of  Manchester  village  as  it  is 
entered  from  the  south-west  upon  the  Beverly  road.  Coasters  from 
60  to  70  tons  burthen  can  come  up  to  this  village,  which  consists  of 
upwards  of  eighty  dwelling-houses,  built  compactly  together.  Dis- 
tance, 7  miles  from  Gloucester,  9  from  Salem,  and  23  from  Boston. 

The  following  inscriptions  are  copied  from  monuments  in  the 
grave-yard  in  this  place  : 



In  memory  of  Benjamin  Tappan,  late  pastor  of  the  church  in  Manchester,  who  ex- 
pired May  6,  1790,  in  the  70th  year  of  his  age,  and  45th  year  of  his  ministry.  He  was 
a  sincere  and  exemplary  Christian,  a  tender  husband  and  parent,  a  judicious  and  sound 
divine,  a  prudent  and  faithful  minister. 

Oh  ever  honor'd,  ever  dear,  adieu, 
How  many  tender  names  are  lost  in  you. 
Keep  safe,  O  tomb,  thy  precious  sacred  trust, 
Till  life  divine  awake  his  sleeping  dust, 

Colo1-  Benj*-  Marston  lies  here,  who  died  May  22,  1754,  being  57  years  &  3  mo. 
old.  Art  thou  curious,  reader,  to  know  wh^t  sort  of  man  he  was?  Wait  till  the  final 
day  of  Retribution,  and  then  thou  mayest  be  satisfied. 

Sacred  to  the  memory  of  Capt.  John  Allen,  who  died  Aug.  27,  1834,  aged  59  years. 

Though  Boreas'  blasts  and  Neptune's  waves 

Have  toss'd  me  to  and  fro, 

In  spite  of  both,  by  God's  decree, 

I  harbor  here  below. 

Now  here  at  anchor  I  do  lie, 
With  many  of  our  fleet, 
In  hope  again  for  to  set  sail 
My  Savior  Christ  to  meet 

James  Smith, 
Rowland  Smith, 
Samuel  Doliber, 
Edmund  Nicholson, 
Francis  Nicholson, 
John  Gatchell, 
William  Barber, 
David  Thomas, 
John  Legg, 
Peter  Pitford, 
Erasmus  James, 

Thomas  Bowinge, 
John  Stacie, 
George  Chine, 
John  Northy, 
Nicholas  Merrett, 
Thomas  Pitman, 
Timothy  Allen, 
Thomas  Sams, 
Arthur  Sanden, 
Isaac  Allerton, 
Moses  Maverick, 

Mr.  Walton, 
John  Lyon, 
Henry  Stacie, 
William  Chichester, 
Samuel  Corwithen, 
Thomas  Gray, 
Richard  Norman, 
John  Peachy, 
Richard  Curtice, 
John  Hart, 
William  Charles, 


MARBLEHEAD  was  originally  a  part  of  Salem,  from  which  it  was 
detached  and  incorporated  as  a  distinct  town  in  1649.  At  this 
time  it  contained  44  families,  the  heads  of  which  were  of  the  fol- 
lowing names : 

John  Deveroe, 
Abrm.  Whitcure, 
John  Bartoll, 
Joseph  Doliber 
Robert  Knight, 
John  Bennett, 
F.  J.  Walsingham, 
John  Norman, 
William  Luckis, 
Christoph.  Lattimore, 
John  Goyt. 

The  township  is  a  rough  and  very  rocky*  peninsula,  extending 
between  three  and  four  miles  into  the  sea,  and  it  is  inhabited  prin- 
cipally on  account  of  its  convenience  as  a  fishing  port.  The  first 
settlers  made  their  pitch  on  the  eastern  side  of  the  town,  taking 
advantage  of  a  very  good  harbor,  running'  north-east  and  south- 
west, and  towards  half  a  mile  on  an  average.  "  At  the  south-west 
end  of  the  harbor  the  town  is  connected  with  the  Great  Neck,  so 
called,  by  a  very  narrow  isthmus,  separating  the  waters  of  Lynn 
bay  from  those  of  the  harbor.  About  the  year  1728,  it  was  found 
that  the  sea  was  fast  encroaching  on  the  south-west  side  of  this 
isthmus,  so  as  to  endanger  the  preservation  and  security  of  the  har- 
bor. The  government  of  the  province  at  that  time  attended  to  the 
subject,  as  it  respected  not  only  the  town  in  particular,  but  the 
trade  of  the  province  in  general ;  and  ordered  by  an  act  the  sum 

*  As  the  celebrated  Mr.  Whitefield  was  entering  the  settlement  late  in  the  autumn, 
when  no  verdure  was  to  be  seen,  he  exclaimed,  "  Pray  where  do  they  bury  their  dead  ? 
It  may  be  observed,  that,  notwithstanding  the  rough  and  forbidding  aspect  of  the 
soil,  it  is  very  productive  when  cultivated. 



of  £1,328  to  be  paid  out  of  the  public  treasury  for  necessary  re- 
pairs. It  seems  that  about  the  year  1762  some  necessary  repairs  were 
made.  In  the  year  1790,  although  the  town  had  carefully  endea- 
vored to  secure,  support,  and  keep  the  same  in  good  repair,  the  go- 
vernment of  the  commonwealth  of  Massachusetts,  considering  the 
preservation  of  the  said  harbor  was  a  matter  of  public  concern,  &c., 
granted  a  sum  of  £1000  to  be  raised  by  a  lottery"  for  this  purpose. 
About  1742  this  town  was  authorized  to  erect  a  fortification  for  the 
defence  of  the  place ;  the  government,  it  seems,  having  granted 
£690  for  this  purpose.  In  1794  it  was  ceded  to  the  United  States 
by  a  vote  of  the  town.  The  fortification  which  defends  the  har- 
bor is  now  called  Fort  Sewall. 

North-eastern  view  of  Marblehead  from  Fort  Seroall. 

The  above  is  a  north-eastern  view  of  Marblehead  taken  from 
Fort  Sewall.  The  harbor  in  front  of  the  town  is  a  mile  and  a 
half  long  from  north-east  to  south-west,  and  half  a  mile  wide.  It 
is  formed  by  a  narrow  isthmus  at  the  south-west  that  separates  it 
from  Lynn  bay,  and  connects  the  town  with  Great  Neck.  It  is 
deep  and  excellent,  capable  of  being  entered  at  all  times  by  ships 
of  the  largest  size,  and  would  be  one  of  the  finest  in  the  country,  were 
it  not  for  its  exposure  to  storms,  which  often  render  its  anchorage 
unsafe.  In  1837  the  town  of  Marblehead  contained  5,549  inhabit- 
ants :  with  the  exception  of  about  twenty  farmers  and  their  families, 
they  are  comprised  within  the  limits  of  one  mile  by  one  quarter. 
The  village  is  quite  novel  in  its  appearance,  being  compact  and 
very  irregularly  built,  owing  to  the  very  uneven  and  rocky  surface 
of  the  ground  on  which  it  is  built.  There  are  five  handsome 
churches  in  this  place,  viz.  2  Congregational,  1  of  which  is  Unita- 
rian, 1  Episcopal,  1  Methodist,  and  1  Baptist.  There  are  two 
banks,  the  "  Marblehead  Bank,"  incorporated  in  1803,  capital 
$120,000,  and  the  "  Grand  Bank,"  incorporated  in  1831,  capital 
$100,000 ;  there  are  two  insurance  companies,  each  with  a  capi- 
tal of  $100,000.  There  is  an  academy,  incorporated  in  1792,  and 


has  ever  been  a  respectable  and  useful  institution.  Distance,  4 
miles  from  Salem,  and  16  from  Boston.  The  shipping  owned  here 
amounts  to  more  than  eight  thousand  tons.  In  1837,  there  were 
55  vessels  employed  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery,  the  tonnage  of 
which  was  4603 ;  codfish  caught,  49,403  quintals ;  mackerel  caught, 
243  barrels ;  500  hands  employed.  In  the  same  year  were  manu- 
factured 97  pairs  of  boots,  and  1,025,824  pairs  of  shoes,  the  value 
of  which  was  $367,780 ;  males  employed,  503 ;  females,  655. 

In  the  Rev.  Mr.  Barnard's  diary,*  (early  in  the  century,  or  before 
1720,)  when  speaking  of  this  town,  gives  the  following  statement : 
"  There  was  not  a  carpenter,  a  tailor,  nor  mason,  nor  butcher  in 
the  town  ;  nor  any  thing  of  a  market  worth  naming.  They  had 
their  houses  built  by  country  workmen,  and  their  clothes  made  out 
of  town,  and  supplied  themselves  with  beef  and  pork  from  Boston, 
which  drained  the  town  of  its  money.  Some  years  after,  the  town 
abounded  with  artificers,  good  workmen  of  every  description,  and 
the  market  had  a  full  supply.  At  the  time  before  mentioned,  there 
was  not  one  foreign  vessel,  although  the  town  always  possessed 
every  advantage  for  a  free  and  extensive  navigation.  The  people 
contented  themselves  to  be  slaves  to  work  in  the  mines,  leaving  it 
to  the  merchants  of  Salem,  Boston,  and  Europe,  to  carry  off  the 
gains,  by  which  means  the  town  was  poor  and  in  debt : — so  much 
were  they  involved  in  debt  to  the  merchants  of  other  places,  that 
very  few  families,  not  more  than  twenty,  were  independent  in  their 
circumstances.  They  were  generally  a  rude,  swearing,  drunken 
and  fighting  crew ;  but  as  they  increased  in  numbers  they  made 
improvements  in  social  life,  in  virtue  and  good  morals.  By  the 
middle  of  the  century,  the  manners  of  the  people  were  so  much 
cultivated,  as  to  be  remarkable  for  their  civilities,  and  especially 
for  their  hospitality  to  strangers.  There  were  not  only  gentle- 
manlike families,  and  pious  and  well-behaved  people  in  the  town, 
but  the  very  fishermen  rose  superior  to  the  rudeness  of  former  gene- 
rations. When  they  were  persuaded  by  individuals  of  public 
spirit  to  send  their  fish  to  foreign  markets,  they  soon  became  conver- 
sant with  the  mysteries  of  trade,  they  soon  became  sensible  of  the 
advantage  they  should  reap  by  it.  And  while  individuals  grew 
rich,  the  town  also  received  the  benefit." 

"  Mr.  Joseph  Swett,  a  young  man  of  strict  justice,  of  great  indus- 
try, enterprising  genius,  quick  apprehension,  and  firm  resolution, 
but  small  fortune,  was  the  first  man  who  engaged  in  it.  He  sent 
a  cargo  to  Barbadoes;  and  from  the  profits  of  the  voyage  found 
that  he  increased  his  stock,  and  went  on  building  vessels,  till  he 
was  enabled  to  send  vessels  to  Europe,  loading  them  with  fish,  and 
pointing  out  to  others  the  path  to  riches.  The  more  promising  young 
men  of  the  town  followed  his  example ;  and  from  this  small  begin- 
ning, Marblehead  became  one  of  the  first  trading  towns  of  the  Bay. 
In  the  year  1766,  there  were  between  thirty  and  forty  ships,  brigs, 
snows,  and  topsail  schooners  engaged  in  foreign  trade." 

*  Coll.  Mass.  Hist.  Soc.,  vol.  viii. 


About  1770  Marblehead  was  supposed  to  contain  a  greater  num- 
ber of  inhabitants  than  any  other  town  of  the  province,  Boston  ex- 
-cepted.  During  the  revolutionary  war  this  place  suifered  severely, 
and  the  business  of  the  place  was  almost  wholly  destroyed.  The 
inhabitants  were  firm  in  the  cause  of  American  liberty,  and  this 
place  alone  furnished,  of  its  own  inhabitants,  for  the  public  service, 
one  entire  regiment,  completely  officered  and  manned.  The  value 
of  this  regiment  at  that  trying  period,  composed  of  men  inured  to 
fatigue  and  danger,  and  not  wasted  by  sickness  in  any  one  instance, 
is  best  determined  by  a  recollection  of  their  patience,  bravery,  and 
effective  service.  Captain  James  Mugford,  an  inhabitant  of  this 
place,  rendered  an  important  service  to  the  American  army  during 
the  Revolution,  by  capturing,  at  a  critical  juncture,  a  British  ship 
just  arrived  in  the  vicinity  of  Boston,  richly  laden  with  arms,  am- 
munition, and  other  warlike  stores.  He  was  killed  the  same  day  he 
made  the  capture,  January  12th,  1776,  in  attempting  to  return  from 
Boston  to  Marblehead,  while  defending  his  little  privateer  from  the 
attack  of  some  boats  sent  from  the  British  men-of-war  riding  at 
Nantasket  road.  Their  object  was  to  take  him  at  the  moment  his 
vessel  run  ashore  on  a  point  of  land,  which  makes  the  entrance  of 
Pudding  Point  Gut.  Captain  Mugford  fought  for  a  considerable 
time.  At  length,  one  of  the  boats  attempting  to  board  hirn,  he 
sprung  to  the  railing  of  his  vessel  in  order  the  better  to  repel  the 
enemy  ;  he  was  mortally  wounded  by  a  pistol-shot.  Falling  back, 
one  of  his  crew  anxiously  inquired  if  he  was  wounded.  He  said, 
"  Yes,  but  don't  let  the  enemy  know  my  situation,  and  if  I  die  act  as 
if  I  were  alive  and  were  still  commanding;"  after  which  he  immedi- 
ately expired.  His  brave  seamen  made  dreadful  havoc  of  the  limbs 
and  lives  of  the  enemy,  beat  them  off,  and  got  into  Marblehead, 
where  great  respect  was  shown  to  the  remains  of  Capt.  Mugford. 

The  Rev.  Samuel  Cheever,  the  first  minister  of  Marblehead,  was 
ordained  in  1684,  having  preached  here  sixteen  years  previous  to 
his  settlement.  He  died  in  1724,  aged  eighty-five.  He  preached 
upwards  of  half  a  century  without  being  taken  off  from  his  labors 
one  Sabbath ;  when  he  died,  the  lamp  of  life  fairly  burnt  out,  for 
he  felt  no  pain  even  in  his  expiring  moments.  He  was  succeeded 
by  Mr.  John  Barnard,  who  had  been  previously  an  assistant  pastor 
with  Mr.  Cheever.  He  died  in  1770,  and  was  succeeded  by  Mr. 
William  Whitwell.  Mr.  Ebenezer  Hubbard  succeeded  Mr.  Whit- 
well,  was  ordained  in  1783,  and  died  in  1800.  Mr.  Samuel  Dana 
was  ordained  pastor  in  1801.  The  second  church  in  Marblehead 
was  formed  when  Mr.  Barnard  was  assistant  pastor  with  Mr. 
Cheever.  Mr.  Edward  Holyoke,  afterward  president  of  Harvard 
college,  appears  to  have  been  the  first  minister.  He  was  chosen 
president  in  1737.  His  successor  in  the  ministry  at  Marblehead 
was  Mr.  Simon  Bradstreet,  who  was  ordained  in  1738.  Mr.  Brad- 
street  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Isaac  Story,  in  1772.  One  of  the  first 
Episcopal  societies  in  Massachusetts  was  planted  in  Marblehead. 
Their  first  minister  was  Mr.  William  Shaw ;  the  next  Mr.  David 
Monsam,  who  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  George  Pigot  and  Alexander 


Malcolm.  Mr.  Peter  Bours,  their  fifth  minister,  was  highly  es- 
teemed by  Christians  of  all  denominations.  He  was  succeeded  by 
Mr.  Joshua  Wirigate  Weeks.  For  several  years  after  the  Revolu- 
tion, the  church  was  destitute.  Mr.  Thomas  Oliver  was  their  next 
minister ;  he  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  William  Harris.  The  next 
clergyman  was  Mr.  James  Bowers,  who  was  ordained  in  Trinity 
church,  in  Boston,  May  25,  1802,  by  the  hands  of  the  Rev.  Bishop 
Bass.  In  1789  a  number  of  the  inhabitants  of  Marblehead  erected 
a  meeting-house  for  those  "  whose  opinions  differed  from  the 
opinions  of  their  neighbors."  In  1800  a  meeting-house  was  built 
for  the  Methodist  denomination.  The  Baptist  society  was  estab- 
lished in  1803. 

John  Glover,  a  brigadier  general  in  the  American  army  in  the 
revolutionary  war,  was  a  native  of  this  town. 

He  had  the  command  of  a  regiment  from  the  beginning  of  the  revolutionary  contest. 
He  had  the  honor,  with  his  brave  officers  and  soldiers,  of  forming  the  advance  part  ot 
the  army  which,  in  a  bold  and  intrepid  manner,  crossed  the  Delaware  in  the  night  of 
the  25th  of  December,  1776,  at  a  most  inhospitable  and  hazardous  juncture,  and  added 
much  to  the  martial  glory  of  the  American  forces  by  capturing,  at  Trenton,  a  thousand 
Hessians,  under  the  immortal  Washington.  This  propitious  event  inspired  the  conti 
nental  army  with  confidence  of  the  final  happy  result,  and  was  followed  with  victories 
in  every  quarter,  till  Heaven  sanctioned  the  justice  of  the  American  appeal  with  the  dis- 
comfiture of  the  enemy  and  the  freedom  of  the  United  States. 

General  Glover  had  the  honor  of  conducting  Burgoyne's  army,  after  its  surrender, 
through  the  New  England  states  ;  and,  in  various  instances,  during  the  war,  he  had 
the  warm  approbation  and  unqualified  applause  of  his  commander-in-chief.  A  want 
of  documents  prevents  the  author  of  this  work  from  paying  a  more  full  tribute  of  res- 
pect to  the  memory  of  one  of  the  most  brave,  bold,  and  persevering  officers  of  the 
revolutionary  army.  He,  therefore,  cannot  better  close  this  article,  than  with  an 
extract  from  a  letter,  addressed  to  General  Glover  by  General  Washington,  dated 
Morris,  26  April,  1777,  soon  after  his  appointment  to  the  command  of  a  brigade. 

"  Diffidence  in  an  officer  is  a  good  mark,  because  he  will  always  endeavor  to  bring 
himself  up  to  what  he  conceives  to  be  the  full  line  of  his  duty  ;  but,  I  think  I  may 
tell  you  without  flattery,  that  I  know  of  no  man  better  qualified  than  you  to  con- 
duct a  brigade.  You  have  activity  and  industry,  and  as  you  very  well  know  the  duty 
of  a  colonel,  you  know  how  to  exact  that  duty  from  others." — Aided 's  Coll.  vol.  iii. 

"  Hon.  Elbridge  Geny,  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Declaration  of 
Independence,  was  born  in  Marblehead,  July  17,  1744,  and  from 
his  first  election  as  representative  of  his  native  town  in  the  legis- 
lature, he  continued  in  public  life,  almost  without  intermission,  fil- 
ling the  most  important  offices,  such  as  that  of  a  member  of  con- 
gress, ambassador  to  France,  governor  of  the  commonwealth,  and 
vice  president  of  the  United  States,  till  his  decease.  His  spirit 
was  nourished  by  close  communion  with  the  Adamses,  Hancock, 
Warren,  &c  On  the  night  preceding  the  battle  of  Lexington,  he 
narrowly  escaped  capture  as  one  of  the  'rebel'  committee  of  the 
provincial  congress.  In  1813,  as  he  was  proceeding  to  the  senate 
chamber  at  Washington,  '  a  sudden  extravasation  of  blood  ,took 
place  upon  the  lungs,  and  terminated  his  life  within  twenty 
minutes,  almost  without  a  struggle,  and  apparently  without  pain.' n 
-  -Essex  Memorial. 

The  following  inscriptions  are  from  monuments  in  this  place  : 

206  M  K  T  H  U  E  N  . 

In  memory  of  the  rev.  JOHN  BARNARD,  a  faithful  pastor  of  the  first  church  in  Mar- 
blehead.  He  was  a  learned  divine,  a  judicious  and  profitable  preacher,  who  has  left 
excellent  performances  to  his  and  their  posterity.  He  exhibited  a  bright  example  of 
piety  and  Christian  virtue,  was  a  promoter  of  peace  and  friendship,  an  ornament  to  the 
church  and  town,  and  after  a  long  life  spent  in  the  service  of  Christ  and  souls,  on  the 
24th  of  Jan.  1770,  in  the  54  year  of  his  ministry,  and  the  89  of  his  age,  fell  asleep  in 

Memorise  sacrum  rev.  domini  JOHANNIS  BARNARD,  primae  Christi  ecclesise  apud  Mar- 
blehead  pastoris  fidelis.  Theologus  erat  vere  eruditus,  concionator  admodum  sapiens 
utilisque.  Suis  non  solum  quin  et  posteris  moruta  reliquit.  Exemplum  pietatis  ac 
christianae  virtutis  insigne,  amicitiae  et  pacis  cultor,  ecclesise  et  oppidi  decus  nmltos 
post  labores  Christi  et  animarum  causa  peractos  hac  vita,  Januarii  24,  1770,  et  minis- 
terii  54  setatis  que  89,  placide  decessit. 

Under  this  stone  lies  the  body  of  the  Rev.  PETER  BOURS,  once  minister  of  this  church, 
which  office,  for  the  space  of  nine  years,  he  discharged  with  faithfulness,  teaching  the 
doctrines  of  the  gospel  with  plainness  and  fervency,  illustrating  the  truth  and  reality 
of  what  he  taught,  by  his  own  life,  the  goodness  of  which,  joined  with  great  candor, 
and  unbounded  benevolence  of  mind,  obtained  for  him  not  only  the  most  sincere  love  of 
his  own  people,  but  also  the  love  of  virtuous  men  of  every  persuasion.  He  died  24  Feb- 
ruary, 1762,  aged  36  years.  To  his  memory  his  people  have  erected  this  monument  in 
testimony  of  his  great  worth  and  their  sincere  regards. 

Persuasion  draws,  example  leads  the  mind  ; 
Their  double  force  compels,  when  meetly  joined. 


THE  eastern  part  of  this  town  was  formerly  a  part  of  Haverhill. 
It  was  incorporated  as  a  town  in  1725.  The  soil  near  the  Merri- 
mac,  which  is  the  south-western  boundary  of  the  town,  is  not  so 
good  as  that  in  the  more  northern  part.  The  surface  of  the  town- 
ship is  broken  into  a  variety  of  hills  and  valleys,  and  the  soil  may 
be  in  general  considered  as  good.  Spicket  or  Spiggot  river,  in  its 
course  from  New  Hampshire,  centrally  intersects  and  falls  into  the 
Merrimac.  This  little  river  has  a  fall  of  about  thirty  feet  down  a 
rocky  precipice,  and  affords  a  plentiful  supply  of  water  for  manu- 
facturing purposes.  This  has  been  improved,  and  there  is  now  a 
nourishing  village  at  this  place,  containing  about  1,000  inhabitants, 
3  churches,  1  Baptist,  1  Congregational,  and  1  Universalist.  Me- 
thuen  Falls  village  is  situated  about  one  mile  south  of  the  New 
Hampshire  line.  The  engraving  shows  the  appearance  of  the  vil- 
lage as  seen  from  the  eastward.  The  Congregational  church  ap- 
pears on  elevated  ground  in  the  distance  on  the  extreme  right ;  the 
Baptist  church,  the  largest  in  the  village,  is  the  nearest ;  the  Uni- 
versalist church  is  seen  beyond  in  the  distance  ;  the  large  factory, 
built  of  brick,  is  seen  on  the  extreme  left,  standing  by  the  falls. 
Distance,  9  miles  from  Lowell,  9  from  Haverhill,  5  worn  Andover, 
and  25  from  Boston.  A  cotton  factory  was  commenced  here  about 
1812,  by  Stephen  Minot,  Esq.  of  Haverhill.  This  was  burnt  in 
1818,  but  was  rebuilt  soon  after.  A  newspaper,  the  "Methuen 
Falls  Gazette,"  was  commenced  here  in  Jan.  1835.  A  paper-mill  was 
erected  in  this  town  in  1826.  The  following,  relative  to  this  town, 
is  from  the  Statistical  Tables,  published  by  the  state  in  1837.  Cot- 
ton mills  2  •  cotton  spindles,  4,400 ;  cotton  consumed,  527,899  Ibs. ; 



Eastern  view  of  Methwn  Falls  Village. 

cotton  goods  manufactured.  1,019,9:)3  yards;  value  of  the  same, 
$190,000 ;  males  employed,  55 ;  females,  225 ;  capital  invested, 
$180,000  ;  sperm  oil  used  by  the  manufacturers,  2,750  gallons. 
Shoes  manufactured,  211,300  pairs;  value  of  the  same,  $159.225  : 
males  employed,  190 ;  females,  167.  Manufactories  of  hats,  5 ; 
hats  manufactured,  48,000  ;  value  of  hats,  $23,000 ;  males  employ- 
ed, 36  ;  females,  9.  Paper-mills,  2  ;  stock  manufactured,  195  tons ; 
value  of  paper,  $32,500.  Value  of  piano  forte  frames,  $10,000. 

The  first  church  in  this  town  was  formed  in  1729,  and  Rev. 
Christopher  Sergeant  was  ordained  the  same  year.  He  died  in 
1790.  Rev.  Simon  F.  Williams,  a  colleague  with  Mr.  Sergeant,  was 
dismissed  in  1791.  Rev.  Humphrey  C.  Perley,  his  successor,  was 
ordained  in  1795,  and  dismissed  in  1815.  Rev.  Jacob  W.  Eastman, 
the  next  pastor,  was  settled  in  1815,  and  retired  in  1828.  A  second 
church  was  formed  in  1766,  and  Rev.  Eliphaz  Chapman  was  or- 
dained in  1772.  The  second  pastor  was  John  H.  Stephens,  the 
third  Josiah  Hill.  (The  first  and  second  churches  were  united 
from  1817  to  1830.)  The  Baptist  church  was  formed  in  1815,  and 
Rev.  Charles  O.  Kimball  was  ordained  pastor  the  next  year.  The 
Universalist  society  was  organized  in  1824.  A  small  Episcopal 
society  was  formed  here  in  1833.  Population,  2.463. 


THIS  town  was  incorporated  in  1728.  It  was  formed  of  the  uni- 
ted corners  of  several  adjoining  towns.  The  first  church  was 
gathered  here  in  1729,  and  Rev.  Andrew  Peters,  the  first  pastor, 
was  settled  the  same  year.  The  second  pastor,  Rev.  Elias  Smith, 
was  settled  in  1759.  He  died  in  1792.  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev. 
Solomon  Adams  in  1793.  Rev.  Ebenezer  Hubbard,  the  next  pastor, 
was  settled  in  1816 ;  his  successor,  Rev.  Forrest  Jeffords,  was  set 


208  N  E  W  B  U  B  Y  . 

tied  in  1832.     There  is  another  society  in  this  town,  called  the 
United  Society. 

The  surface  of  the  township  is  uneven,  and  the  soil  requires 
good  management  and  great  industry  to  render  it  productive.  The 
inhabitants  live  scattered  over  the  town,  there  being  no  village  of 
importance.  In  1837,  there  were  300  pairs  of  boots  and  500  pairs 
of  shoes  manufactured,  valued  at  $1,500;  and  one  paper-mill, 
which  manufactured  100  tons  of  stock ;  value  of  paper,  $35,000. 
Population,  671.  Distance,  7  miles  N.  W .  of  Salem,  18  from  New- 
buryport,  and  20  N.  of  Boston. 


NEWBURY  was  originally  one  of  the  largest  as  well  as  one  of  the 
oldest  towns  in  Massachusetts.  "  In  1633,  arrived  a  number  of 
people  in  the  ship  Hector,  who  settled  at  Quafcacanquen.  In  May, 
1634,  arrived  Mr.  Thomas  Parker  and  Mr.  James  Noyes.  Mr. 
Parker,  and  about  a  hundred  who  came  over  with  him,  sat  down 
at  Ipswich,  where  he  continued  about  a  year,  while  Mr.  Noyes 
preached  at  Medford.  In  May,  1635,  some  of  the  principal  people 
of  Ipswich  petitioned  the  general  court  for  liberty  to  remove  to 
Quafcacanquen,  which  was  granted,  and  the  place  incorporated  by 
the  name  of  Newbury.  This  was  the  tenth  church  gathered  in 
the  colony.  Mr.  Noyes  was  chosen  teacher,  and  Mr.  Parker  pas- 
tor of  the  church."  The  first  settlement  was  made  on  the  banks 
of  Parker  river,  which  is  about  8  miles  north  of  Ipswich,  and  about 
4  south  of  the  middle  of  Newburyport,  on  Merrimac  river.  Thence 
the  settlements  were  soon  extended  westward  up  the  river  Parker 
about  4  or  5  miles  to  the  falls,  and  northward  to  the  Merrimac  and 
the  lands  adjacent. 

The  territorial  limits  of  this  town  have  been  greatly  reduced,  and 
its  wealth  more  than  proportionably  diminished,  by  the  formation 
of  the  towns  of  Newburyport  and  West  Newbury.  Those  parts 
of  the  town  most  compactly  settled  join  on  to  Newburyport.  That 
portion  which  lies  on  the  south-east  side  contains  about  1,100  peo- 
ple in  a  compact  settlement,  who  are  generally  engaged  in  the  fish- 
eries. There  are  4  churches  within  the  present  limits  of  the  town, 
and  a  cotton  factory.  In  five  years  preceding  1837,  there  were 
built  57  vessels,  the  tonnage  of  which  was  11,907;  valued  at 
$721,610;  hands  employed  in  ship-building,  136.  Population, 
3,771.  Distance  from  Boston,  31  miles.  Plum  Island,  the  greater 
part  of  which  lies  in  this  town,  is  mostly  composed  of  sand.  It  is, 
however,  esteemed  a  salutary  resort  for  invalids  in  the  summer 
season ;  it  is  also  a  favorite  haunt  for  pleasure  parties.  One  cause 
of  attraction  is  from  the  copious  supply  of  beach  plums  which  are 
found  on  the  island  in  the  autumn. 

Dummer  Academy,  in  the  limits  of  this  town,  is  located  in  Byfield 
parish,  and  is  the  oldest  institution  of  the  kind  in  New  England, 

N  E  W  B  U  R  Y  .  209 

being  founded  by  Lieut.  Gov.  Dummer,  in  1756 ;  it  was  not,  how- 
ever, incorporated  till  Oct.  1782,  which  was  subsequent  to  the  in- 
corporation of  Phillips  Academy  at  Andover.  It  is  richly  endowed, 
and  its  location  is  retired;  pleasant,  and  remarkably  healthy. 

The  following,  relative  to  the  ancient  manner  of  building  church- 
es, is  from  the  appendix  to  Rev.  J.  S.  Popkins'  Sermon,  1806. 

"  October  5, 1698,  the  vote  was  passed  to  build  the  former  meeting-house.  April  22, 
1700,  Sergeant  Stephen  Jaques,  the  builder,  was  ordered  to  hang  the  bell  in  the  new 
turret.  October  18,  Col.  Daniel  Pierce,  Esq.  and  Tristram  Coffin,  Esq.  were  impower- 
ed  to  procure  a  bell  for  the  new  meeting-house,  of  about  400  pounds  weight.  Decem- 
ber 16,  1700,  the  place  of  each  man  and  woman,  was  assigned,  by  a  committee.  The 
number  of  men  placed  was  about  176.  This  appears  to  have  been  the  time  of  occupy- 
ing the  meeting-house.  The  body  of  the  house  was  filled  with  long  seats.  Contiguous 
to  the  wall  were  twenty  pews.  The  spaces  for  the  pews  were  granted  to  particular 
persons  who  appear  to  have  been  principals.  Before  the  pulpit  and  deacons'  seat  was 
a  large  pew  containing  a  table,  where  sat  the  chiefs  of  the  fathers.  The  young  people 
sat  in  the  upper  gallery,  and  the  children  on  a  seat  in  the  alley  fixed  to  the  outside  of 
the  pews.  The  floor  measured  60  and  50  feet.  The  roof  was  constructed  with  four 
gable  ends  or  projections,  one  on  each  side,  each  containing  a  large  window,  which  gave 
light  to  the  upper  galleries.  The  turret  was  on  the  center.  The  space  within  was  open  te 
the  roof,  where  was  visible  plenty  of  timber,  with  great  needles  and  little  needles  point- 
ing downwards,  which  served  at  once  for  strength  and  ornament.  There  were  many 
ornaments  of  antique  sculpture  and  wainscot.  It  was  a  stately  building  in  the  day  of 
it,  but  it  was  not  my  lot  to  see  it  in  all  its  ancient  glory.  Long  ago  a  wall  was  spread 
overhead,  which  was  dropping  down,  and  the  floor  was  occupied  by  pews.  The  roof 
made  plain,  the  four  very  steep  sides  terminating  in  a  platform,  which  supported  a 
steeple  " 

The  following  inscriptions  are  from  monuments  in  this  town : — 

A  Resurrection  to  immortality — is  here  expected— for  what  was  mortal — of  the  Rev- 
erend Mr.  JOHN  RICHARDSON,  (once  Fellow  of  Harvard  Colledge,  afterwards  Teacher  to 
the  church  at  Newbury,)  putt  off  Apr.  27, 1696,  in  the  fiftieth  year  of  his  age. 

When  Preachers  dy  the  Rules  the  pulpit  gave 
to  live  well,  are  still  preached  from  the  grave, 
The  Faith  and  Life,  which  your  dead  Pastor  taught 
in  one  grave  now  with  him,  Syrs  bury  not. 

Abi,  viator ;  A mortuo  disce  vivere  ut  moriturus,  E.  Terrio  disce  eogitare  de Ccelis.* 

Here  lyes  the  Body  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  CHRISTOPHER  TAPPAN,  master  of  Arts,  fourth 
Pastorof  the  First  church  in  Newbury  ;  a  gentleman  of  good  Learning,  conspicuous  Pi- 
ety and  virtue,  shining  both  by  his  Doctrine  and  Life,  skilled  and  greatly  improv'd  in 
the  Practice  of  Physic  and  Surgery,  who  deceas'd  July  23d,  1747,  in  the  76th  year  of 
his  Age  and  the  51st  year  of  his  Pastoral  office. 

Beneath  are  the  remains  of  Rev.  JOHN  TUCKER  D.  D.  Pastor  of  the  first  Church  and 
Congregation  in  this  town,  who  died  March  22d,  1792,  Etat.  73.  Blessed  with  strong 
mental  Powers,  a  liberal  education,  and  an  uncommon  mildness  of  Temper,  all  directed 
and  improved  by  that  faith  which  purifies  the  heart,  rendered  Him  dearly  beloved  in 
every  relation  in  which  he  was  placed,  and  more  especially  made  him  conspicuously- 
useful  as  a  minister  of  the  Gospel  when  meeting  with  peculiar  Difficulties.  He  emi- 
nently complied  with  that  direction  of  his  Master  to  the  first  Preachers  of  his  Gospel, 
Be  ye  wise  as  serpents  and  harmless  as  doves.  As  he  lived  a  life  of  piety,  he  met 
with  death  with  Serenety.  By  his  doctrine  and  example  he  taught  the  humility  and 
meekness,  and  at  his  death  he  exhibited  the  dignity  and  triumph,  of  the  real  Christian. 

*  Which  may  be  plainly  translated :  Go,  traveller ;  from  the  dead  learn  to  live,  as 
«ne  that  must  die ;  from  the  earth  learn  to  think  of  the  heavens. 



THIS  town  is  the  smallest  in  its  territorial  limits  of  any  m  the 
commonwealth,  containing  but  about  six  hundred  and  forty-seven 
acres.  It  was  formerly  the  port  of  the  town  of  Newbury,  and  was 
incorporated  as  a  distinct  town  in  1764.  Previous  to  the  Revolu- 
tion, Newburyport  was  quite  a  commercial  place,  and  the  commerce 
with  the  French  West  Indies  was  constant  and  profitable.  During 
the  period  of  the  Revolution  "  the  people  of  this  town  signalized 
their  patriotism  and  love  of  independence  by  consenting  to  the  non- 
importation agreement,  declaring  their  abhorrence  of  the  stamp-act, 
and  other  arbitrary  measures  of  the  ministry,  preparing  the  means 
of  defence  and  warfare,  resolving  to  support  the  Declaration  of  In- 
dependence with  their  lives  and  fortunes,  and  nobly  keeping  this 
resolution  inviolate.  Few  parts  of  the  country  sacrificed  more  in 
proportion  for  the  sake  of  freedom,  than  did  Newburyport,  in  sub- 
mitting to  have  its  staple  business  of  ship-building  broken  up,  in- 
curring large  debts  for  the  defence  of  the  harbor,  weakening  its 
population  for  the  supply  of  the  continental  armies,  and  undergo- 
ing many  other  privations  and  embarrassments  attendant  on  a  state 
of  protracted  warfare.  The  citizens  gained  a  little,  and  but  a  lit- 
tle, by  privateering ;  and  in  other  respects  the  town  stood  almost 
still  during  the  war,  and  until  peace  restored  its  commercial  advan- 

During  the  difficulties  with  the  French  directory,  Newburyport 
presented  an  uncommon  example  of  patriotism  by  building  a 
twenty-gun  ship  by  the  subscription  of  some  of  the  principal  in- 
habitants of  the  town,  and  offered  it  to  the  government,  and  asked 
for  the  final  reimbursement  of  the  net  cost  "  at  the  convenience 
of  the  government."  This  offer,  when  our  navy  was  small,  and 
the  means  of  the  government  limited,  was  felt  to  be  valuable.  The 
commercial  prosperity  of  Newburyport  was  at  one  period  almost 
unexampled  in  a  town  of  its  size.  But  commercial  restrictions  ; 
the  fire  of  1811 ;  and  the  war  of  1812,  bore  heavily  upon  a  mer- 
cantile and  ship-building  population,  and  the  town  has  not  entirely 
recovered  its  former  prosperity.  The  sand  bar  at  the  mouth  of  the 
Merrimac.  which,  in  prosperous  times,  would  have  afforded  no 
great  obstacle  to  trade,  became,  under  disastrous  circumstances,  a 
source  of  despondence. 

The  following  description  of  Newburyport  is  extracted  from 
Newhall's  Essex  Memorial,  published  in  1836. 

"  The  situation  of  the  town  is  indeed  uncommonly  beautiful. 
The  populous  part  stands  upon  a  slope,  gently  declining  to  the 
river,  so  that  a  summer  rain  can  at  any  time  completely  wash  the 
streets.  By  whatever  avenue  it  is  approached,  its  appearance 
never  fails  to  impress  the  mind  of  the  visiter  with  pleasurable  sen- 
sations. The  compact  settlement  of  the  town  of  Newbury  enclosing 
it  upon  two  sides  along  the  bank  of  the  river,  as  you  approach  it 
upon  the  eastern  road  or  from  the  sea,  it  presents  the  aspect  of  a 
considerable  city,  extending  to  the  distance  of  nearly  three  miles 


The  town  is  laid  out  with  an  unusual  degree  of  regularity.  A 
lower  street,  upon  which  the  wharves  and  docks  open,  follows  the 
course  of  the  river ;  and  parallel  with  this  an  upper  or  High  street 
extends  the  whole  length  of  the  town.  Various  avenues  pass 
through  its  center,  and  a  sufficient  number  of  generally  wide  and 
spacious  streets,  at  regular  intervals,  intersect  these  at  right  angles, 
and  connect  the  upper  with  the  lower  street.  The  main  post  road 
from  Boston  enters  Newburyport  nearly  at  the  central  point  of 
High  street,  and  passes  in  a  direct  line  through  the  town  to  a  very 
large  and  convenient  market-place,  which  is  surrounded  by  brick 
stores,  and  is  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  principal  wharves 
and  docks.  The  dwelling-houses  and  other  buildings  are  general- 
ly kept  in  good  repair  and  condition,  and  present  a  neat  and  often 
elegant  appearance.  Some  of  the  principal  houses  are  extremely 
handsome ;  and  there  are  few  of  any  condition  which  do  not  pos- 
sess a  considerable  garden  spot,  which  gives  a  very  open  and  airy 
aspect  to  the  town,  at  the  same  time  that  it  promotes  that  general 
health  for  which  this  place  has  always  been  highly  distinguished. 
Indeed,  a  great  deal  of  attention  has  been  paid  here,  of  late  years, 
to  ornamental  as  well  as  common  gardening. 

u  The  Newburyport  bridge  crosses  the  Merrimac  from  the  north 
part  of  the  town.  It  was  built  in  1827.  Abutments  with  stone 
walls,  filled  in  with  sods,  gravel,  &c.,  project  from  either  shore. 
That  on  the  Newburyport  side  is  240,  and  that  on  the  Salisbury 
side  is  187  yards  long.  The  bridge  rests  on  these  abutments  and 
on  four  piers  built  of  stone  from  high-water  mark,  and  is  further 
supported  by  chains  passing  over  the  tops  of  pyramids  erected  on 
the  piers  and  under  the  centers  of  the  arches.  The  span  of  the 
center  arch  is  83  yards.  The  bridge  is  built  in  two  distinct  longi- 
tudinal parts,  so  that,  in  case  of  accident  to  one,  the  passage  of  the 
river  will  not  be  interrupted.  Whole  length,  three  sevenths  of  a 
mile.  Cost,  $70,000.  There  has  been  a  rapid  and  steady  increase 
of  travel  over  this  bridge.  The  tolls  taken  in  1835  amounted  to 
nearly  double  those  of  1827. 

"  A  breakwater  was  constructed  by  the  United  States,  in  1830, 
near  the  mouth  of  the  harbor,  for  the  purpose  of  improving  the 
same,  at  an  expense  exceeding  $30,000.  It  has  as  yet  been  pro- 
ductive of  but  little  if  any  advantage.  A  pier  has  since  been  erect- 
ed on  Salisbury  side,  covering  Badger's  rocks,  which  affords  a 
convenient  harbor  for  vessels  when  prevented  from  coming  up  to 
town.  The  Newburyport  turnpike  to  Boston  commences  at  the 
head  of  State  street,  and  is  continued  in  a  direct  course  to  Maiden 
bridge.  It  was  finished  in  1806,  at  an  expense  of  $420,000,  but 
is  now  little  travelled. 

"  A  custom-house  has  just  been  completed,  situated  on  Water 
street.  It  is  built  of  rough  granite,  with  hammered  stone  pilasters, 
entablature,  cornice  and  portico.  The  roof  is  covered  with  zinc. 
With  the  exception  of  the  windows  and  window-frames,  it  is  built 
entirely  of  stone  and  brick.  The  style  of  architecture  is  the  Gre- 
cian Doric,  and  the  cost  of  the  building  $25,000.  There  are  eight 


churches,  a  stone  jail  and  a  keeper's  house,  an  almshouse,  an  ele- 
gant brick  court-house,  on  Bartlett's  mall;  High  street.  There 
is  also  a  brick  market-house,  containing  a  town  hall,  and  rooms 
for  municipal  officers.  The  Newburyport  Academy,  though  situ- 
ated within  the  bounds  of  Newbury,  was  built,  as  its  name  implies, 
by  persons  in  Newburyport.  It  is  a  handsome  brick  building, 
situated  on  High  street.  A  private  school  is  now  kept  in  it.  The 
Newburyport  Lyceum  occupy  the  hall  in  the  second  story,  which 
is  a  very  handsome  and  convenient  room,  and  was  fitted  for  them 
at  an  expense  of  $1,200." 

There  are  3  banks — the  Mechanics,  incorporated  1812,  capital 
$200,000;  the  Merchants,  incorporated  1831,  capital  $300,000; 
and  the  Ocean,  incorporated  in  1833,  capital  $200,000.  There  is 
an  institution  for  savings,  and  3  insurance  companies.  Two 
newspapers  are  published,  one  semi-weekly  the  other  semi- 
monthly. In  1837  there  were  128  vessels  employed  in  the  cod 
and  mackerel  fishery  from  Newburyport  and  Newbury ;  tonnage, 
6,628;  cod-fish  caught,  11,400  quintals;  value  of  the  same, 
$34,200;  mackerel  caught,  20,500  barrels;  value  of  the  same, 
$143,500 ;  hands  employed,  one  thousand.  Four  vessels  were 
employed  in  the  whale  fishery;  tonnage,  1,440;  sperm  oil  import- 
ed, 148,480  gallons ;  whale  oil,  80,650  gallons ;  hands  employed, 
120.  The  value  of  boots  and  shoes  manufactured,  $113,173; 
males  employed,  206;  females,  114.  The  population  of  New- 
buryport in  1790  was  4,837;  in  1800,  5,946 ;  in  1810,7,634;  in 
1820,  6,789;  in  1830,  6,388;  and  in  1837,  6,741.  Distance,  20 
miles  N.  of  Salem,  24  southerly  from  Portsmouth,  and  38  from 
Boston,  on  the  main  post  road. 

The  following  account  of  the  great  fire  in  this  place  is  from 
Cushing's  History  of  Newburyport,  published  in  1826. 

But  in  addition  to  the  evils  arising  to  us  from  the  cupidity  of  the  European  belli- 
gerents, and  the  restrictive  and  retaliatory  measures  into  which  this  country  was  con- 
sequently driven,  Newburyport  was  doomed  to  suffer  by  a  peculiar  misfortune.  This 
was  the  great  fire  of  1811,  which  desolated  the  busiest  portion  of  the  town,  by  its 
destructive  ravages  ;  and  whose  effects  still  meet  the  eye,  in  the  depopulation  of  streets 
formerly  filled  with  dwelling-houses  and  shops. 

This  conflagration  commenced  in  a  stable  in  Mechanic  Row,  near  the  Market  Square, 
and  of  course  in  the  center  of  the  portion  of  the  town  devoted  to  trade  and  business. 
The  stable  was  at  the  time  unoccupied,  and  when  the  fire  was  discovered  was  found 
to  be  completely  enveloped  in  flames.  This  was  at  half  past  nine  o'clock  in  the  even- 
ing of  the  thirty-first  day  of  May,  1811.  The  fire  quickly  extended  to  Market  Square 
on  the  one  hand,  and  to  State  street  on  the  other,  and  soon  spread  in  various  directions, 
with  a  degree  of  celerity  and  fury  which  baffled  all  exertions  to  stop  its  progress.  The 
fire  continued  to  rage  until  about  two  o'clock  in  the  morning,  soon  after  which  its  vio- 
lence diminished ;  and  by  sunrise  it  had  in  a  great  measure  subsided,  after  having 
swept  away  everything  on  a  tract  of  land  of  sixteen  and  a  half  acres,  leaving  there 
only  a  mass  of  deplorable  ruins.  No  part  of  the  town  was  more  compactly  built  than 
this ;  none  contained  so  large  a  proportion  of  valuable  buildings,  merchandise,  and 
other  property.  Indeed,  the  compactness  of  the  buildings,  which  were  chiefly  construct- 
ed of  wood,  served  constantly  to  feed  the  flames  with  combustible  materials,  so  that 
for  a  time  the  destruction  of  the  whole  town  was  seriously  apprehended.  It  was  esti- 
mated that  nearly  250  buildings  were  consumed,  most  of  which  were  stores  and  dwell- 
ing-houses. This  number  included  nearly  all  the  shops  in  town  for  the  sale  of  dry 
goods  j  four  printing-offices  j  the  custom-house  j  the  post-office  ;  two  insurance  offices ; 


four  bookstores;  and  one  meeting-house;  and  the  dwellings  of  more  than  ninety 

The  scene  presented  by  this  conflagration  was  truly  terrible.  It  is  described  by  an 
eye-witness  in  the  ensuing  words  : 

"  At  the  commencement  of  the  fire,  it  was  a  bright  moonlight  night,  and  the  evening 
was  cool  and  pleasant.  But  the  moon  gradually  became  obscured,  and  at  length  disap- 
peared in  the  thick  cloud  of  smoke  which  shrouded  the  atmosphere.  The  glare  of 
light  throughout  the  town  was  intense,  and  the  heat  that  of  a  sultry  summer  noon. 
The  streets  were  thronged  with  those  whose  dwellings  were  consumed,  conveying  the 
remains  of  their  property  to  places  of  safety.  The  incessant  crash  of  falling  buildings, 
the  roaring  of  chimneys  like  distant  thunder,  the  flames  ascending  in  curling  volumes 
from  a  vast  extent  of  ruins,  the  air  filled  with  a  shower  of  fire,  and  the  feathered  throng 
fluttering  over  their  wonted  retreats  and  dropping  into  the  flames,  the  lowing  of  the 
cows,  and  the  confused  noise  of  exertion  and  distress,  united  to  impress  the  mind  with 
the  most  awful  sensations." 

The  unprecedented  rapidity  with  which  the  flames  spread  themselves  over  the  town, 
may  be  inferred  from  the  following  circumstance.  Many  persons  had,  soon  after  the 
fire  began,  carried  their  goods  and  furniture  seemingly  to  a  secure  distance,  and  depo- 
sited them  in  the  meeting-house  of  the  Baptist  society  in  Liberty  street.  But  the  fire 
at  length  reached  this  place,  and  consumed  the  church  and  its  contents,  which,  being 
accumulated  there,  greatly  increased  the  flames. 

Nothing  was  more  remarkable  during  the  heart-rending  scene  of  this  destructive 
conflagration,  than  the  spectacle  which  State  street  exhibited  on  one  occasion.  Two 
large  brick  buildings,  four  stories  in  height,  stood  upon  the  western  side  of  this  street, 
and  opposed  a  barrier  to  the  destructive  element,  which  it  was  hoped  for  a  time  would 
there  be  arrested  in  its  course.  But  a  sudden  change  of  wind  threw  the  flames  directly 
upon  these  immense  piles,  which  were  speedily  involved  in  the  general  calamity.  The 
opposite  buildings  being  now  on  fire,  and  the  wind  blowing  with  great  force,  the  flames 
ascended  high  on  either  side,  and,  meeting  in  the  air,  extended  in  a  continual  sheet  of 
fire  across  the  spacious  street.  The  impression  made  by  this  tremendous  scene  upon 
the  mind  of  the  author  of  these  pages,  then  a  youthful  spectator  of  it,  will  never  be 
effaced  from  his  recollection.  It  was  sublime  beyond  conception.  The  beholder  could 
look  through  a  long  vista  of  over-arching  blaze,  whose  extreme  brilliancy  dazzled  and 
fatigued,  while  it  irresistibly  attracted,  the  straining  eye. 

The  sufferings  of  the  families,  whose  dwellings  and  property  were  consumed,  imme- 
diately excited  the  sympathy  of  the  liberal  and  charitable.  Meetings  were  held  in 
many  of  the  large  towns  in  various  parts  of  the  country ;  and  generous  donations 
were  received  from  different  quarters,  for  the  relief  of  the  inhabitants.  The  citizens 
of  Boston  collected  upwards  of  twenty-four  thousand  dollars,  which,  with  characteristic 
liberality,  they  presented  to  the  sufferers  by  the  fire.  By  these  means,  the  losses  of  the 
poorer  class  were  very  much  lightened,  and  the  extent  of  the  calamity  was  diminished. 
But  the  injury  to  the  town,  and  to  very  many  individuals,  by  the  absolute  destruction 
of  property,  was  still  very  serious ;  and  its  effects  must  long  continue  to  be  felt.  * 

The  first  religious  society  in  Newburyport  was  formed  in  1725, 
out  of  the  first  parish  in  Newbury,  and  the  Rev.  John  Lowell  was 
ordained  their  first  pastor  in  1726.  He  died  in  1767,  and  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  Thomas  Gary.  Rev.  John  Andrews  was  settled  as 
colleague  with  Mr.  Gary,  in  1788.  The  first  Presbyterian  society 
dates  its  origin  to  the  year  1744 ;  it  consisted  of  persons  who  se- 
parated about  that  time  from  the  first  and  third  churches  in  New- 
bury.  They  erected  a  house  of  worship  in  High  street,  in  which 
they  remained  until  1756,  when  the  present  church  in  -Federal 
street  was  built.  The  formation  of  this  church  took  place  in 
consequence  of  the  excitement  produced  by  the  preaching  of  Mr. 
Whitefield.  The  Episcopal  society  was  founded  in  1711.  The 
Orthodox  Congregational  church  was  founded  1767 ;  the  Indepen- 
dent Orthodox  in  1794 ;  the  second  Presbyterian  in  1795 ;  the 
Baptist  society  in  1804,  and  the  Methodist  Episcopal  in  1827. 




House  in  ivhich  M*.  Whitefield  died,  Nervburyport. 

The  above  ancient  house  is  now  standing  in  School  street,  in 
Newburyport.  It  was  the  residence  of  the  Rev.  Jonathan  Parsons, 
the  first  regular  pastor  of  the  first  Presbyterian  society.  It  is  an 
object  of  interest  on  account  of  its  being  the  place  where  Mr. 
Whitefield,  the  celebrated  preacher,  died.  His  lodging-room  was 
the  northern  chamber  on  the  second  floor,  two  sides  of  which  are 
seen  in  the  engraving.  He  died  in  the  entry  at  the  window  over 
the  front  door,  to  which  he  was  taken  to  obtain  the  air.  Some 
alterations  have  been  made  since  that  period  about  the  window 
and  front  door.  It  was  Mr.  Whitefield's  desire,  should  he  die  in 
this  country,  to  be  buried  under  Mr.  Parsons'  pulpit.  The  people 
of  Boston  and  other  places  were  desirous  of  having  Mr.  White- 
field's  remains  interred  among  them,  but  Mr.  Parsons  would  not 
consent,  but  followed  Mr.  Whitefield's  wishes  in  this  respect.  The 
first  Presbyterian  church  in  which  Mr.  Parsons,  and  also  Mr. 
Whitefield,  preached,  is  still  standing,  a  few  rods  from  the  above 
house.  The  pulpit  was  formerly  at  the  east  side,  and  Mr.  White- 
field's  remains  were  buried  under  it :  the  pulpit  is  now  at  the  south 
end  of  the  church,  and  the  remains,  with  those  of  Mr.  Parsons  and 
another  minister,  one  each  side,  have  been  placed  in  a  vault  un- 
derneath, where  they  are  yet  to  be  seen.  An  elegant  monument 
of  Egyptian  and  Italian  marble  stands  within  -the  walls  of  the 
church,  at  one  corner,  erected  to  the  memory  of  Mr.  Whitefield. 
It  is  the  gift  of  an  eminent  merchant  of  this  place  to  the  society  in 
which  he  worships ;  it  was  designed  by  Strickland,  and  executed 
by  Strother  of  Philadelphia.  The  following  cut  is  from  a  draw- 
ing of  this  monument,  and  a  copy  of  the  inscription. 

THIS  CENOTAPH  is  erected,  with  affectionate  veneration,  to  the  memory  of  the  Rev. 
GEORGE  WHITEFIELD,  born  at  Gloucester,  England,  December  16,  1714.  Educated  at 
Oxford  University;  ordained  1736.  In  a  ministry  of  Thirty-four  years,  He  crossed 
the  Atlantic  Thirteen  times,  and  Preached  more  than  eighteen  thousand  sermons.  As 
a  soldier  of  the  cross,  humble,  devout,  ardent,  He  put  on  the  whole  Armour  of  God  ; 
preferring  the  Honour  of  Christ  to  his  own  Interest,  Repose,  Reputation,  and  Life.  As 

N  E  W  B  U  R  Y  P  O  R  T  . 


White/kid? s  Monument. 

a  Christian  orator,  his  deep  Piety,  disinterested  zeal,  and  vivid  imagination,  gave  un- 
exampled energy  to  his  look,  utterance,  and  action.  Bold,  fervent,  pungent,  and  popu- 
lar in  his  eloquence,  no  other  uninspired  man  ever  preached  to  so  large  assemblies,  or 
enforced  the  simple  Truths  of  the  Gospel,  by  motives  so  persuasive  and  awful,  and 
with  an  Influence  so  powerful  on  the  hearts  of  his  hearers.  He  died  of  Asthma,  Sep- 
tember 30,  1770,  suddenly  exchanging  his  Life  of  unparalleled  Labours  for  his  Eter- 
nal Rest. 

The  following  Elegy  on  Mr.  Whitefield  was  written  in  England, 
by  one  of  his  admirers : 

"  Warm,  frequent,  and  successfully  he  preach'd, 
While  crowding  thousands  piously  improv'd; 

His  powerful  voice  to  distant  regions  reach'd, 
Two  worlds  attentive  heard,  admir'd,  and  lov'd. 

Great  Britain,  Ireland  and  America, 
This  apostolic  preacher  press'd  to  hear; 

Sinners  of  every  sort,  the  grave,  the  gay, 

Felt  his  reproofs,  and  learn'd  their  God  to  fear. 

His  constant  theme  was  Jesus  and  his  erace  ; 

Fir'd  with  this  auhject,  how  his  periods  flow'd  ! 
Celestial  radiance  shone  upon  his  face, 

And  in  his  heart  divine  affection  glow'd. 

The  sacred  influence  so  plenteous  pour'd 

On  humbled  sinners,  fell  with  mighty  power: 

Converted  thousands  felt  the  quick'ning  word, 
Bow'd  to  the  grace,  and  bless'd  the  happy  hour. 

Terror  and  soft  compassion  mutual  join'd 
To  stop  the  sinner  in  his  mad  career ; 

Zion  and  thundering  Sinai  he  combined, 
To  draw  with  gentleness,  or  urge  with  fear. 

Nor  did  poor  fainting  souls  attend  in  vain, 
Rich  gospel  cordials  dropped  from  his  tongue ; 

The  wounded  conscience  lost  its  dreadful  pain, 
And  sorrow's  plaint  was  changed  to  rapture's  aong. 

\Vhitefotd  is  dead. — Not  so  his  deathless  fame; 

Nor  time  nor  calumny  shall  that  impair ; 
Immortal  excellence  adorns  his  name, 

Immortal  fruits  his  pious  labors  bear. 

Among  the  thousands  of  God's  Israel, 

Most  precious  shall  thy  denr  remembrance  be, 

Religious  fathers  to  their  children  tell 
The  mighty  work  God  brought  to  pass  by  thee. 

The  annals  of  the  churches  shall  record 
With  what  amazing  power  the  Spirit  came  ; 

And  while  they  give  all  glory  to  the  Lord. 
Shall  well  remember  WhitfJItitP*  horior'dname." 

"  Theophilus  Parsons,  a  name  identified  with  the  history  of  our 
law,  laid  the  foundations  of  his  eminence  in  Newburyport.  Born 
in  Newbury,  in  February,  1750,  he  received  the  rudiments  of  his 
education  at  Dummer  Academy,  under  the  celebrated  master  Moo- 
dy. His  father,  the  Rev.  Moses  Parsons,  was  minister  of  Byfield 
parish  in  Newbury.  He  was  graduated  at  Harvard  college,  in 
1769,  and  afterwards  studied  law  in  Falmouth.  now  Portland,  and 
while  there  taught  the  grammar-school  in  that  town.  He  prac- 


tised  law  there  a  few  years ;  but  the  conflagration  of  the  town  by 
the  British,  in  1775,  obliged  him  to  return  to  his  father's  house, 
where  he  met  Judge  Trowbridge,  and  received  the  most  valuable 
instructions  from  that  eminent  jurist.  He  soon  resumed  the  prac- 
tice of  his  profession  in  this  town,  and  rapidly  rose  to  unrivalled 
reputation  as  a  lawyer. 

"  In  1777,  he  wrote  the  famous  Essex  Result,  and  in  1779  was 
an  active  member  of  the  convention  which  framed  the  state  constitu- 
tion. In  1789,  he  was  a  member  of  the  convention  for  considering 
the  present  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and  was  peculiarly 
instrumental  in  procuring  its  adoption.  In  1801,  he  was  appointed 
attorney-general  of  the  United  States,  but  declined  accepting  his 
commission.  In  1800,  he  removed  to  Boston.  In  1806,  he  was 
appointed  chief  justice  of  the  supreme  court  of  Massachusetts, 
and  his  profound  legal  opinions  have  mainly  contributed  to  settle 
the  principles  of  our  expository  law.  He  died  in  Boston,  October 
13,  1813,  with  reputation  as  a  judge  and  a  lawyer  unequalled  in 
Massachusetts." — Gushing* s  History  of  Newburyport. 

'•'  Jacob  Perkins  was  born  at  Newburyport,  July  9,  1766.  His 
father,  Matthew  Perkins,  was  a  lineal  descendant  of  one  of  the 
first  settlers  of  Ipswich,  and  lived  to  the  advanced  age  of  ninety. 
After  receiving  a  common  school  education,  he  became  apprentice 
to  a  goldsmith,  and  soon  displayed  those  extraordinary  inventive 
powers  in  mechanics  which  have  elevated  him  to  distinction. 

"  At  the  age  of  twenty-one,  he  was  employed,  when  other  artists 
had  failed,  to  make  dies  for  the  copper  coinage  of  Massachusetts, 
under  the  old  confederation.  At  twenty-four,  he  invented  the  nail 
machine,  which  cut  and  headed  nails  at  one  operation.  His  me- 
chanical genius  was  now  fully  developed ;  and  for  twenty  years 
and  upwards,  he  continued  to  multiply  useful  inventions  in  the 
arts  with  a  facility  truly  astonishing.  His  ingenuity  in  making  a 
plate  for  bank  notes  incapable  of  being  counterfeited,  and  in  dis- 
covering the  art  of  softening  and  hardening  steel  at  pleasure,  was 
particularly  useful  to  the  public.  The  latter  discovery  opened  a 
wide  field  for  the  labors  of  the  engraver,  and  led  to  many  happy 

"  It  would  be  endless  to  recount  the  great  number  of  useful  or 
ingenious  inventions  which  he  was  constantly  producing  during  the 
latter  part  of  his  residence  in  America.  His  talents  found,  for  a 
time,  a  wider  field  for  their  display  in  Philadelphia,  whither  he 
removed  from  Newburyport.  After  residing  there  several  years, 
he  crossed  the  Atlantic,  and  is  now  exercising  his  genius  in  Eng- 
land— the  great  theatre  for  the  exhibition  and  encouragement  of 
abilities  like  his.  Besides  many  things  of  merely  philosophical 
interest,  which  he  has  there  been  teaching  to  the  teachers  of  the 
world,  he  has  also  made  some  signal  improvements  in  the  steam 
engine,  the  great  mechanical  agent  of  modern  times.  His  inven- 
tions in  the  arts  of  engraving  and  in  calico  printing,  among  other 
things,  have  been  successfully  put  in  operation ;  while  his  genius, 
and  his  urbanity  of  deportment  and  simplicity  of  character,  are 

ROWLEY.        .  217 

procuring  him  the  admiration  and  esteem  of  the  wisest  m^n  and 
greatest  nobles  of  Britain." 


ROWLEY  was  settled  in  1638  by  a  company  of  persons  from 
Yorkshire,  England,  at  the  head  of  which  was  the  Rev.  Ezekiel 
Rogers,  who  had  been  a  minister  at  Rowley,  England.  The  town 
took  its  present  name  in  honor  of  Mr.  Rogers.  The  easterly  part 
of  the  town  is  made  up  of  broad  tracts  of  marsh  land,  which  yields 
vast  quantities  of  salt  grass.  The  central  village  of  Rowley  con- 
sists of  2  churches,  and  upwards  of  thirty  dwelling-houses.  Dis- 
tance from  Boston,  28  miles. 

Mr.  Rogers,  says  Dr.  SpofFord,  "was  born  at  Wethersfield, 
England,  in  1590.  He  entered  the  university  at  thirteen  years  of 
age,  and  graduated  A.  M.,  at  the  age  of  twenty.  After  enduring 
many  afflictions  in  England,  he  obtained  a  peaceful  settlement  in 
this  place,  to  which  he  was  a  distinguished  benefactor.  He  suf- 
fered many  domestic  sorrows  in  the  evening  of  his  days,  and  died, 
worn  out  with  labor  and  care,  in  1660."  His  remains  were  disin- 
terred a  few  years  since,  and  removed  to  a  more  suitable  part  of 
the  burying-ground,  and  a  marble  monument  erected  by  the  people 
of  Rowley,  who  still  enjoy  the  fruits  of  his  bounty.  Edward  Carl- 
ton  was  said  to  be  the  first  person  born  here,  ancestor  of  the 
Carl  tons  who  now  live  in  the  town,  born  1639.  The  first  mar- 
riage took  place  the  same  year.  The  parties  were  Robert  and 
Anna  Haseltine.  A  fulling-mill  was  established  here  by  some  of 
the  first  settlers,  who  made  the  first  cloth  that  was  ever  made  in 
North  America.  The  following  are  some  of  the  names  of  the  first 
settlers :  Chaplin,  Gage,  Jewett,  Mighill,  Nelson,  Payson,  Spof- 
ford,  Stickney,  and  Tenney.  The  act  incorporating  the  town  is 
as  follows  :  "  1639,  4th  day  of  the  7th  month,  ordered  that  Mr.  Eze- 
kiel Roger's  Plantation  shall  be  called  Rowley."  The  towns  of 
Bradford  and  Boxford,  with  parts  of  one  or  two  other  towns,  were 
then  included.  By  a  late  act  of  the  legislature  another  town  has 
been  made  out  of  Rowley,  by  the  name  of  Georgetown.  Much 
attention  is  paid  to  the  cultivation  of  fruit  in  the  town;  upwards 
of  1,000  barrels  of  perry  are  annually  made. 

There  is  $400,000  to  $500,000  capital  employed  mostly  in  the 
manufacture  of  shoes  and  leather.  In  1837,  before  Georgetown 
was  set  off  from  this  town,  there  were  32,600  pairs  of  boots ;  shoes, 
300,250  pairs,  were  manufactured,  valued  at  $315,360.  There 
were  16  tanneries  •  the  value  of  leather  tanned  and  curried  was 

The  first  church  in  this  place  was  organized  in  1639.  The  first 
pastor,  Rev.  Ezekiel  Rogers,  settled  on  the  formation  of  the  church, 
and  died  1661.  He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Samuel  Phillips,  in 

218  SALEM. 

1650,  died  1696.  His  successor  was  the  Rev.  Samuel  Shepard, 
who  was  settled  in  1665,  died  1668.  The  fourth  pastor  was  Rev. 
Edward  Payson,  direct  ancestor  of  Dr.  Pay  son  of  Portland;  he  was 
settled  in  1682,  and  died  1732.  In  1729  he  was  succeeded  by  the 
Rev.  Jedediah  Jewett,  who  died  1774.  His  successor  was  the  Rev. 
Ebenezer  Bradford,  who  was  settled  in  1782,  died  in  1801.  The 
next  was  the  Rev.  David  Tullar,  who  settled  here  in  1803,  and 
was  dismissed  1810.  He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  James 
W.  Tucker,  in  1812,  who  died  1829.  His  successor  was  Rev.  Wil- 
lard  Holbrook,  settled  in  1818. 

The  following  is  the  inscription  on  the  monument  of  Mr.  Rogers, 
the  first  minister  of  Rowley. 

Sacred  to  the  memory  of  the  Rev.  EZEKIEL  ROGERS,  first  minister  of  the  churcn  in 
Rowley,  who  emigrated  from  Britain  to  this  place,  with  his  church  and  flock,  in  1638. 
He  finished  his  labors  and  life,  23  Jan.  1660,  in  his  70th  year.  He  was  a  man  of  emi- 
nent piety,  zeal,  and  abilities.  His  strains  of  oratory  were  delightful.  Regeneration 
and  union  to  Jesus  Christ,  by  faith,  were  points,  on  which  he  principally  insisted.  He 
so  remarkably  expressed  the  feelings,  exercises,  motives,  and  characters  of  his  hearers, 
that  they  were  ready  to  exclaim,  who  hath  told  him  all  this  ?  With  the  youth  he  took 
great  pains,  and  was  a  tree  of  knowledge  laden  with  fruit,  which  children  could  reach. 
He  bequeathed  a  part  of  his  lands  to  the  town  of  Rowley  for  the  support  o/  the  gospel, 
which  generous  benefaction  we,  in  the  first  parish,  enjoy  to  the  present  day,  and  here 
gratefully  commemorate,  by  raising  this  monument  to  his  memory,  in  1805. 


SALEM,  the  chief  town  in  Essex  county,  was  the  first  town  set- 
tled in  the  bounds  of  the  old  Massachusetts  colony.  It  was  in- 
debted for  its  first  settlement  to  the  failure  of  a  "  fishing  planta- 
tion" at  Cape  Ann.  The  Rev.  John  White,  and  a  number  of 
gentlemen  belonging  to  Dorchester,  in  England,  were  strongly  set 
on  establishing  colonies  in  Massachusetts,  in  order  that  they  might 
become  places  of  refuge  from  the  corruptions  and  oppressions 
which  prevailed  under  James  I.  There  being  some  difficulty 
among  the  Plymouth  settlers,  some  of  them  were  obliged  to  leave 
Plymouth  and  reside  at  Nantasket,  the  most  distinguished  of 
whom  were  Rev.  John  Lyford  and  Roger  Conant.  These  per- 
sons, with  their  companions,  being  chosen  by  Mr.  White  and  his 
associates  to  manage  their  affairs  at  Cape  Ann,  they  accordingly 
left  Nantasket,  and  removed  to  this  place  in  the  autumn  of  1625. 
Conant,  finding  a  better  place  for  a  plantation  a  little  to  the  west- 
ward, called  Naumkeag,  gave  notice  of  it  to  his  friends  in  Eng- 
land. This  information  gave  rise  to  a  project  for  procuring  a 
grant  for  settling  a  colony  in  Massachusetts  Bay.  In  1628,  a  pa- 
tent having  been  obtained,  Capt.  John  Endicott  was  sent  over  with 
about  100  persons,  to  carry  on  the  plantation  at  Naumkeag,  where 
he  arrived  in  September.  For  his  dwelling,  he  purchased  the 
materials  of  a  house  which  had  been  located  at  Cape  Ann,  and 
belonged  to  the  Dorchester  company.  Some  remains  of  this  build- 
ing are  said  to  be  in  existence.  Those  who  remained  at  Naum- 
keag  passed  through  severe  afflictions.  Some  had  scarcely  a 

8  §. 


SALEM.  219 

suitable  place  to  lay  their  head,  or  food  sufficient  to  satisfy  the 
cravings  of  hunger.  A  large  proportion  died  with  scurvy  and 
other  diseases. 

In  1629,  the  Massachusetts  company  obtained  a  charter  from  the 
king,  granting  them  powers  to  administer  the  government  of  the 
colony  :  they  received  the  title  of  "  The  Governor  and  Company  of 
Massachusetts  Bay,  in  New  England."  Their  seal  was  in  part  the 
representation  of  an  Indian,  having  a  bow  in  one  hand  and  an 
arrow  in  another,  and  a  label  from  his  mouth,  with  the  scriptural 
expression,  "Come  over  and  help  us"  The  spirit  of  emigration 
now  gained  strength.  During  this  year,  four  clergymen,  the  Rev. 
Francis  Higginson,  and  Messrs.  Skelton,  Bight,  and  Smith,  set 
sail  in  a  fleet,  which  contained  as  passengers  300  men,  60  women, 
and  26  children.  There  were,  also,  on  board,  115  neat  cattle, 
some  horses,  sheep,  goats,  and  6  cannon,  with  stores  suitable  for  a 
fort.  The  ship  Talbot  arrived  with  Messrs.  Higginson  and  Smith 
at  Cape  Ann,  June  27th.  There  they  spent  the  Sabbath,  and  came 
to  Naumkeag  the  29th.  On  the  condition  of  the  plantation,  Mr. 
Higginson  writes  : — "  When  we  came  first  to  Nehurnkek,  we 
found  about  half  a  score  of  houses ;  we  found  also  abundance  of 
corn  planted  by  them,  very  good,  and  well  liking.  And  we  brought 
with  us  more  than  200  passengers  and  planters  more,  which  by 
common  consent  of  the  old  planters  were  combined  together  into 
one  body  politic,  under  the  same  governor.  There  are  in  all  of 
us,  both  old  and  new  planters,  about  300,  whereof  200  of  them 
are  settled  at  Nehumkek,  now  Salem.  And  the  rest  have  planted 
themselves  at  MasatJndcts  Bay,  beginning  to  build  a  town  there, 
which  we  do  call  Cherto,  or  Charlestown.  We  that  are  settled  at 
Salem  make  what  haste  we  can  to  build  houses ;  so  that  in  a  short 
time  we  shall  have  a  fair  town.  We  have  great  ordinance,  where- 
with we  doubt  not  but  we  shall  fortify  ourselves  in  a  short  time 
to  keep  out  a  potent  adversary.  But  that  which  is  our  greatest 
comfort  and  means  of  defence  above  all  others  is,  that  we  have 
here  the  true  religion  and  holy  ordinances  of  Almighty  God  taught 
among  us."  Mr.  Higginson  and  the  others,  after  their  arrival, 
deemed  it  expedient  to  alter  the  name  of  the  town,  and  wished  to 
designate  it  by  a  term  significant  of  their  freedom  from  civil  and 
religious  oppression.  It  therefore  received  the  name  Salem,  a  He- 
brew word,  meaning  peace.  It  appears  that  the  natives  had  for- 
saken this  spot,  and  none  ever  claimed  it,  and  the  possession  was 

"  The  company's  advice  to  Mr.  Endicott  shows  how  careful  they  were  to  have  the 
Lord's  day  kept  holy.  They  observe,  <To  the  end  the  Sabbath  may  be  celebrated  in 
a  religious  manner,  we  appoint  that  all  that  inhabit  the  plantation,  both  for  the  general 
and  particular  employments,  may  surcease  their  labour  every  Saturday  throughout 
the  year  at  3  o'c.  in  the  afternoon,  and  that  they  spend  the  rest  of  that  day  in  chate- 
chizing  and  preparing  for  the  Sabbath  as  the  ministers  shall  direct.'  They  were 
equally  desirous  to  have  family  order  and  religion  kept  up.  On  this  subject  they  say  : 
'  For  the  better  accommodation  of  business  we  have  divided  the  servants  belonging 
to  the  company  into  several  families,  as  we  desire  and  intend  they  should  live  together, 
a  copy  whereof  we  send  you  here  enclosed,  that  you  may  accordingly  appoint  each 
man  his  charge  and  duty  ;  yet  it  is  not  our  intent  to  tie  you  so  strictly  to  this  direction 


220  SALEM. 

but  that  in  your  discretion,  as  you  shall  see  cause,  from  time  to  time,  you  may  alter  or 
displace  any  as  you  should  think  fit.  Our  earnest  desire  is  that  you  take  special  care 
in  settling  these  families,  that  the  chief  in  the  family  (at  least  some  of  them)  be 
grounded  in  religion,  whereby  morning  and  evening  family  duties  may  be  duly  per 
formed,  and  a  watchful  eye  held  over  all  in  each  family,  by  one  or  more  in  each  fam- 
ily to  be  appointed  hereto,  that  so  disorders  may  be  prevented  and  ill  weeds  nipt  before 
they  take  too  great  a  head.'  *  *  *  *  * 

"  In  order  to  secure  a  primary  object  of  their  emigration,  our  fathers  took  measures 
for  the  regular  establishment  of  the  chlirch  and  ministry  among  them.  July  20th 
was  set  apart  by  Mr.  Endicott  for  choice  of  the  pastor  and  teacher.  Of  the  services 
on  that  interesting  day,  Mr.  Charles  Gott  writes  to  Gov.  Bradford  of  Plymouth.  He 
thus  expresses  himself: — '  The  20th  of  July,  it  pleased  God  to  move  the  heart  of  our 
governor  to  set  it  apart  for  a  solemn  day  of  humiliation  for  the  choice  of  a  pastor  and 
teacher ;  the  former  part  of  the  day  being  spent  in  praise  and  teaching ;  the  latter 
part  was  spent  about  the  election,  which  was  after  this  manner :  The  persons  thought 
on  were  demanded  concerning  their  callings.  They  acknowledged  there  was  a  two- 
fold calling,  the  one  inward  calling,  when  the  Lord  moved  the  heart  of  a  man  to  take 
that  calling  upon  him,  and  filled  him  with  gifts  for  the  same  ;  the  second  was  from 
the  people ;  when  a  company  of  believers  are  joined  together  in  covenant,  to  walk 
together  in  all  the  ways  of  God,  every  member  is  to  have  a  free  voice  in  the  choice  of 
their  officers.  These  two  servants  clearing  all  things  by  their  answers,  we  saw  no 
reason  but  that  we  might  freely  give  our  voices  for  their  election  after  this  trial. 
Their  choice  was  after  this  manner, — every  fit  member  wrote  in  a  note  his  name 
whom  the  Lord  moved  him  to  think  was  fit  for.  a  pastor,  and  so  likewise  whom  they 
would  have  for  a  teacher  ; — so  the  most  voice  was  for  Mr.  Skelton  to  be  pastor  and 
Mr.  Higginson  to  be  teacher ;  and  they  accepting  the  choice,  Mr.  Higginson,  with 
three  or  four  more  of  the  gravest  members  of  the  church,  laid  their  hands  on  Mr.  Skelton, 
using  prayers  therewith.  This  being  done,  then  there  was  imposition  of  hands  on  Mr. 
Higginson.  Then  there  was  proceeding  in  election  of  elders  and  deacons  ;  but  they 
were  only  named,  and  laying  on  of  hands  deferred,  to  see  if  it  pleased  God  to  send  us 
more  able  men  over  ;  but  since  Thursday  is  appointed  for  another  solemn  day  of 
humiliation  for  the  full  choice  of  elders  and  deacons  and  ordaining  them  ;  now,  good 
Sir,  I  hope  that  you,  and  the  rest  of  God's  people  with  you,  will  say  that  here  was  a 
right  foundation  laid,  and  that  these  two  blessed  servants  of  the  Lord  came  in  at  the 
door  and  not  at  the  window.'  When  the  6th  of  August  came  the  services  in  contem- 
plation were  performed.  A  platform  of  church  government,  a  confession  of  doctrines 
in  general,  and  a  covenant  were  adopted.  The  last  was  subscribed  by  thirty  persons. 
To  this  number  many  of  good  report  were  soon  added.  One  particular  contained  in 
their  covenant  was,  that  they  would  endeavor  to  be  clear  from  being  stumbling- 
blocks  in  the  way  of  the  Indians.  The  Plymouth  church  were  invited  to  take  part  in 
the  ordination,  with  the  understanding  that  their  counsel  was  to  be  nothing  more  than 
discretionary.  Of  their  delegates  was  Gov.  Bradford.  He  and  his  attendants  were 
prevented  by  adverse  winds  from  being  here  in  the  forenoon;  but  they  arrived  season- 
ably enough  to  present  the  right  hand  of  fellowship. 

"  It  will  be  perceived,  that  there  were  two  ministers  placed  over  the  congregation  here 
instead  of  one.  This  custom  seems  not  to  have  been  fully  complied  with  here  in  any 
other  instance,  excepting  that  in  which  Mr.  Williams  served  for  a  short  period  with 
Mr.  Skelton.  It  was  a  custom,  however,  so  dear  to  some  of  the  colony,  they  would 
not  interrupt  it,  lest  they  should  be  chargeable  with  flagrant  iniquity ;  and  those  thus 
inclined  succeeded  to  keep  it  alive  over  a  century.  Instead  of  being  titled  Reverend 
then  and  a  considerable  period  afterwards,  Congregational  ministers  were  called  Elders. 
The  ruling  elder  selected  for  the  church  here  was  Mr.  Henry  Haughton.  This  office 
was  considered  an  important  one,  and  continued  to  be  esteemed  in  the  colonial 
churches  till  the  middle  of  the  last  century.  The  duty  of  such  officers  was  to  preach 
occasionally  in  the  absence  or  on  the  illness  of  the  ministers,  and  also  to  assist  in  cases 
of  church  discipline.  When  preachers  except  their  own  served,  they  were  in  the  habit 
of  remarking,  previously  to  their  beginning — '  If  ye  have  any  word  of  exhortation, 
say  on.'  " — Felt's  Annals  of  Salem. 

"  For  a  time,  Salem  increased  so  slowly  that  Ipswich  and  Lynn 
were  before  it  in  importance;  but  in  14  or  15  years  after  the  arri- 
val of  Mr.  Endicott,  the  fisheries  had  been  commenced  with  suc- 
cess, and  all  other  towns  had  been  left  behind  in  commercial  enter- 
prise. The  township  in  1637  comprehended,  together  with  its 


]>resent  limits,  Beverly,  Danvers,  Manchester,  Marblehead,  Middle- 
ton,  a  part  of  Lynn,  Topsfield,  and  Wenham."  The  following 
description  of  Salem  in  1639  is  from  Wood's  New  England  Prospect. 

11  Salem  stands  on  the  middle  of  a  necke  of  land  very  pleasantly,  having  a  South 
river  on  the  one  side  and  a  North  river  on  the  other  side.  Upon  this  necke  where  most 
of  the  homes  stand,  is  very  bad  and  sandie  ground,  yet  for  seaven  years  together  it  hath 
brought  forth  exceeding  good  corne,-by  being  fished,  but  every  third  year.  In  some 
places  is  very  good  ground  and  good  timber,  and  divers  springs  hard  by  the  sea  side. 
There  likewise  is  store  of  fish,  as  Basses,  Eels,  Lobsters,  Clammes,  &c.  Although 
their  land  be  none  of  the  best,  yet  beyond  these  rivers  is  a  very  good  soyle,  where 
they  have  taken  farms,  and  get  their  hay,  and  plant  their  corne ;  there  they  crosse 
these  rivers  with  small  Cannowes,  which  were  made,  of  whole  pine  trees,  being  about 
two  foote  and  a  halfe  over,  and  twenty  foote  long.  In  these  likewise  they  goe  a  fowl- 
ing, sometimes  two  leagues  at  sea.  There  be  more  cannowes  in  this,  towne,  than  in 
all  the  whole  Patent,  every  household  having  a  water  horse  or  two.  This  Town  wants 
an  Alewife  river,  which  is  a  great  inconvenience.  It  hath  two  good  harbours,  the  one 
being  called  Winter  and  the  other  Summer  harbours,  which  lieth  within  Derbins  Fort, 
which  place,  if  it  were  well  fortified,  might  keepe  shippes  from  landing  forces  in  any 
of  those  two  places."  i 

During  the  spring  and  summer  of  1692  occurred  one  of  the  most 
surprising  and  afflicting  scenes  ever  witnessed  in  New  England, 
from  the  supposed  prevalence  of  witchcraft.  This  excitement 
commenced  in  Salem  village,  now  Danvers,  in  the  family  of  the 
Rev.  Mr.  Parris,  the  minister  of  that  place.  The  town  suffered 
greatly  by  the  excitement ;  a  fourth  part  of  the  inhabitants  left  the 
place.  Twenty  persons  were  executed  for  witchcraft ;  one  of  them, 
Giles  Cory,  refusing  to  put  himself  on  trial,  was  pressed  to  death. 
About  one  hundred  were  accused,  about  fifty  confessed  themselves 
guilty,  and  about  this  number  of  other  persons  were  afflicted. 
Those  who  confessed  themselves  guilty  of  this  crime  appear  to 
have  done  it  in  order  to  save  their  lives,  as  they  afterwards  declared 
themselves  innocent.  Most  of  those  who  were  executed  exhibited  a 
forcible  example  of  the  strength  of  moral  principle ;  rather  than  con- 
fess what  they  knew  to  be  untrue,  they  nobly  suffered  death.  Those 
who  suffered  were  executed  on  a  hill  in  the  westerly  part  of  the 
town,  ever  since  known  as  Gallows  Hill  The  house  in  which 
some  of  them  were  examined  is  the  mansion  standing  in  Essex 
street,  upon  the  west  corner  of  North  street.  Dr.  Cotton  Mather 
was  a  firm  believer  in  the  existence  of  witchcraft,  and  in  his  Mag- 
nolia gives  quite  a  number  of  examples,  which  he  says  are  well 
attested.  The  following,  giving  a  general  account  of  these  occur- 
rences, is  taken  from  that  work,  in  his  own  words 

It  is  to  be  confessed  and  bewailed,  that  many  inhabitants  of  New  England,  and 
young  people  especially,  had  been  led  away  with  little  Sorceries,  wherein  they  did 
secretly  those  things  that  were  not  right  against  the  Lord  their  God  :  they  would  often 
cure  hurts  with  spells  and  practice  detestable  conjurations  with  Sieves,  and  Keys, 
and  Peas,  and  Nails,  and  Horse  Shoes,  to  learn  the  things  for  which  they  had  a  for- 
bidden and  impious  curiosity.  Wretched  books  had  stolen  into  the  land,  wherein  fooJs 
were  instructed  how  to  become  able  fortune  tellers. 

Although  these  diabolical  divinations  are  more  ordinarily  committed  perhaps  all 
over  the  world,  than  they  are  in  the  country  of  New  England,  yet  that  being  a  coun- 
try devoted  unto  the  worship  and  service  of  the  Lord  Jesus  Christ  above  the  rest 
of  the  world,  he  signalized  his  vengeance  against  these  wickednesses  with  such 
extraordinary  dispensations  as  have  not  often  seen  in  other  places. 

The  Devils  which  had  been  so  played  withall,  and  it  may  be  by  some  few  criminals 

222  SALEM. 

more  explicitly  engaged  and  employed,  now  broke  m  upon  the  country  after  as  aston- 
ishing a  manner  as  was  ever  heard  of.  Some  scores  of  people,  first  about  Salem,  the 
centre  and  first  born  of  all  the  towns  in  the  Colony,  and  afterwards  in  other  places, 
were  arrested  with  many  preternatural  vexations  upon  their  bodies,  and  a  variety  of 
cruel  torments  which  were  evidently  from  the  Demons  of  the  invisible  world.  The 
people  that  were  infected  and  infested  with  such  demons,  in  a  few  days  time  arrived 
unto  such  a  refining  alteration  upon  their  Eyes  that  they  could  see  their  tormentors  ; 
they  saw  a  Devil  of  a  little  stature,  and  of  a  tawny  colour,  attended  still  with  spectres 
that  appeared  in  more  human  circumstances. 

The  tormentors  tendered  unto  the  afflicted  a  book  requiring  them  to  sign  it,  or  to 
touch  it  at  least,  in  token  of  their  consenting  to  be  listed  in  the  service  of  the  Devil  • 
which  they  refusing  to  do,  the  Spectres  under  the  command  of  that  black  man,  as  they 
called  him,  would  apply  themselves  to  torture  them  with  prodigious  molestations. 

The  afflicted  wretches  were  horribly  distorted  and  convulsed  ;  they  were  pinched 
black  and  blue  ;  pins  would  be  run  every  where  in  their  flesh  ;  they  would  be  scalded 
until  they  had  blisters  raised  on  them  ;  and  a  thousand  other  things,  before  hundreds 
of  witnesses,  were  done  unto  them,  evidently  preternatural  ;  for  if  it  were  perternatu- 
ral  to  keep  a  rigid  fast  for  nine,  yea,  for  fifteen  days  together  ;  or  if  it  were  preternat- 
ural to  have  ones  hands  tied  close  together  with  a  Rope  to  be  plainly  seen,  and  then 
by  unseen  hands  presently  pulled  up  a  great  way  from  the  earth,  before  a  crowd  of 
people  ;  such  preternatural  things  were  endured  by  them. 

But  of  all  the  preternatural  things  which  these  people  suffered,  there  were  none 
more  unaccountable  than  those  wherein  the  prestigious  Demons  would  ever  now  and 
then  cover  the  most  corporeal  things  in  the  world  with  a  fascinating  mist  of  invisibility. 
As  now,  a  person  was  cruelly  assaulted  by  a  spectre,  that  she  said  came  at  her  with  a 
spindle,  though  nobody  else  in  the  room  could  see  either  the  spectre  or  the  spindle  j  at 
last,  in  her  agonies,  giving  a  snatch  at  the  spectre,  she  pulled  the  spindle  away  ;  and 
it  was  no  sooner  got  into  her  hand,  but  the  other  folks  then  present  beheld  that  it  was 
indeed  a  real,  proper,  Iron  spindle  ;  which  when  they  locked  up  very  safe,  it  was, 
nevertheless,  by  the  demons  taken  away  to  do  farther  mischief. 

Again,  a  person  was  haunted  by  a  most  abusive  spectre,  which  came  to  her,  she 
said,  with  a  sheet  about  her,  though  seen  to  none  but  herself.  After  she  had  under- 
gone a  deal  of  teaze  from  the  annoyance  of  the  spectre,  she  gave  a  violent  snatch  at 
the  sheet  that  was  upon  it  ;  wherefrom  she  tore  a  corner,  which  in  her  hand  imme- 
diately was  beheld  by  all  that  were  present,  a  palpable  corner  of  a  sheet  :  and  her 
Father,  which  was  of  her,  catched,  that  he  might  see  what  his  Daughter  had  so 
strangely  seized  ;  but  the  spectre  had  like  to  have  wrung  his  hand  off,  by  endeavour- 
ing to  wrest  it  from  him  ;  however  he  still  held  it  ;  and  several  times  this  od  accident 
was  renewed  in  the  family.  There  wanted  not  the  oaths  of  good  credible  people  to 
these  particulars. 

Also  it  is  known,  that  these  wicked  spectres  did  proceed  so  far  as  to  steal  several 
quantities  of  money  from  divers  people,  part  of  which  individual  money  dropt  some- 
times out  of  the  air,  before  sufficient  spectators,  into  the  hands  of  the  afflicted,  while 
the  spectres  were  urging  them  to  subscribe  their  covenant  with  death.  Moreover, 
poisons  to  the  standersby  wholly  invisibly,  were  sometimes  forced  upon  the  afflicted  ; 
which,  when  they  have  with  much  reluctancy  swallowed,  they  have  swoln  presently, 
so  that  the  common  medicines  for  poisons  have  been  found  necessary  to  relieve  them  ; 
yea,  sometimes  the  spectres  in  the  struggles  have  so  dropt  the  poisons,  that  the  stand- 
ersby have  smelt  them  and  viewed  them,  and  beheld  the  pillows  of  the  miserable 
stained  with  them.  Yet  more,  the  miserable  have  complained  bitterly  of  burning 
rags  run  into  their  forcibly  distended  mouths  ;  and  though  nobody  could  see  any  such 
cloths,  or  indeed  any  fires  in  the  chambers,  yet  presently  the  scalds  were  seen  plainly 
by  every  body  on  the  mouths  of  the  complainers,  and  not  only  the  smell,  but  the 
smoke  of  the  burning  sensibly  filled  the  chambers 

Once  more  the  miserable  exclaimed  extremely  of  Branding  Irons,  heating  at  the 
fire  on  the  hearth  to  mark  them  ;  now  the  standersby  could  see  no  Irons,  yet  they 
could  see  distinctly  the  print  of  them  in  the  ashes,  and  smell  them  too,  as  they  were 
'•arried  by  the  not-seen  furies  unto  the  poor  creatures  for  whom  they  were  intended  ; 
and  those  poor  creatures  were  thereupon  so  stigmatized  with  them,  that  they  will  bear 
the  marks  of  them  to  their  dying  day.  Nor  are  these  the  tenth  part  of  the  prodigies 
that  fell  out  among  the  inhabitants  of  New  England. 

Flashy  people  may  burlesque  these  things,  but  when  hundreds  of  the  most  sober 

people,  in  a  country  where  they  have  as  much  mother  wit  certainly  as  the  rest  of  man 

know  them  to  be  true,  nothing  but  the  absurd  and  froward  spirit  of  saducism 
can  question  them.     I  have  not  yet  mentioned  one  thing  that  will  be  iustified,  if  it  be 


SALEM.  223 

required,  by  the  oaths  of  more  considerate  persons  than  can  ridicule  these  od  phe- 

But  the  worst  part  of  this  astonishing  tragedy  is  yet  behind  ;  wherein  Sir  "William 
Phips  at  last  being  dropt  as  it  were  from  the  machine  of  Heaven,  was  an  instrument 
of  easing  the  distresses  of  the  land,  now  so  darkened  by  the  Lord  of  Hosts.  There 
were  very  worthy  men  upon  the  spot  where  the  assault  from  hel  was  first  made,  who 
apprehended  themselves  called  from  the  God  of  Heaven,  to  sift  the  business  unto  the 
bottom  of  it ;  and  indeed,  the  continual  impressions  which  the  outcries  and  the  havocks 
of  the  afflicted  people  that  lived  nigh  unto  them  caused  on  their  minds,  gave  no  little 
edge  to  this  apprehension. 

They  did,  in  the  first  place,  take  it  for  granted,  that  there  are  witches,  or  wicked 
children  of  men,  who  upon  covenanting  with  and  commissioning  of  evil  spirits,  are 
attended  by  their  ministry  to  accomplish  the  things  desired  of  them  :  they  had  not  only 
the  assersions  of  the  holy  scriptures ;  assersions  which  the  witch  advocates  cannot 
evade  without  shifts  too  foolish  for  the  prudent,  or  too  profane  for  any  honest  man  to 
use  ;  and  they  had  not  only  well  attested  relations  of  the  gravest  authors,  from  Bodin 
to  Bovet,  and  from  Binsfield  to  Brombal  and  Baxter ;  to  deny  all  which,  would  be  as 
reasonable  as  to  turn  the  chronicles  of  all  nations  into  romances  of  Don  Quixot  and 
the  Seven  Champions  ;  but  they  had  also  an  occular  demonstration  in  one,  who  a  little 
before  had  been  executed  for  witchcraft,  when  Joseph  Dudley,  Esqr.  was  the  Chief 
Judge.  There  was  one  whose  magical  images  were  found,  and  who  confessing  her 
deeds,  (when  a  Jury  of  Doctors  returned  her  compos  mentis,)  actually  showed  the 
whole  court  by  what  ceremonies  used  unto  them,  she  directed  her  familiar  spirits  how 
and  where  to  cruciate  the  objects  of  her  malice ;  and  the  experiment  being  made  over 
and  over  again  before  the  whole  court,  the  effect  followed  exactly  in  the  hurts  done  to 
the  people  at  a  distance  from  her.  The  existence  of  such  witches  was  now  taken  for 
granted  by  the  good  men,  wherein  so  far  the  generality  of  reasonable  men  have  thought 
they  ran  well ;  and  they  soon  received  the  confessions  of  some  accused  persons  to 
confirm  them  in  it ;  but  then  they  took  one  thing  more  for  granted,  wherein  it  is  now 
as  generally  thought  they  went  out  of  the  way.  The  afflicted  people  vehemently 
accused  several  persons,  in  several  places,  that  the  spectres  which  afflicted  them  did 
exactly  resemble  them ;  until  the  importunity  of  the  accusations  did  provoke  the  Ma- 
gistrates to  examine  them.  When  many  of  the  accused  came  upon  their  examination, 
it  was  found  that  the  demons,  then  a  thousand  ways  abusing  of  the  poor  afflicted  peo- 
ple, had  with  a  marvelous  exactness  represented  them ;  yea,  it  was  found  that  many 
of  the  accused,  but  casting  their  Eye  on  the  afflicted,  though  their  faces  were  never 
so  much  another  way,  would  fall  down  and  lie  in  a  sort  of  a  swoon,  wherein  they 
would  continue,  whatever  hands  were  laid  upon  them,  until  the  hands  of  the  accused 
came  to  touch  them,  and  then  they  would  revive  immediately ;  and  it  was  found  that 
various  kinds  of  natural  actions,  done  by  many  of  the  accused  in  or  to  their  own 
bodies,  as  leaning,  bending,  turning  awry,  or  squeezing  their  hands,  or  the  like,  were 
presently  attended  with  the  like  things  preternaturally  done  upon  the  bodies  of  the 
afflicted,  though  they  were  so  far  assunder  that  the  afflicted  could  not  at  all  observe  the 

It  was  also  found  that  the  flesh  of  the  afflicted  was  often  bitten  at  such  a  rate,  that 
not  only  the  print  of  the  teeth  would  be  left  on  their  flesh,  but  the  very  slaver  of  spittle 
too,  even  such  as  might  be  clearly  distinguished  from  other  peoples.  And  usually  the 
afflicted  went  through  a  terrible  deal  of  seeming  difficulties  from  the  tormenting  spec- 
tres, and  must  be  long  waited  on,  before  they  could  get  a  breathing  space  from  their 
torments  to  give  in  their  testimonies. 

Now  many  good  men  took  up  an  opinion,  that  the  providence  of  God  would  not  per- 
mit an  innocent  person  to  come  under  such  a  spectral  representation  ;  and  that  a  con- 
currence of  so  many  circumstances  would  prove  an  accused  person  to  be  in  a  confede- 
racy with  the  demons  thus  afflicting  of  the  neighbors ;  they  judged,  that  except  these 
things  might  amount  unto  a  conviction,  it  would  scarce  be  possible  ever  to  convict  a 
witch  ;  and  they  had  some  philosophical  schemes  of  witchcraft,  and  of  the  method  and 
manner  wherein  magical  poisons  operate,  which  further  supported  them  in  their 

Sundry  of  the  accused  persons  were  brought  unto  their  trial,  while  this  opinion  was 
yet  prevailing  in  the  minds  of  the  Judges  and  Juries,  and  perhaps  the  most  of  the 
people  in  the  country,  then  mostly  suffering  ;  and  though  some  of  them  that  were  tried 
there  came  in  so  much  other  evidence  of  their  diabolical  compacts,  that  some  of  the 
most  Judicious,  and  yet  vehement  opposers  of  the  notions  then  in  vogue,  publicly 
declared,  had  they  themselves  been  on  the  bench,  they  could  not  huve  acquitted  them : 
nevertheless,  divers  were  condemned,  against  whom  the  chief  evidence  was  founded 
in  the  spectral  exhibitions. 

224  SALEM. 

And  it  happening,  that  some  of  the  accused  coming  to  confess  themselves  guilty, 
their  shapes  were  no  more  seen  by  any  of  the  afflicted,  though  the  confession  had 
-been  kept  never  so  secret,  but  instead  thereof  the  accused  themselves  became  in  all 
vexations  just  like  the  afflicted  ;  and  this  yet  more  confirmed  many  in  the  opinion  that 
Tiad  been  taken  up 

And  another  thing  that  quickened  them,  yet  more  to  act  upon  it,  was,  that  the 
tifflicted  were  frequently  entertained  with  apparitions  of  Ghosts,  at  the  same  time  that 
-the  spectres  of  the  supposed  witches  troubled  them  :  which  Ghosts  always  cast  the 
beholders  into  a  far  more  consternation  than  any  of  the  spectres ;  and  when  they 
exhibited  themselves,  they  cried  out  of  being  murdered  by  the  witchcrafts,  or  other 
violences  of  the  persons  represented  in  the  spectres — once  or  twice  the  apparitions 
were  seen  by  others  at  the  very  same  time  that  they  showed  themselves  to  the  afflicted ; 
and  seldom  were  they  seen  at  all,  but  when  something  unusual  and  suspicious  had 
attended  the  death  of  the  party  thus  appearing. 

The  Dutch  and  French  Ministers  in  the  province  of  New  York,  having  likewise 
'about  this  time  their  Judgment  asked  by  the  Chief  Judge  of  that  province,  who  was 
then  a  gentleman  of  New  England,  they  gave  it  under  their  hands  that  if  we  believe 
no  Venefick  Witchcraft,  we  must  renounce  the  Scripture  of  God,  and  the  consent  of 
almost  all  the  world  ;  but  that  yet  the  apparition  of  a  person  afflicting  another,  is  a 
very  insufficient  proof  of  a  witch  ;  nor  is  it  inconsistent  with  the  holy  and  righteous 
government  of  God  over  men,  to  permit  the  affliction  of  the  neighbors,  by  devils  in 
the  shape  of  good  men  ;  and  that  a  good  name,  obtained  by  a  good  life,  should  not  be 
lost  by  mere  spectral  accusations. 

Now  upon  a  deliberate  review  of  these  things,  his  Excellency  first  reprieved,  and 
then  pardoned  many  of  them  that  had  been  condemned  ;  and  there  fell  ouf  several 
strange  things  that  caused  the  spirit  of  the  country  to  run  as  vehemently  upon  the 
acquitting  of  all  the  accused,  as  it  by  mistake  ran  at  first  upon  the  condemning  of 

In  fine,  the  last  Courts  that  sate  upon  this  thorny  business,  finding  that  it  was  impos- 
sible to  penetrate  into  the  whole  meaning  of  the  things  that  had  happened,  and  that 
so  many  unsearchable  cheats  were  interwoven  into  the  conclusion  of  a  mysterious 
business,  which  perhaps  had  not  crept  thereinto  at  the  beginning  of  it,  they  cleared  the 
accused  as  fast  as  they  tried  them  ;  and  within  a  little  while  the  afflicted  were  most  of 
them  delivered  out  of  their  troubles  also  ;  and  the  land  had  peace  restored  unto  it,  by 
the  God  of  peace,  treading  Satan  under  foot. 

Salem  is  situated  in  latitude  42°  35'  north,  and  in  longitude  70°  47' 
west.  It  is  the  chief  and  a  shire  town  in  Essex  county,  and  from 
the  early  period  of  its  history  has  been  a  place  of  importance.  Its 
enterprising  merchants  were  the  first,  in  this  country,  to  engage  in 
the  East  India  trade,  which  they  have  prosecuted  with  great  energy 
and  success.  They  have  also  taken  an  active  part  in  the  com- 
merce with  the  West  Indies,  South  America,  and  Europe.  Perhaps 
the  greatest  degree  of  the  commercial  prosperity  of  Salem  was  pre- 
vious to  the  war  with  Great  Britain  in  1812.  Salem  is  built  on  a  pe- 
ninsula formed  by  two  inlets  of  the  sea,  called  North  and  South 
rivers.  The  lower  or  eastern  part  of  the  peninsula  is  called  the 
Neck,  and  has  now  but  few  houses  upon  it.  The  compact  part  of 
the  town  is  about  a  mile  and  a  half  in  length,  and  half  a  mile  in 
breadth.  The  land  on  which  it  is  built  lies  low  and  is  nearly  % 
level,  scarcely  any  place  being  more  than  20  or  24  feet  above  the 
surface  of  the  water  at  high  tide.  The  soil  is  generally  light,  dry, 
and  sandy,  and  free  from  standing  water.  There  are  many  islands 
in  the  harbor,  most  of  them  small  and  rocky.  Winter  Island  lies 
on  the  north  side  of  the  entrance  to  the  harbor,  and  contains  38 
acres.  Fort  Pickering  is  located  on  its  eastern  point.  The  light- 
houses are  on  Baker's  Island,  which  contains  55  acres. 

The  streets  of  the  town  run  .somewhat  irregularly.     Essex  street. 



the  most  noted,  runs  directly  through  the  whole  extent  of  the  placer 
nearly  east  and  west.  The  numerous  streets  are  rilled  with  well- 
built  houses,  many  of  which  are  elegant,  particularly  some  of 
those  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Common;  a  view  of  which,  taken 

\Vtstern  view  of  Washington  Square,  Salem. 

near  the  western  entrance,  is  here  given.  This  common  is  a  beau- 
tiful plot  of  eight  and  a  half  acres,  almost  perfectly  level,  enclosed 
by  a  neat  railing,  bordered  by  a  large  number  of  elms,  and  tra- 
versed by  gravel  walks.  The  "  East  India  Marine  Society"  was 
incorporated  in  1801.  It  has  a  spacious  hall,  in  which  is  collected 
a  great  variety  of  natural  and  artificial  curiosities,  collected  from 
almost  every  part  of  the  world.  There  are  in  Salem  16  churches: 
S  Congregational,  4  of  which  are  Unitarian,  2  Baptist,  1  Episcopal, 
1  Friends.  1  Christian,  1  Universalist,  1  Catholic,  1  Methodist; 
besides  these  there  is  a  Seamen's  Bethel.  There  are  eight  banksr 
whose  united  capitals  amount  to  $1,850,000.  There  are  six  insur- 
ance companies,  the  capital  of  which  is  nearly  a  million  of  dollars, 
Six  newspapers  are  published,  3  weekly  and  3  twice  a  week. 
The  Salem  Laboratory  was  incorporated  in  1819,  and  has  a  capi- 
tal of  $150,000.  At  this  establishment  are  manufactured  great 
quantities  of  aquafortis,  muriatic  acid  or  spirits  of  salt,  oil  of  vitriol, 
and  alum.  Of  this  last  from  800,000  to  one  million  pounds  are 
made  annually.  About  300,000  pounds  of  saltpetre  are  also  refined 
annually.  There  are  two  white  lead  manufacturing  establishments 
in  South  Salem,  at  which  much  business  is  done.  To  one  of  them 
is  attached  an  India  rubber  factory.  The  tonnage  of  the  district 
of  Salem,  which  includes  Beverly,  is  34,906  tons.  There  are  30 
ships,  12  barks,  70  brigs,  124  schooners,  and  14  sloops.  The  popu- 
lation of  Salem  in  1800  was  9,457;  in  1810,  12,613;  in  18207 
12,731:  in  1830,  13,886;  in  1837,  14,985. 

The  first  Congregational  church  in  Salem  was  organized  Aug.  6, 
1629,  O.  S.,  and  is  stated  to  be  the  first  Protestant  church  formed  in 



Francis  Higginson, 
Samuel  Skelton, 
Roger  Williams, 
Hugh  Peters, 
Edward  Norris, 


John  Higginson, 
Nicholas  Noyes, 
George  Curwen, 
Samuel  Fiske, 
John  Sparhawk, 


the  new  world*  The  brethren  at  Plymouth  belonged  to  a  church 
which  remained  at  Leyden,  and  are  supposed  not  to  have  estab- 
lished themselves  as  a  distinct  church  until  after  the  formation 
of  this  at  Salem.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  pastors  of  this 
church,  and  year  in  which  they  were  settled. 

Thomas  Barnard,  1755. 

Asa  Dunbar,  1772. 

John  Prince,  1779. 

Charles  W.  Upham,  1824. 

Roger  Williams  and  Hugh  Peters,  whose  names  are  in  the  above  list,  were  both  dis- 
tinguished men.  Mr.  Williams  was  banished  from  the  settlements  on  account  of  cer- 
tain opinions  which  were  deemed  heretical.  He  retired  into  the  wilderness,  among 
savages,  to  a  place  which  he  named  Providence,  and  became  the  founder  of  Rhode 
Island.  Peters  was  a  man  of  strong  powers  of  mind.  He  did  not  confine  his  atten- 
tion to  the  ministry,  but  entered  with  zeal  into  the  political  affairs  of  the  nation.  He 
went  to  England  about  the  period  of  the  civil  wars,  and  supported  the  cause  of  the 
parliament  by  his  preaching.  After  the  restoration  of  monarchy  in  England,  he  was 
executed  as  a  regicide,  in  1660,  aged  sixty-one  years. 

Hon.  Nathaniel  Bowditch,  LL.  D.,  F.  R.  S.,  one  of  the  most 
celebrated  mathematicians  of  the  age,  was  a  native  of  this  town. 
He  was  born  March  26th,  1773.  His  ancestors  for  three  genera- 
tions had  been  ship-masters,  and  his  father  on  retiring  from  that 
business  "  carried  on  the  trade  of  a  cooper,  by  which  he  gained  a 
scanty  and  precarious  subsistence  for  a  family  of  seven  children." 

The  early  residence  of  Dr.  Borvditch. 

The  above  is  a  representation  of  the  house,  in  Danvers,  in  which 
Dr.  Bowditch  lived  with  his  mother  when  a  child,  when  his  father 
was  far  off  upon  the  sea.  She  used  to  sit  at  the  chamber  window 
and  "  show  him  the  new  moon."  The  advantages  of  a  school  he 
was  obliged  to  forego  at  the  early  age  of  ten  years,  that  he  might  go 
into  his  father's  shop  and  help  support  the  family.  He  was  soon, 
however,  apprenticed  to  a  ship-chandler,  in  whose  shop  he  conti- 
nued until  he  went  to  sea,  first  as  a  clerk,  then  as  supercargo,  and 
finally  as  master  and  supercargo  jointly.  Whilst  he  was  in  the  ship- 
chandler's  shop,  he  manifested  that  genius  for  mathematical  pur- 
suits, for  which  he  afterwards  became  so  distinguished.  In  1823 
he  removed  to  Boston,  where  he  continued  to  reside  till  his  death, 

*  Newhall's  Essex  Memorial,  1836. 


on  the  16th  of  March,  1838.  The  following  resolves  on  the  occa- 
sion of  his  death,  will  serve  to  show  the  estimation  in  which  Dr. 
Bowditch  was  held. 

At  a  special  meeting  of  the  American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences,  held  March 
20th,  1838,  the  following  resolves  were  presented  by  his  excellency  Edward  Everett, 
and  adopted  unanimously  by  the  Fellows  of  the  Academy : — 

Resolved,  That  the  Fellows  of  the  American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences  entertain 
the  liveliest  sense  of  the  exalted  talents  and  extraordinary  attainments  of  their  late  presi- 
dent, who  stood  pre-eminent  among  the  men  of  science' in  the  United  States,  and  who, 
by  universal  consent,  has  long  been  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  distinguished  mathe- 
maticians and  astronomers  of  the  age  ;  that  we  consider  his  reputation  as  one  of  the 
most  precious  treasures  of  our  common  country;  that  we  deeply  deplore  his  loss  in  the 
fullness  of  his  intellectual  power  ;  and  that  we  esteem  it  our  sacred  duty  to  cherish  his 

Resolved.  That  in  addition  to  the  loss  which  they  have  sustained,  as  members  of 
this  scientific  body,  in  being  deprived  of  their  distinguished  associate  and  head,  whose 
name  has  for  many  years  conferred  honor  on  their  institution,  and  whose  communica- 
tions are  among  the  most  valuable  contents  of  the  volumes  of  the  Academy's  Memoirs, 
the  Fellows  of  the  Academy,  as  members  of  the  community,  lament  the  loss  of  a 
friend  and  fellow-citizen,  whose  services  were  of  the  highest  value  in  the  active  walks 
of  life  ; — whose  entire  influence  was  given  to  the  cause  of  good  principles  ; — whose 
life  was  a  uniform  exhibition  of  the  loftiest  virtues  ; — and  who,  with  a  firmness  and 
energy  which  nothing  could  shake  or  subdue,  devoted  himself  to  the  most  arduous 
and  important  duties,  and  made  the  profoundest  researches  of  science  subservient  to 
the  practical  business  of  life. 

"  The  connection  of  the  deceased  with  the  Boston  Athenaeum  was  so  beneficial  to  this 
institution,  that  the  trustees  are  urged  alike  by  official  duty  and  by  private  feeling  to 
express  their  sense  of  his  loss.  This  institution  is  deeply  indebted  to  the  late  Dr. 
Bowditch  for  the  zeal  with  which  he  labored  to  advance  its  interests.  Finding  it  weak, 
he  determined,  in  connection -with  several  other  public-spirited  individuals,  to  make  it 
prosper.  Their  appeals  to  the  munificence  of  our  wealthy  citizens  were  successful,  and 
the  resources  of  the  Athenaeum  were  greatly  increased.  For  several  years  Dr.  Bow- 
ditch,  continuing  a  member  of  this  Board,  aided  in  the  application  of  the  funds  which 
he  had  done  so  much  to  procure,  and  the  high  rank  which  the  scientific  portion  of  our 
library  enjoys  among  similar  institutions  in  the  United  States,  is  in  a  great  measure 
owing  to  his  judgment  and  exertions. 

"  But  Dr.  Bowditch  has  far  higher  claims  to  notice.  He  stood  at  the  head  of  the  scien- 
tific men  of  this  country,  and  no  man  living  has  contributed  more  to  his  country's 
reputation.  His  fame  is  of  the  most  durable  kind,  resting  on  the  union  of  the  highest 
genius  with  the  most  practical  talent,  and  the  application  of  both  to  the  good  of  his 
fellow-men.  Every  American  ship  crosses  the  ocean  more  safely  for  his  labors,  and 
the  most  eminent  mathematicians  of  Europe  have  acknowledged  him  their  equal  in 
the  highest  walks  of  their  science.  His  last  great  work  ranks  with  the  noblest  pro- 
ductions of  our  age." — Extract  from  the  Records  of  the  Boston  Athenceum. 

The  following  is  from  a  granite  monument  in  this  place. 

Beneath  this  monument  are  deposited  the  remains  of  TIMOTHY  &  REBECCA  PICK- 
ERING. He  was  an  r,ssertor  of  the  rights  of  the  North  American  Colonies,  a  soldier  in 
the  War  for  their  Independence,  a  Statesman  in  the  cabinet  of  Washington.  Integrity, 
disinterestedness,  energy,  ability,  fearlessness  in  the  cause  of  Truth  and  Justice, 
marked  his  public  conduct :  pure  in  morals,  simple  in  manners,  sincere,  benevolent, 
and  pious  in  private  life,  he  was  revered  and  honored.  She,  during  a  life  of  extraor- 
dinary vicissitude,  was  distinguished  by  fortitude,  resignation,  discretion,  maternal 
affection  ;  in  the  words  of  her  bereaved  husband,  "  A  spirit  more  gentle,  more  inno- 
cent, more  pure,  never  perhaps  appeared  in  the  female  form."  He  was  born  July  17th, 
1745,  and  she  on  the  18th  of  the  same  month,  1754  :  she  died  August  14th,  1828,  he 
January  29th,  1829. 


SALISBURY   is  the  oldest  town  in  Massachusetts  on  the  north 
bank  of  the  Merrimac,  it  being  incorporated  in  1640.     The  Rev. 


John  Wheelwright,  the  brother  of  the  famous  Mrs.  Hutchinsoii,  and 
founder  of  Exeter,  N.  H.,  was  minister  here  some  time,  and  died 
here  in  1679,  at  a  very  advanced  age.  He  embraced  Mrs.  Hutch- 
inson's  antinomian  sentiments,  and  on  this  account  was  banished 
from  the  jurisdiction  of  Massachusetts ;  he  was,  however,  restored 
afterwards  on  confession.  Several  sessions  of  the  general  court 
have  been  held  here ;  an  important  sitting  was  had  in  1737,  for  the 
purpose  of  settling  the  boundary  between  New  Hampshire  and 
Massachusetts  ;  the  legislature  of  New  Hampshire  sitting  at  Hamp- 
ton, the  adjoining  town,  at  the  same  time. 

The  first  church  in  this  town  was  formed  in  1638;  the  first  pas- 
tor was  Rev.  William  Worcester,  who  came  from  Salisbury  in 
England,  and  was  settled  at  the  organization  of  the  church.  He 
died  in  1662,  and  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  John  Wheelwright,  of 
whom  some  mention  has  been  made.  The  third  pastor  was  Rev. 
John  Ailing,  who  settled  here  in  1687,  and  died  1696 ;  he  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  Caleb  Gushing,  in  1698.  The  fifth  pastor  was  Rev. 
Edmund  Noyes,  who  settled  here  in  1751,  and  died  1809.  The 
second  Congregational  church  was  founded  in  1718.  The  first 
Baptist  society  was  founded  in  1779;  the  Methodist  in  1805;  the 
Christian  in  1820;  the  Universalist  in  1831;  the  Congregational 
Evangelical  Union  in  1835;  and  the  Salisbury  and  Amesbury 
Mills  Christian  Union  Society  in  1833. 

Salisbury  is  a  flourishing  town,  and  most  of  the  soil  is  good. 
The  town  is  bordered  on  the  river  opposite  Newburyport  by  a  salt 
marsh,  one  mile  and  a  half  in  extent :  beyond  that  the  ground  rises 
and  is  gently  uneven  ;  it  grows  narrower  farther  up  the  river. 
On  the  sea-shore  is  a  beach  of  yellow  sand,  over  which  in  high 
tides  the  sea  sometimes  rushes  to  a  great  extent.  There  are  three 
villages  in  the  township — one  opposite  Newburyport;  another, 
called  the  Point,  at  the  mouth  of  Powow  river,  where  formerly 
much  ship-building  was  carried  on  ;  the  other  forms  part  of  the 
Mills  village.  (See  Amesbury.) 

In  the  limits  of  the  town  there  were  in  1837  1  cotton  mill,  2 
woollen  mills,  with  20  sets  of  machinery ;  850,000  yards  of  cloth 
were  manufactured,  the  value  of  which  was  $275,000 ;  males  em- 
ployed, 200;  females,  100.  Shoes  manufactured,  65,500  pairs, 
valued  at  $40.800 ;  males  employed,  87  ;  females,  48.  Nine  ves- 
sels were  employed  in  the  cod  and  mackerel  fishery ;  hands 
employed.  45.  In  five  years  preceding  1837,  there  were  47  vessels 
built ;  tonnage,  3,975  ;  valued  at  $89,644 ;  hands  employed  in  ship- 
building, 81.  The  continental  frigate  Alliance  was  built  here 
during  the  Revolution.  Population,  2,675.  Distance,  35  miles 
N.  E.  from  Boston. 

A  tornado  which  took  place  in  this  vicinity,  on  the  1st  of 
August,  1773,  is  thus  described  in  a  publication  of  that  period  : — 

The  tornado  took  its  course  from  the  east,  first  struck  Salisbury  Point,  and,  following 
the  course  of  the  Merrimac  river,  spread  havoc  before  it  for  the  space  of  a  mile  in 
width,  extending  to  Haverhill.  The  devastation  was  almost  beyond  conception  or 
description.  Almost  every  house  and  building  from  Salisbury  Point  to  a  quarter  of  a 
mile  above  Amesbury  ferry,  was  levelled  with  the  ground,  uprooted,  or  otherwise  dam 

s  A  u  G  u  s .  229 

aged.  A  Capt.  Smith,  who  belonged  to  Beverly,  was  sitting  in  a  sail-maker's  loft,  at 
Amesbury,  when  the  storm  commenced,  and  in  a  moment  h?  and  the  whole  build- 
ing were  carried  away  together,  the  building  rent  to  pieces  and  dispersed.  Capt. 
Smith  was  found  lying  senseless  ninety-four  feet  from  the  sill  of  the  loft  he  was  car- 
ried  from ;  one  of  his  legs  was  broken,  and  he  was  otherwise  bruised.  A  large  white 
oak  post,  fourteen  feet  in  length,  and  twelve  by  ten  inches,  was  transported  one  hun- 
dred and  thirty -eight  feet.  Two  vessels  of  ninety  tons,  building  in  Amesbury,  were 
lifted  from  the  blocks,  and  carried  sidewise  through  the  air  twenty-two  feet.  A  large 
bundle  of  shingles  was  taken  from  the  ground,  and  thrown  three  hundred  and  thirty 
feet,  in  an  opposite  direction  to  that  of  the  post  above  mentioned,  and  at  right  angles 
to  the  course  the  vessels  were  carried.  Large  trees  were  torn  up  by  the  roots  and  cast 
into  the  river.  Large  oak  planks  were  hurled,  with  the  velocity  of  cannon  balls, 
through  the  roofs  of  houses ;  and,  in  fine,  daring  the  hurricane,  which  lasted  a  few 
minutes  only,  the  air  was  filled  with  every  thing  that  could  be  moved,  whirling  with 
the  most  surprising  rapidity  through  the  air,  and  surrounding  the  affrighted  inhabi- 
tants, some  of  whom  were  taken  up  by  the  winds,  carried  a  considerable  way,  and  let 
down  safe ;  others  were  buried  in  their  cellars,  but  were  dug  out  without  receiving 
any  hurt.  About  one  hundred  and  fifty  buildings  fell. 

In  Haverhill,  the  inhabitants  fled  in  consternation  from  one  large  dwelling-house, 
which  was  blown  down,  and  thought  to  save  themselves  in  a  barn,  which  was  almost 
new,  and  filled  with  about  thirty  tons  of  hay ;  but  the  barn  was  entirely  blown  to 
pieces,  in  another  moment,  and  some  parts  of  it  carried  to  the  distance  of  three  miles. 

This  tempest  was  preceded  by  heavy  rain  and  gross  darkness  ;  and  it  appeared 
first  on  the  Merrimac  river,  which  was  in  the  utmost  tumult,  rolling  upon  the  banks, 
and  threatening  to  swallow  up  the  affrighted  inhabitants. 


THIS  town  formed  the  west  parish  of  Lynn  till  1815,  when  it 
was  incorporated  as  a  distinct  town,  and  received  the  name  of 
Saugus,  the  Indian  name  of  Lynn.  The  first,  church  (the  third 
of  Lynn)  was  founded  here  in  1736,  and  Rev.  Edward  Cheever 
was  settled  here  in  1739;  the  Rev.  Joseph  Roby  in  1752;  Rev. 
William  Frothingham  in  1804;  Rev.  Joseph  Emerson  in  1821; 
Rev.  Ephraim  Randall  in  1826 ;  and  Rev.  Sidney  Holman  in  1833, 
The  Methodist  society  was  organized  in  1810 ;  there  is  also  a  society 
of  Universalists  in  this  town. 

This  town  is  centrally  intersected  by  Saugus  river,  which  winds 
its  way  through  its  whole  length,  with  numerous  bends.  On  the 
banks  of  the  river  are  meadows  and  marsh  lands,  and  the  salt 
marshes  near  the  sea  are  very  extensive.  The  greater  part  of  the 
rest  of  the  township  is  rough  and  uneven,  and  to  a  considerable 
extent  covered  with  wood.  The  land  upon  the  river  is  generally 
good,  well  cultivated,  and  productive.  In  1837,  there  were  manu- 
factured in  this  town  190.326  pairs  of  shoes,  the  value  of  which 
was  $149,847;  males  employed,  269;  females,  114.  Snuff  and 
cigars  were  manufactured  to  the  value  of  $27,473,  and  §2  persons 
were  employed  in  the  manufacture.  There  is  also  a  woollen  fac- 
tory and  dying  establishment.  Population,  1,123.  Distance,  3 
miles  from  Lynn,  10  from  Salem,  and  9  from  Boston. 

An  iron  mine  was  discovered  at  an  early  period  on  the  west  bank 
of  the  Saugus,  and  as  early  as  1645  iron  works  were  established  by 
a  company  in  England.  The  village  at  the  foundry  was  called  Ham- 
mersmithby  some  of  the  workmen,  who  came  from  a  place  of  that 
name  in  England.  Iron  was  manufactured  here  for  more  than  one 


hundred  years,  but  seldom  in  large  quantities.    Heaps  of  scoria  or 
cinder  banks  are  still  to  be  seen  near  where  the  works  stood. 

In  1658  there  was  a  great  earthquake  in  New  England,  con- 
nected with  which  is  the  following  story,  which  is  taken  from  Mr. 
Lewis'  History  of  Lynn. 

Some  time  previous,  on  one  pleasant  evening,  a  little  after  sunset,  a  small  vessel 
was  seen  to  anchor  near  the  mouth  of  Saugus  river.  A  boat  was  presently  lowered 
from  her  side,  into  which  four  men  descended,  and  moved  up  the  river  a  considerable 
distance,  when  they  landed,  and  proceeded  directly  into  the  woods.  They  had  been 
noticed  by  only  a  few  individuals ;  but  in  those  early  times,  when  the  people  were 
surrounded  by  danger,  and  easily  susceptible  of  alarm,  such  an  incident  was  well  cal- 
culated to  awaken  suspicion,  and  in  the  course  of  the  evening  the  intelligence  was 
conveyed  to  many  houses.  In  the  morning,  the  people  naturally  directed  their  eyes 
toward  the  shore,  in  search  of  the  strange  vessel — but  she  was  gone,  and  no  trace 
could  be  found  either  of  her  or  her  singular  crew.  It  was  afterwards  ascertained  that, 
on  that  morning,  one  of  the  men  at  the  iron  works,  on  going  into  the  foundry,  dis- 
covered a  paper,  on  which  was  written,  that  if  a  quantity  of  shackles,  handcuffs, 
hatchets,  and  other  articles  of  iron  manufacture,  were  made  and  deposited,  with 
secrecy,  in  a  certain  place  in  the  woods,  which  was  particularly  designated,  an  amount 
of  silver,  to  their  full  value,  would  be  found  in  their  place.  The  articles  were  made  in 
a  few  days,  and  placed  in  conformity  with  the  directions.  On  the  next  morning  they 
were  gone,  and  the  money  was  found  according  to  the  promise  ;  but  though  a  watch 
had  been  kept,  no  vessel  was  seen.  Some  months  afterward,  the  four  men  returned, 
and  selected  one  of  the  most  secluded  and  romantic  spots  in  the  woods  of  Saugus,  for 
their  abode.  The  place  of  their  retreat  was  a  deep  narrow  valley,  shut  in  on  two 
sides  by  high  hills  and  craggy  precipitous  rocks,  and  shrouded  on  the  others  by  thick 
pines,  hemlocks,  and  cedars,  between  which  there  was  only  one  small  spot  to  which  the 
rays  of  the  sun  at  noon  could  penetrate.  On  climbing  up  the  rude  and  almost  perpen- 
dicular steps  of  the  rock  on  the  eastern  side,  the  eye  could  command  a  full  view 
of  the  bay  on  the  south,  and  a  prospect  of  a  considerable  portion  of  the  surrounding 
country.  The  place  of  their  retreat  has  ever  since  been  called  the  Pirates'  Glen,  and 
they  could  not  have  selected  a  spot  on  the  coast  for  many  miles,  more  favorable  for  the 
purposes  both  of  concealment  and  observation.  Even  at  this  day,  when  the  neighbor- 
hood has  become  thickly  peopled,  it  is  still  a  lonely  and  desolate  place,  and  probably 
not  one  in  a  hundred  of  the  inhabitants  has  ever  descended  into  its  silent  and  gloomy 
recess.  There  the  pirates  built  a  small  hut,  made  a  garden,  and  dug  a  well,  the 
appearance  of  which  is  still  visible.  It  has  been  supposed  that  they  buried  money; 
but  though  people  have  dug  there,  and  in  several  other  places,  none  has  ever  been 
found.  After  residing  there  some  time,  their  retreat  became  known,  and  one  of  the 
king's  cruisers  appeared  on  the  coast.  They  were  traced  to  their  glen,  and  three  of 
them  were  taken  and  carried  to  England,  where  it  is  probable  they  were  executed. 
The  other,  whose  name  was  Thomas  Veal,  escaped  to  a  rock  in  the  woods,  about  two 
miles  to  the  north,  in  which  was  a  spacious  cavern,  where  the  pirates  had  previously 
deposited  some  of  their  plunder.  There  the  fugitive  fixed  his  residence,  and  practised  the 
trade  of  a  shoemaker,  occasionally  coming  down  to  the  village  to  obtain  articles  of  suste- 
nance. He  continued  his  residence  till  the  great  earthquake  this  year,  when  the  top 
of  the  rock  was  loosened,  and  crushed  down  into  the  mouth  of  the  cavern,  enclosing  the 
unfortunate  inmate  in  its  unyielding  prison.  It  has  ever  since  been  called  the  Pirate's 
))ungeon.  A  part  of  the  cavern  is  still  open,  and  is  much  visited  by  the  curious. 


THIS  town  was  at  the  time  of  its  settlement  called  Neiv  Meadows. 
It  was  settled  about  1639,  but  was  not  incorporated  till  1650, 
The  first  settlers  were  from  Salem  and  Ipswich.  The  names  of 
some  of  the  principal  inhabitants  were  Bradstreet,  Clark,  Cum- 
mings,  Smith,  Town,  Wildes,  and  Easty.  Mr.  Knight  and  Mr. 
Wm.  Perkins  were  preachers  here  before  the  formation  of  a  church. 

W  E  N  H  A  M  .  23 1 

Mr.  Perkins  died  in  1682.  A  church  was  formed  and  Rev. 
Thomas  Gilbert  was  ordained  in  1663;  he  was  dismissed  in  1671, 
and  succeeded  by  Rev.  Jeremiah  Hobart  the  next  year.  Mr.  Ho- 
bart  was  dismissed  in  1680.  Rev.  Joseph  Capen,  his  successor, 
was  ordained  in  1684.  Rev.  John  Emerson,  the  next  pastor,  was 
ordained  in  1728,  and  died  in  1774.  Rev.  Daniel  Breck,  his  suc- 
cessor, was  ordained  in  1779,  and  dismissed  in  1788.  Rev.  Asa- 
hel  Huntington  was  the  next  minister,  in  1789,  and  died  in  1813. 
Rev.  Rodney  G.  Dennis  was  ordained  in  1820.  The  Methodist 
society  in  this  place  was  formed  in  1830. 

The  surface  of  the  township  is  uneven,  and  there  are  some  hills 
of  considerable  elevation.  The  plain  on  which  the  church  stands, 
and  the  sides  of  the  hills  around  it,  present  a  pleasant  prospect. 
There  are  some  handsome  buildings  and  an  academy  in  the  place. 
Newburyport  turnpike  passes  a  short  distance  from  the  meeting- 
house. Population,  1,049.  Distance,  9  miles  from  Salem,  13  from 
Haverhill,  and  21  from  Boston.  In  1837,  there  were  900  pairs  of 
boots  and  124,396  pairs  of  shoes  manufactured  in  this  town ;  272 
males  and  269  females  were  employed  in  this  business.  The  value 
of  boots  and  shoes  manufactured  was  estimated  at  $98,676. 


THE  first  regular  settlement  in  this  town  appears  to  have  been 
made  about  the  year  1639.  It  was  then  called  Enon,  and  was 
within  the  limits  of  Salem.  It  was  incorporated  a  town  in  1643. 
The  first  sermon  ever  preached  iu  the  town  was  by  the  celebrated 
Hugh  Peters,  then  minister  of  Salem,  about  the  year  1636.  It 
was  on  a  small  conical  hill,  on  the  bank  of  the  pond,  and  the  text 
was,  "  At  jEnon,  near  Salem,  because  there  ivas  much  water  there" 
The  first  church  was  gathered  here  in  1644,  and  the  first  pastor 
Rev.  John  Fisk.  In  1656,  he  removed  with  a  large  part  of  his 
church  to  Chelmsford,  and  commenced  the  settlement  of  that 
town.  The  following  is  a  list  of  the  succeeding  pastors  of  this 
church,  with  the  year  of  their  settlement :  Antipas  Newman,  set- 
tled in  1663  ;  Joseph  Gerrish,  in  1675  ;  Robert  Ward,  in  1712 ;  John 
Warren,  in  1733 ;  Joseph  Swain,  in  1750 ;  Adonijah  Judson,  in 
1792 ;  Rufus  Anderson,  in  1805 ;  John  Smith,  in  1817 ;  Ebenezer 
P.  Sperry,  in  1820.  A  Baptist  church  was  formed  in  1831. 

There  is  no  compact  settlement  in  this  town,  the  inhabitants 
being  mostly  farmers,  and  live  scattered  about  on  their  farms. 
The  surface  of  the  land  is  generally  level,  and  the  soil  good.  The 
township  is  about  six  miles  in  length,  and  but  a  little  more  than 
one  in  breadth.  Wenham  pond  is  considered  to  be  one  of  the 
most  beautiful  sheets  of  water  in  the  county ;  it  is  large,  and  pre- 
sents an  uncommonly  romantic  appearance ;  about  one  third  of  it 
lies  within  the  bounds  of  Beverly.  Wenham  swamp,  so  called, 
lies  in  the  north-western  section  of  the  township,  and  extends  into 
Hamilton.  The  Manchester  woods  extend  over  a  considerable 

232  WEST    NEWBURY. 

part  of  the  eastern  end  of  this  town.     Population,  698.     Distance, 
6  miles  from  Salem,  and  21  from  Boston. 

In  the  journal  of  John  Duntan,  a  gentleman  who  travelled  in  this  country  in  1686, 
this  town  is  thus  noticed :  "Wenham  is  a  delicious  paradise;  it  abounds  with  rural 
pleasures,  and  I  would  choose  it  above  all  other  towns  in  America  to  dwell  in.  The 
lofty  trees  on  each  side  of  it  are  a  sufficient  shelter  for  the  winds,  and  the  warm  sun  so 
kindly  ripens  both  the  fruits  and  flowers,  as  if  the, spring,  the  summer  and  the  autumn 
had  agreed  together  to  thrust  winter  out  of  doors."  The  same  writer,  speaking  of 
Joseph  Gerrish,  the  minister,  says — "  'T  were  endless  to  enter  on  a  detail  of  each 
faculty  of  learning  Mr.  Gerrish  is  master  of,  and  therefore  take  his  character  in  short 
hand.  The  philosopher,  is  acute,  ingenious  and  subtle.  The  divine,  curious,  orthodox 
and  profound.  The  man,  of  a  majestic  air,  without  austerity  or  sourness ;  his  aspect 
is  masterly,  yet  not  imperious  or  naughty.  The  Christian,  is  devout,  without  morose- 
ness  or  starts  of  holy  frenzy  and  enthusiasm.  The  preacher,  is  primitive,  without  the 
occasional  colors  of  whining  or  cant ;  and  methodical,  without  intricacy  or  affectation  j 
and,  which  crowns  his  character,  he  is  a  man  of  public  spirit,  zealous  for  the  conver- 
sion of  the  Indians,  and  of  great  hospitality  to  strangers.  He  gave  us  a  noble  dinner, 
and  entertained  us  with  such  pleasant  fruits  as  I  must  own  Old  England  is  a  stran- 


THIS  town  was  settled  at  an  early  period,  and  was  within  the 
limits  of  Newbury.  It  was  incorporated  as  a  distinct  town  in  1819. 
The  first  church  in  this  town  was  the  second  of  Newbury.  The 
first  pastor  was  Rev.  Samuel  Belcher,  who  was  settled  here  in 
1698.  The  succession  of  ministers  in  this  church  is  as  follows : 
John  Tufts,  settled  here  in  1714;  Thomas  Barnard,  in  1739; 
Moses  Hale,  in  1752;  True  Kimball,  in  1782;  Samuel  Tomb,  in 
1798;  Ebenezer  Hubbard,  in  1809;  Gilbert  T.  Williams,  in  1814; 
Henry  C.  Wright,  in  1826 ;  Benjamin  Ober,  in  1834.  The  sec- 
ond Congregational  church  (the  fourth  of  Newbury)  was  formed 
in  1731.  Rev.  William  Johnson  was  the  first  pastor,  settled  in 
1731;  David  Tappan,  in  1774;  Leonard  Woods,  in  1798;  John 
Kirby,  in  1816 ;  Elijah  Demond,  in  1821 ;  Paul  Couch,  in  1827. 
The  Friends  have  a  meeting-house  in  this  town. 

The  town  occupies  an  elevated  situation  on  the  south  bank  of 
the  Merrimac.  The  soil  is  excellent,  and  grain  and  hay  are  pro- 
duced in  great  quantities.  The  butter  and  cheese  made  in  this 
town  are  held  in  high  estimation.  Fruit  is  also  produced  in  abun- 
dance. The  town  is  connected  with  Rocks  village,  Haverhill,  by 
an  excellent  bridge  over  the  Merrimac,  one  thousand  feet  in  length. 
This  bridge  was  built  in  1828 ;  the  one  previous  was  erected  in 
1796,  but  was  swept  away  in  the  great  freshet  of  1818.  From 
the  elevated  grounds  in  this  town  many  fine  prospects  of  the  sur- 
rounding scenery  are  obtained.  Population,  1,448.  Distance,  6 
miles  from  Newburyport,  20  from  Lowell,  and  34  from  Boston. 

A.  S  H  F  1  E  L  D  .  233 


FRANKLIN  COUNTY  was  originally  the  north  part  of  Hampshire 
county:  it  was  incorporated  as  a  distinct  county  in  1811.  Con- 
necticut river  passes  centrally  through  the  county  from  north  to 
south,  and  Deerfield  river  passes  from  west  to  east  centrally 
through  the  western,  and  Miller's  river  from  east  to  west  through 
the  eastern  part  of  the  county.  Pew  tracts  of  country  exceed  this 
for  the  extent  and  value  of  its  water  powers.  The  great  body  of 
the  people  are  engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits.  The  fine  grazing 
lands  found  upon  the  verdant  hills  and  fertile  valleys,  enable  the 
farmers  in  this  section  to  raise  large  droves  of  fat  cattle  for  market. 
The  manufacturing  interests  have  received  considerable  attention 
of  late  years,  and  are  increasing  in  value  and  importance.  The 
following  is  a  list  of  the  towns,  which  are  26  in  number. 

Ashfield,  Erving,  Monroe,  Shutesbury, 

Bernardston,  Gill,  Montague,  Sunderland, 

Buckland,  Greenfield,  New  Salem,  Warwick, 

Charlemont,  Hawley,  Northfield  Wendall, 

Coleraine,  Heath,  Orange,  Whately. 

Con  way,  Leverett,  Rowe, 

Deerfield,  Leyden,  Shelburne, 

In  1820,  the  population  of  this  county  was  29,268 ;  in  1830,  it 
was  29,344;  in  1837,  it  was  28,655. 


THE  territory  comprising  this  town  was  granted  to  Capt.  Ephraim 
Hunt,  of  Weymouth,  as  a  compensation  for  services  rendered  in 
the  Canada  expedition  of  1690.  It  was  actually  conveyed  to  his 
heirs  forty-six  years  afterwards,  and  was  settled  by  a  few  families 
in  1742.  It  was  incorporated  as  a  town  in  1764 ;  previous  to  that 
time  it  went  by  the  name  of  Huntstown,  from  the  name  of  its  ori- 
ginal proprietor.  Richard  Ellis,  a  native  of  Ireland,  was  the  first 
permanent  settler ;  Thomas  Phillips,  with  his  family,  from  Easton. 
was  the  next ;  Chileab  Smith,  from  South  Hadley,  was  the  third 
settler.  These  persons  all  settled  in  the  north-eastern  part  of  the 
town.  Mr.  Chileab  Smith  settled  on  the  farm  now  owned  and  oc- 
cupied by  his  son  Chileab,  who  is  96  years  of  age,  and  in  good 
health  at  this  time,  (1837.) 

The  first  regular  church  formed  in  this  town  was  of  the  Baptist 
denomination.  It  was  constituted  in  July,  1761,  and  consisted  of 
nine  members.  In  the  following  August  the  Rev.  Ebenezer  Smith, 
the  eldest  son  of  Chileab  Smith,  was  ordained  its  pastor.  He  was 
succeeded  in  1798  by  elder  Enos  Smith,  who  deceased  about  two 
years  since.  The  Congregational  church  in  this  town  was  formed 
by  an  ecclesiastical  council,  Feb.  22d,  1763,  and  Rev.  Jacob  Sher- 


win  ordained  its  pastor  the  same  year.  Rev.  Nehemiah  Porter 
succeeded  him  in  1774,  and  died  Feb.  29th,  1820,  aged  99  years 
and  11  months.  Rev.  Alvan  Sanderson  was  ordained  colleague 
pastor  in  1808.  Rev.  Thomas  Shepherd  succeeded  Mr.  Sanderson 
in  1819.  Rev.  Mason  Grosvenor,  the  next  pastor,  was  installed 
1833;  he  was  succeeded  by  Rev.  Burr  Baldwin,  in  1836.  In 
1820  an  Episcopal  society  was  formed  in  this  town,  and  they  have 
a  handsome  church  in  the  center  of  the  place.  There  is  also  a 
small  society  of  Methodists. 

Ashfield  is  a  little  over  six  miles  square.  The  face  of  the  town- 
ship is  uneven  and  hilly,  better  adapted  for  grazing  than  tillage. 
There  is,  however,  much  good  tillage  land  interspersed  among  the 
hills.  The  principal  productions  are  com,  potatoes,  oats,  and  of 
late  wheat.  Some  of  the  farmers  have  large  dairies.  In  1837, 
there  were  in  this  town  8,021  merino  sheep,  which  produced 
24,063  Ibs.  of  wool.  There  are  four  churches,  2  for  Baptists,  1 
Congregational,  and  1  Episcopal.  The  central  village  consists 
of  about  twenty  dwelling-houses,  an  Episcopal  church,  an  aca- 
demy, and  a  number  of  mercantile  stores.  Distance,  18  miles  from 
Greenfield,  18  from  Northampton,  and  105  to  Boston.  Population 
of  the  town,  1,656. 


IN  1735,  the  general  assembly  of  the  province  of  Massachusetts  Bay 
granted  a.  tract  of  land  six  miles  square,  north  of  Greenfield,  inclu- 
ding the  present  towns  of  Bernardston  and  Leyden,  and  a  part 
of  Coleraine,  to  the  officers  and  soldiers  who  were  in  the  Fall  Fight, 
an  account  of  which  may  be  found  under  the  head  of  Gill.  In 
consideration  of  the  services  and  sufferings  of  these  men,  the  tract 
above  mentioned  was  granted  to  them  or  their  descendants  59 
years  after  the  battle.  From  the  fact  that  this  battle  took  place  at 
the  Falls,  the  town  took  the  name  of  Fall  Town,  which  it  was 
called  for  nearly  20  years.  The  first  meeting  of  the  owners  of  this 
tract  of  country  was  held  at  Northampton,  in  January,  1736,  the 
next  month  after  it  was  granted  by  the  legislature.  The  proprie- 
tors were  97 ;  among  the  names  of  these  were  the  following  :  Ather- 
ton,  Field,  Hitchcock,  Cook,  Chamberlain,  Alexander,  Chapin, 
Connable,  Dickinson,  Edwards,  Hoit,  Lyman,  Munn,  Hunt,  Smith, 
Wright,  Pomeroy,  Pratt,  Rogers,  Sikes,  Smead,  Scott,  Wells. 
The  town  was  first  settled  in  1738.  The  four  first  houses  that 
were  built  in  town  were  Major  Burk's,  Mr.  Samuel  Connable's, 
Lieut.  Ebenezer  Sheldon's,  and  Dea.  Sheldon's.  Major  Burk's 
house  was  situated  a  little  north  of  the  present  bark-house ;  Mr.  S. 
Connable's  stood  near  the  house  now  occupied  by  Mr.  Joseph  Con- 
nable ;  Lieut.  E.  Sheldon's  house  was  situated  a  little  west  of  Mr. 
Hatsell  Purple's  late  residence;  and  Dea.  Sheldon's  stood  near 
Mr  Seorin  Slate's,  on  Huckle  Hill. 


These  houses,  or  forts,  as  they  were  called,  were  built  of  hewn  logs,  and  served  the 
double  purpose  of  houses  to  live  in,  and  a  defence  against  the  sudden,  and  often  fatal, 
attacks  of  the  Indians.  They  were  built  with  port-holes  through  the  sides,  through 
which  those  within  could  fire,  with  elevated  stands  for  a  watch,  where  they  could  better 
see  the  approach  of  the  enemy,  and  give  the  alarm.  •  These  houses  were  occupied  by 
those  by  whose  name  they  were  called,  and  the  occupants  were  among  the  first  settlers 
in  this  town.  At  a  proprietors'  meeting  held  in  Deerfield,  in  June,  1739,  it  was  voted 
that  a  meeting-house  should  be  built,  59  feet  long,  40  feet  wide,  and  23  feet  between 
joists.  This  house  was  built  in  two  years  after  the  first  settlement  of  the  town.  It 
was  situated  on  Huckle  Hill,  and  was  the  first  meeting-house  built  in  Fall  Town.  In  Oct. 
1740,  it  was  voted  that  there  be  £20  paid^out  for  the  support  of  preaching.  And  at  an 
adjourned  meeting  it  was  voted  that  a  committee  be  chosen  to  cut  the  brush  and  burn  them 
ten  rods  round  the  meeting-house.  Rev.  John  Norton,  from  Windham,  Con.,  the  first  minister, 
was  ordained  in  1741,  and  was  dismissed,  on  account  of  the  unsettled  state  of  the  times,  in 
1745.  In  the  first  French  war,  he  acted  for  a  season  as  chaplain  at  the  fort  which  was 
kept  at  Hoosic,  near  Adams.  He  was  there  at  the  time  that  fort  was  surprised  and 
taken  by  a  party  of  French  and  Indians,  whence  he  was  carried  captive  into  Canada. 
After  his  release,  he  was  installed  a  pastor  in  Chatham,  Con.  From  1750  to  1761  there 
was  no  ordained  preacher  in  Fall  Town.  The  Rev.  Job  Wright,  the  next  minister, 
was  settled  in  1761.  About  1755,  commenced  the  French  and  Indian  war,  in  which 
the  settlers  in  the  town  suffered  severely  ;  while  it  continued,  the  people  lived  mostly 
in  Burk's  fort.  Every  man  that  was  capable,  bore  arms,  and,  in  some  cases,  females 
were  under  the  necessity  of  bearing  arms  to  defend  their  dwellings  from  the  attacks  of 
a  barbarous  enemy.  When  the  men  went  into  the  fields,  they  took  their  arms  with 
them,  and  constantly  had  some  one  on  guard.  Agriculture  and  education  were  but 
little  attended  to.  The  Indians  were  almost  constantly  lurking  in  the  woods,  which 
kept  them  in  a  perpetual  state  of  danger  and  alarm. 

Fall  Town  was  incorporated  into  a  township  in  1762,  by  the  name 
of  Bernardston,  after  Governor  Bernard,  the  provincial  governor  of 
Massachusetts.  The  first  selectmen  were  Messrs.  John  Burk,  Re- 
memberence  Sheldon  and  Moses  Scott.  During  the  Revolutionary 
war  the  inhabitants  of  Bernardston  furnished  their  full  quota  of  men 
and  means  during  the  continuance  of  the  struggle,  and  made  many 
sacrifices  for  the  American  cause.  In  Jan.  1782,  a  vote  was  passed 
"that  those  persons  who  are  professed  Baptists,  and  have  attended 
that  particular  form  of  worship,  shall  be  free  from  the  minister  tax;" 
this  appears  to  be  the  first  account  of  the  Baptist  society  in  this  town. 
The  Rev.  AmasaCook,  the  third  settled  minister  in  this  town,  was  or- 
dained in  Dec.  1783.  In  1790,  the  first  census  was  taken  by  Mr.  David 
Saxton,  of  Deerfield,  by  order  of  the  general  government.  The 
population  of  the  town  at  that  period  was  691,  being  divided  into 
108  families.  In  1789  the  Baptist  society  was  organized,  and  in 
1790  their  first  meeting-house  was  built,  and  the  same  year  Elder 
Hodge  was  ordained,  and  continued  here  about  ten  years.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Elder  Rogers  and  Elder  Green.  The  present 
Baptist  meeting-house  was  built  in  1817.  In  1821  the  Universal- 
ist society  was  organized,  and  their  meeting-house  was  built  in 
1823,  and  the  same  year  Dr.  Brooks  was  ordained  as  minister.  The 
first  Orthodox  Congregational  society  was  organized  in  1823. 

The  following  is  a  representation  of  the  public  buildings  and 
Cushman's  tavern,  in  the  central  part  of  the  village,  as  they  appear 
when  passing  through  to  the  northward.  The  Universalist  church 
is  the  one-story  building  with  four  windows,  on  the  western  side ; 
Cushman's  tavern  appears  on  the  left.  The  distance  between  this 
tavern  and  the  Universalist  church  is  about  35  rods.  In  the  engra- 

B  E  K  N  A  R  D  S  T  O  N . 

South-west  view  of  Bernardston,  (central  part.) 

ving  this  distance  is  contracted,  and  some  buildings  are  left  out,  in 
order  to  show  Mr.  Cushman's  house,  long  known  as  an  excellent 
tavern  stand,  and,  with  the  elms  standing  south,  is  a  very  striking 
feature  in  the  appearance  of  this  village.  Within  the  distance  of 
half  a  mile  from  this  place  there  are  upwards  of  fifty  dwelling- 
houses,  which,  though  mostly  small,  are  neat  in  their  general  ap- 
pearance. Distance,  7  miles  from  Greenfield,  13  from  Brattleboro', 
Vt,  and  96  from  Boston.  Agriculture  is  the  principal  business  of 
the  inhabitants.  Population,  878. 

The  following  is  a  letter  of  Maj.  John  Burk,  (one  of  the  prin- 
cipal men  of  Bernardston,)  to  his  wife,  giving  an  account  of 
the  battle  of  Lake  George.  For  this,  and  the  journal  of  Maj. 
Burk,  together  with  the  materials  for  the  preceding  historical 
sketch,  the  author  is  indebted  to  the  politeness  of  Henry  W. 
Cushman,  Esq.,  of  Bernardston. 

Lake  Sacrament,  now  catted  Lake  George,  Sept.  11,  1755. 

DEAU  WIFE  :  T  wrote  to  you  yesterday,  but  was  not  allowed  to  say  any  more  than  that 
I  was  well,  and  that  we  have  had  a  battle,  &c.  The  particulars  of  the  engagement  I 
now  send  you  by  Capt.  Wyman.  On  the  7th  inst.,  our  Indians  discovered  the  track  of  a 
large  body  of  the  enemy  east  of  us.  On  the  8th,  Col.  Williams,  with  a  detachment  1000 
strong,  marched  in  pursuit,  or  to  make  discovery.  They  marched  in  the  road  3  miles 
south,  and  being  discovered  by  the  enemy,,(as  we  are  told  by  the  French  general  who  is 
taken  by  us,)  were  waylaid  by  1800  French  and  Indians.  The  French  lay  on  one  side 
the  road  on  rising  ground  ;  the  Indians  on  the  other  side,  in  a  swamp.  Part  of  the 
French  were  regular  troops  ;  these  lay  south.  Their  scheme  was  to  let  our  men  march 
quite  to  the  south  end  of  the  ambush,  the  regular  troops  to  give  the  first  fire,  then  all 
to  fire  and  rash  on  ;  which  if  they  had  done,  they  would  have  cut  our  men  all  to  pieces. 
But  the  general  says  that  a  heady  Indian,  who  was  very  eager,  fired  as  soon  as  they 
entered  the  ambush.  Then  the  enemy  pursued  and  fired  briskly,  and,  having  the  ad- 
vantage of  the  ground,  obliged  our  men  to  retreat,  which,  the  French  general  says,  they 
did  very  regularly.  We  at  the  camp  heard  the  guns ;  were  not  suffered  to  go  out,  but  to 
make  ready  to  receive  the  enemy,  lest  they  should  rout  us  and  take  our  baggage,  for 
we  knew  they  retreated  by  the  guns,  (viz.  our  men.)  The  enemy  drove  on  very  furi- 
ously, but  while  they  were  coming  we  placed  our  cannon,  felled  trees  and  rolled  logs  to 
make  a  breast-work  all  round  the  camp,  but  it  was  a  poor  defence.  The  regulars 
marched  along  the  road,  6  deep,  till  they  got  near  our  camps ;  then  all  fired  upon  us, 


and  we  upon  them  with  cannon  and  small  arms.  They  made  a  very  smart  push,  but 
we  stood  firm,  and  I  believe  there  was  never  such  firing  before,  and  had  not  our  can- 
non broke  their  regulars  and  affrighted  their  Indians,  they  might,  perhaps,  destroyed 
more  of  us,  if  not  taken  the  camps.  The  battle  began  between  10  and  11 ;  continued 
till  between  5  and  6  afternoon,  at  which  time  we  were  so  hot  upon  them,  that  they  be- 
gan to  draw  off.  Our  men  pursued  some  way  ;  we  were  so  fast  upon  them  that  they 
left  their  dead  and  wounded  on  the  spot.  The  enemy  all  drew  off  to  where  they  arn- 
bushed  our  men  at  the  first.  While  we  were  engaged,  the  people  at  the  other  fort, 
at  the  carrying  place,  heard  our  great  guns,  and  sent  200  New  Hampshire  and  N.  York 
men  to  relieve  us.  These  met  the  enemy  stripping  our  dead,  engaged  them  smartly, 
drove  them  off  the  ground.  They  fought  3  hours,  took  2  prisoners  and  2  scalps.  We 
have  taken  about  25  prisoners  in  all.  One  is  the  general  of  all  the  French  forces  in 
North  America.  Another  officer,  called  aid-de-camp,  who  was  stunned  by  a  cannon- 
ball  and  lay  till  night,  came  in  and  surrendered  himself.  The  French  general  is 
wounded  in  the  knee  and  in  the  thigh,  and  like  to  recover.  Some  of  the  captives  are 
dead,  others  very  badly  wounded.  One  is  Mr.  Thos.  French's  sister's  son,  cousin  to 
Lue.  He  says  that  Lue  was  killed  in  the  engagement.  We  have  had  a  very  smart 
battle,  but  got  the  victory.  The  French  general  says  we.  have  broke  his  army  all  to 
pieces.  We  have  been  out  and  buried  our  dead,  and  got  a  great  deal  of  plunder,  guns, 
blankets,  provisions,  &c.  We  have  lost  some  famous  men  in  the  battle,  a  list  of  which 
I  send,  belonging  to  our  regiment,  and^ilso  of  the  wounded  and  missing,  as  far  as  I  am 
able.  \Here  follows  a  fist  of  the  dead  and  wounded,  &c.l 

x*  *  *  *  *  *  *  *  * 

This  is  the  best  account  I  can  get  at  present  of  the  dead,  wounded  and  missing. 
Let  cousin  Chapin  know  that  her  dear  husband  is  certainly  dead  and  buried.  Joel  and 
Hezekiah  are  well.  I  can  sympathize  with  her,  for  it  is  a  great  loss  to  me,  as  we  were 
friends  and  neighbors.  Pray  God  to  comfort  her.  Hope  our  friends  will  not  be  dis- 
heartened at  this  news,  and  so  fail  of  coming  to  assist  us.  They  that  love  their  religion 
and  liberty  I  hope  will  not  fail  to  come  to  the  help  of  the  Lord  against  the  mighty. 
Now  is  the  time  to  exert  ourselves. 


P.  S.  I  have  wrote  in  great  haste,  not  so  well  as  if  otherwise.  I  received  a  letter 
from  you  last  night.  Pray  send  as  often  as  you  can.  The  army  is  in  high  spirits. 
Hope  we  shall  have  Crown  Point  sooner  or  later.  We  have  done  a  good  job  toward  it. 

Loving  wife,  since  the  scout  is  detained  till  to-morrow,  I  add  something  more.  Yes- 
terday we  buried  on  the  road  136  dead  corpses  of  ours  ;  to-day  4.  I  believe  about  15 
or  20  more  buried  at  the  camp.  Several  of  our  Indians  are  killed.  King  Hendrick  is 
killed.  The  day  after  the  battle,  every  captain  carried  in  an  account  of  dead,  wound- 
ed and  missing.  The  whole  of  the  dead  and  missing  was  191,  and  about  224  wounded 
in  our  regiment.  Since  this  account  several  are  come  in  that  were  missing.  Col.  Titcom 
is  killed  ;  Capt.  Regas  is  dead— killed.  I  mention  those  because  some  may  know  them. 
The  account  carried  in  was  as  followeth  :  Col.  Williams'  regiment,  50.  Col.  Ruggles' 
regiment  and  others  I  must  omit ;  I  cannot  find  the  account.  The  French  general  is  a 
very  great  man,  has  been  an  old  warrior  in  Flanders.  He  says  his  army  consisted  of 
some  of  the  chief  men  in  Canada,  a  great  many  of  which  are  killed.  The  chief  man 
that  headed  the  army  at  Ohio  against  Braddock,  is  killed  here.  This  general  had  an 
exact  account  of  all  our  proceedings,  our  numbers,  and  chief  officers,  and  also  a  list  of 
>  all  his  own  troops  and  forces.  Perhaps  this  may  be  of  service  to  us.  This  is  the  best 
account  I  can  send  ;  it  is  not  altogether  perfect. 

Your  loving  husband,  JOHN  BURK. 

The  following  is  extracted  from  the  daily  journal  kept  by  Major 
Burk  at  this  period,  and  will  serve  to  show  a  soldier's  life  during 
the  French  wars. 

Thursday,  3lst,  (1755.)  Lwas  ordered  up  the  river  with  about  30  men  to  see  what  I 
could  discover,  but  saw  nothing.  Tarried  still  at  Saratoga.  Our  men  went  out  to  Sara- 
toga fort  arid  dug  out  of  the  earth  1114  cannon  ball.  The  men,  about  300,  went  up  the 
river  to  make  the  road.  I  tarried  in  the  camp.  Friday,  Aug.  1st.  The  army  all  moved 
to  the  second  falls  above  Saratoga,  4  miles.  We  drew  the  batteaux  up  the  first  falls, 
load  and  all ;  it  was  fatiguing,  but  the  men  worked  like  lions,  some  to  the  neck  in 
water.  We  had  about  180  batteaux.  This  day  the  men  had  half  a  pint  of  rum  given 
more  than  allowance.  Saturday,  2d.  We  tarried  at  the  falls  and  got  our  batteaux  by  in 
the  river.  The  Dutch  came  up  with  32  wagons,  carried  all  our  provisions  by,  and 
some  tents.  Our  guard  that  went  up  the  river  to  make  ready,  saw  4  or  5  Indian? 


Sunday,  3d.  We  moved  to  carrying  place,  Col.  Ly dies'  house,  about  45  miles  from 
Albany.  It  rained  very  hard  this  night ;  some  provisions  got  wet.  Monday,  Mh.  I 
was  ordered  to  attend  the  court,  which  adjourned  to  this  day.  It  was  adjourned  again 
to  Friday  next  in  the  afternoon.  I  was  ordered  with  5  men  to  scout  round  the  camps, 
but.  made  no  discovery.  Tuesday,  5th.  I  was  ordered  to  take  9  men  and  go  to  the 
Lake  Sacrament.  Lieut.  May,  Ensign  Stratton  and  Ensign  Stevens  went  to  make  the 
number.  As  we  marched  we  saw  3  deer,  1  bear,  and  an  old  mare  and  a  wolf,  which 
was  at  the  lake.  We  came  a  little  back  from  the  lake  and  camped.  Wednesday,  6th. 
We  returned  to  our  camps,  brought  in  an  old  mare,  picked  some  huckleberries,  brought 
some  to  Gen.  Lyman.  Made  no  discovery  ;  got  back  by  3  o'clock.  This  day  the  man 
confined  for  sodomy  was  whipped  100  stripes  and  drummed  out  of  the  company. 
Thursday,  1th.  I  tarried  in  the  camps.  The  men  got  timber  for  a  store-house  and 
bark  to  cover  it,  &c.  A  scout  was  sent  to  the  drowned  land,  at  the  place  called  by  the 
Dutch  Ziaborter.  Friday,  8th.  Tarried  at  the  camp  ;  help  about  the  fort.  Capt.  Pat- 
terson set  out  for  Wood  Creek  with  30  men.  He  was  ordered  to  go  to  the  mouth  of 
the  creek.  Saturday,  9th.  I  tarried  at  the  camps ;  worked  at  drawing  timber,  &c. 
The  scout  that  went  for  the  drowned  land  returned,  but  did  not  find  it.  Sunday,  IQth. 
We  work  at  forting  our  company  ;  set  up  15  foot  of  stockades.  Mr.  Williams  preached 
2  sermons.  The  scout  returned  from  Wood  Creek ;  they  saw  signs  of  Indians,  viz.  a 
piece  of  bread  stuck  up  in  the  path.  Maj.  Hoar  and  Lieut.  Nixson  set  out  for  Albany. 
Monday,  llth.  I  help  get  some  timber.  I  tarried  at  the  camps.  A  scout  set  out  for 
Crown  Point,  another  for  the  So.  Bay,  and  another  for  Lake  Sacrament.  The  two 
last  returned.  They  reported  that  they  saw  Indians,  but  upon  examination  it  was 
their  own  men.  Some  men  went  to  Saratoga,  to  kill  some  Dutch  cattle.  Tuesday, 
12th.  I  tarried  at  the  camp,  and  help  get  timber.  Some  went  to  clear  roads.  The 
men  that  went  to  Saratoga  returned,  brought  some  beef,  and  brought  news  that  the 
rest  of  the  army  was  coming  near  by.  Wednesday,  13th.  I  tarried  at  the  camps ; 
went  over  on  the  island  afternoon  to  get  gate  timber.  Gen.  Lyman  had  an  express 
from  Gov.  Fitch,  and  some  newspapers,  which  gave  an  account  of  the  death  of  Gen. 
Braddock,  and  that  the  army  was  defeated. 

Thursday,  llth.  Gen.  Johnson,  Col.  Titcom,  and  Col.  Williams,  with  a  great  num- 
ber of  forces,  came  to  the  carrying  place,  with  some  Indians  and  20  cannon,  2  of 
which  were  thirty-two  pounders,  and  a  great  many  wagons.  The  general  was  waited 
upon  with  a  number  of  men,  and  on  his  arrival  saluted  by  the  officers  and  the  discharge 
of  field-pieces.  Connecticut  boys  and  Rhode  Island  all  come.  Friday,  15th.  A  coun- 
cil was  held ;  it  was  determined  to  send  for  more  men  to  join  us  at  our  head-quarters. 
Little  or  no  work  done  this  day.  A  scout  from  Crown  Point  returned  ;  no  news. 
Saturday,  ibth.  I  tarried  at  the  camps ;  did  little  or  nothing.  A  scout  came  from 
Fort  Massachusetts.  I  heard  from  home.  Sunday,  llth.  I  was  ordered  by  Gen. 
Johnson  to  scout,  with  11  men  and  7  Indians,  to  the  Lake  Sacrament.  Capt.  Passore, 
bound  for  the  So.  Bay,  with  30  or  40  white  men  and  6  Indians,  marched  4  miles  with 
us,  and  turned  off.  I  marched  10  miles.  Connecticut  and  New  York  forces  arrived 
with  women  ;  a  man  was  drowned.  Monday,  18th.  We  marched  to  the  lake  ;  made 
no  discovery  of  an  enemy.  Six  of  the  Indians  went  farther  westward.  We  sat  out 
from  the  lake  at  one  o'clock,  and  got  home  before  dark.  Tuesday,  19th.  Tarried  in 
the  camps ;  did  nothing.  A  general  court-martial  was  held.  Gen.  Lyman,  Cols. 
Ruggels,  Williams,  Goodrich,  were  ordered  to  be  ready  to  meet  at  all  hours.  Wed- 
nesday, 20th.  Tarried  at  the  camps.  A  general  court-martial  was  held  in  trial  of  Lieut. 
Noble  and  others.  Capt.  Ayres  began  to  dig  a  trench.  A  great  number  was  employed 
at  digging.  Thursday,  21st.  Tarried  in  camp.  Saw  Nelly  and  Polly,  in  great  taking 
for  the  women, — were  all  ordered  away.  Five  Indians  of  the  Six  Nations  came  from 
Canada.  General  court-martial  sat.  About  120  men  employed  digging  in  the 
trenches.  The  Indians  brought  news  from  Canada,  that  17  ships  were  at  Quebec, 
600  regulars  ;  that  8000  were  expected  at  Crown  Point,  300  out. 

Friday,  22d.  I  tarried  at  the  camp.  A  council  sit;  determined  to  go  by  Lake 
Sacrament.  I  sent  a  letter  to  my  wife.  Trenching  yet,  sawing  boards.  Saturday, 
23d,  Four  hundred  men  were  ordered  to  go  upon  the  road ;  I  went  pilot.  Cleared  6 
mile'..  The  women  were  sent  to  Albany.  When  they  went  off  there  was  a  great 
huzza.  Trenching  and  sawing  with  whip-saw  yet.  Sunday,  24th.  I  was  not  well ;  I 
had  a  bad  cold.  Kept  in  the  tent  all  day.  Mr.  Williams  preached  2  sermons.  A 
number  of  men  went  upon  the  road.  Some  Indians  came  to  us  ;  informed  of  more 
coming.  Lieut.  Noble  read  his  acknowledgment  before  the  assembly.  Monday,  25th. 
I  tarried  at  home  in  the  camps.  A  scout  sent  to  Fort  Massachusetts, — Serg.  A  very, 
who  was  one  ordered  to  Deerfield.  I  wrote  to  my  wife.  Trenching  and  sawing, 
and  making  a  powder-house.  All  going  forward  briskly.  Tuesday,  26th.  Gen.  John- 


son,  Cols.  Ruggels,  Williams,  Goodrich's  regiments,  and  some  of  Rhode  Island  and. 
York  forces,  about  1500  men  and  200  wagons,  marched  forward  for  Lake  Sacrament. 
March  6  miles  and  camped.  Wednesday,  21th.  We  all  marched  4  miles  and  camped. 
We  had  some  clearing  and  large  causeways  to  make  this  day.  Thursday,  28th.  We 
cleared  the  road  10  miles ;  got  to  the  lake.  The  men  worked  very  hard  this  day. 
One  of  the  men  found  a  gun  and  Indian  pack.  Friday,  29th.  Went  to  clearing  by  the 
lake,  making  a  causeway,  &c.  The  wagons  returned  for  more  stores.  About  20 
Indians  came  to  us.  Saturday,  30th.  I  was  made  captain  of  the  guard.  Hendrick, 
with  about  170  Indians,  came  to  us ;  they  were  saluted  with  a  round  of  guns,  and  the 
men  all  drew  up  to  receive  them.  The  clearing  went  off  briskly,  One  man  killed,  1 
taken,  3  escaped.  They  were  keeping  cattle  at  the  great  carrying  place.  Sunday, 
31st.  A  number  of  wagons  and  cannon  came  up,  guarded  by  the  Rhode  Islanders  and 
"Workers.  Clearing  carried  on  still.  At  night  the  Indians  had  a  great  dance.  Mon- 
day, Sept.  1st.  Capt.  Porter,  with  some  Indians,  marched  to  the  So.  Bay  to  intercept 
the  enemy  that  did  the  mischief.  Some  canoes  were  seen  by  our  Indians  up  the  lake. 
I  tarried  by  the  camp  and  cleared  for  tenting.  Alarm  at  night ;  a  sentry  shot  at  a 

Tuesday,  2d.  Capt.  Porter  and  men  returned.  The  Indians  marched  forward. 
Five  Indians  that  went  out  5  days  ago,  that  went  to  the  carrying  place  at 
the  north  end  of  the  lake,  saw  15  of  the  enemy.  Could  not  come  to  speech. 
Our  scout  returned  from  Fort  Massachusetts.  I  tarried  at  the  camps.  Moved 
our  tents.  Wednesday,  3d.  Gen.  Lyman,  Col.  Titcomb,  Col.  Gilbert  came  to  us 
at  Lake  George.  Some  Indians  came  and  joined  us.  It  is  said  they  came  1100 
miles.  I  carried  the  camps.  3  Indians  went  a-scalning  to  Crown  Point.  Thursday, 
tth.  I  was  ordered  to  go  up  the  lake  with  Capt.  Stoddard  and  Capt.  Ingersoll,  and  3 
other  white  men,  to  carry  3  Indians,  who  were  going  to  Lake  West,  and  we  sailed  15 
miles.  Landed  the  Indians  ;  returned  by  11  at  night.  Began  to  build  a  fort.  Friday, 
5th.  I  was  very  bad  with  a  cold  ;  tarried  at  the  camps.  No  news  this  day.  Saturday, 
6th.  I  went  to  get  a  cask  out  of  the  store-house,  &c.  Heard  that  8  or  9  of  the  sick 
were  dead  at  the  other  forts.  Batteaux,  stores,  daily  coming  up.  Fort  building,  scows 
making.  Sunday,  1th.  A  scout  of  Indians  came  in  who  have  been  to  Crown  Point, 
and  inform  that  they  saw  as  they  returned  the  signs  of  a  large  army  marching  south 
in  3  files ;  designed,  as  they  suppose,  for  our  fort  at  great  carrying  place.  A  man 
who  was  thought  to  have  deserted  was  found  dead  at  the  other  fort ;  killed  by  the  fall 
of  a  tree,  as  is  supposed.  Monday,  8th.  Col.  Williams  was  sent  out  with  1000  men 
in  search  of  the  enemy  ;  determined  to  march  toward  the  south  bay.  They  marched 
so  in  the  road  3  miles,  when  they  were  waylaid  by  the  enemy  and  fired  upon.  The 
enemy,  having  the  advantage  of  the  ground,  obliged  our  men  to  retreat  to  the  camps ; 
killed  and  wounded  a  great  number  by  the  way.  The  enemy  made  a  very  smart 
attack  upon  the  camps,  but  we  stood  ground  and  drove  them  back.  Took  the  general 
and  aid-de-camp,  and  about  25  prisoners.  New  Hampshire  and  York  men  at  the 
other  fort,  at  the  carrying  pla,ce,  heard  the  great  guns,  came  up  and  met  the  enemy 
stripping  our  dead;  drove  them  from  the  ground  and  took  2  prisoners.  They  fought 
them  3  hours,  and  we  fought  them  from  between  10  and  11  till  between  6  and  7  after- 
noon. No  such"  battle  before  in  North  America.  Tuesday,  Qth.  About  300  we 
sent  out  to  bury  the  dead.  I  went  with  them.  The  men  forward  took  a  start, 
ran  back;  were  stopped  by  the  officers.  Found  it  too  late  to  do  the  business. 
Returned  to  the  camps,  brought  one  wounded  man  of  ours,  a  great  deal  of  plunder,  &c. 
Wednesday,  IQth.  We  went  out  again,  buried  136  dead  of  ours,  and  some  French. 
Brought  in  a  great  deal  of  plunder  and  French  provisions,  and  one  of  our  wounded, 
a  scout  from  the  other  fort,  and  from  Hoosuck,  Capt.  Wyman.  I  sent  a  letter  to  my 
wife.  All  a-fortifying  at  the  camps.  Col.  Willard,  Capt.  Symers,  came  up  with  a 
number  of  wagons  with  provisions,  &c.  Thursday,  llth.  I  wrote  a  large  letter  to  my 
wife;  sent  it  by  Capt.  Wyman.  The  wagoners  went  back,  the  Indians  went  off  home. 
A  great  number  of  men  went  plundering  ;  found  a  great  deal.  Buried  4  more  of  our 

The  following  inscriptions  are  from  monuments  in  the  old  bury- 
ing-ground  in  this  place,  about  one  mile  from  the  center. 

In  memory  of  the  Hon.  Majr-  John  Burke,  who  died  Octr-  27th,  1784,  in  ye  67th  year 
of  his  age. 

Were  I  so  tall  to  reach  the  pole, 
Or  grasp  the  ocean  with  my  span, 
I  must  be  measur'd  by  my  soul, — 
The  Mind's  the  standard  of  the  man. 


To  the  memory  of  Doctor  Polycarpus  Cushman,  who  died  15th  December.  A.  D. 
1797,  JEtate  47. 

Vain  censorious  beings  little  know, 
What  they  must  soon  experience  below. 
Your  lives  are  short,  eternity  is  long, 
0  think  of  death,  prepare,  &  then  begone. 
Thus  art  and  natures  powers  &  charms 
Arid  drugs  &  receipts  and  forms 
Yield  all  last  to  greedy  worms 
A  despicable  prey. 
Mors  absque  morbo  vorax  mortalium  rapuit  medicum.* 


THIS  town  was  incorporated  in  1779.  A  part  of  its  territory 
was  within  the  limits  of  Charlemont.  The  first  minister  of  this 
place  was  Rev.  Josiah  Spaulding,  from  Plainfield,  Con. ;  he  was 
installed  pastor  in  1794.  His  successor,  the  Rev.  Benjamin  F. 
Clarke,  was  settled  here  1824.  The  first  settlement  within  the 
limits  of  the  town  was  probably  made  on  Deerfield  river,  about 
two  and  a  half  miles  from  the  Congregational  church  in  the  center 
of  the  town.  A  Mr.  White  is  believed  to  have  been  the  first  per- 
son who  settled  there.  About  the  same  time  a  settlement  was 
made  in  the  south  part  of  the  town  by  Capt.  Nahum  Ward.  His 
son,  Jonathan  Ward,  was  the  first  white  child  born  in  the  town. 
Capt.  Ward  settled  about  one  and  a  half  miles  westward  of  the 
center.  Persons  of  the  Baptist  denomination  settled  about  two 
miles  south-easterly  from  the  center  of  the  town  at  a  very  early 

The  surface  of  this  town  is  hilly  and  broken.  Clesson's  river,  a 
mill-stream,  passes  centrally  through  the  town.  It  was  formerly 
noted  for  trout,  and  on  its  banks  were  fine  hunting-grounds.  A 
park  for  deer  was  built  about  two  miles  northerly  from  the  center  of 
the  town,  by  Othniel  Taylor.  Agriculture  is  the  principal  business 
of  the  inhabitants.  There  are  3  houses  of  worship — 1  Congrega- 
tionalist,  1  Baptist,  and  1  Methodist.  Distance,  12  miles  from 
Greenfield,  23  to  Northampton,  and  105  from  Boston.  Population, 

The  following  is  the  inscription  on  the  monument  of  Mr.  Spaul- 
ding, the  first  minister : 

In  memory  of  Rev.  Josiah  Spaulding,  died  May  8th,  1823,  JE.  72.  Rev.  J.  S.  was 
born  at  Plainfield,  Conn.,  Jan.  10,  1751,  graduated  at  Yale  College  1778,  licenced  to 
preach  1780,  ordained  1782.  Of  the  41  yrs:  of  his  ministry,  5  were  spent  at  Uxbridge, 
6i  at  "Worthington,  28^  at  Buckland.  Merciful  men  are  taken  away,  none  considering 
that  the  righteous  is  taken  away  from  the  evil  to  come. 


THIS  town  was  incorporated  in  1765.     During  the  French  and 
Indian  wars,  this  being  one  of  the  frontier  towns,  it  was  open  to 

*  Rapacious  Death,  without  disease,  has  snatched  away  the  healer  of  mortals. 



iheir  ravages.  In  the  limits  of  this  town  were  three  garrisons, 
Taylor's,  Rice's,  and  Hawk's.  These  were  of  a  cordon  of  fortifica- 
tions projected  by  Col.  Williams  in  the  year  1754.  These  works  were 
either  mounts,  a  diminutive  kind  of  block-house,  or  stockaded  dwel- 
ling-houses, bearing  the  names  of  the  resident  families,  defensible 
only  against  musketry.  In  June,  1755,  as  a  party  of  people  were 
at  work  in  a  meadow  'in  the  upper  part  of  Charlemont,  near  Rice's 
fort,  they  were  attacked  by  a  party  of  Indians ;  Captain  Rice  and 
Phineas  Rice  were  killed,  and  Titus  King,  and  Asa  Rice,  a  lad, 
were  captured,  conveyed  to  Crown  Point,  and  from  thence  to 
Canada.  King  was  some  time  afterward  carried  to  France,  then  to 
England,  and  from  thence  he  returned  to  Northampton,  his  native 
place.  The  Congregational  church  in  this  town  was  organized  in 
June,  1788  ;  the  Rev.  Isaac  Babbit,  the  first  Congregational  minis- 
ter, was  settled  here  in  1796;  he  resigned  in  1798.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Rev.  Joseph  Field,  who  resigned  in  1823.  The  next 
minister,  Rev.  Wales  Tileston,  was  settled  in  1825 ;  he  resigned 
in  1837. 

Eastern  view  in  the  central  part  of  Charlemont. 

The  above  is  an  eastern  view  in  the  central  part  of  Charlemont, 
showing  the  Baptist  and  Methodist  churches ;  17  miles  from  Green- 
field, 16  from  Adams,  55  from  Troy,  N.  Y.,  and  about  104  from 
Boston.  The  Baptist  church  is  the  nearest  building  in  the  view, 
having  six  windows  on  the  southern  side ;  the  Methodist  church,  a 
small  building,  is  seen  farther  northward  ;  it  lias  a  tower,  and 
stands  on  an  elevation  of  ground.  There  is  a  little  villa-ge  north- 
ward of  these  churches,  which  is  but  partially  seen  in  the  engrav- 
ing. The  highest  mountainous  elevation,  seen  in  the  distance,  is 
called  Mount  Peak,  and  is  upwards  of  1000  feet  in  height.  Deer- 
field  river,  which  flows  at  the  foot  of  this  elevation,  winds  through 
the  whole  length  of  the  town.  High  hills  and  mountainous  eleva- 
tions in  many  places  rise  immediately  from  its  banks,  affording 
many  views  of  picturesque  and  delightful  scenery.  Agriculture  is 


the  principal  business  of  the  inhabitants.  In  1837,  there  were 
3,355  merino  sheep,  and  1,398  of  other  kinds;  the  value  of  wool 
produced,  $7,460.  Population  of  the  town,  994.  In  1838,  a  large 
proportion  of  an  unincorporated  tract  of  mountainous  and  broken 
land,  called  Zoar,  with  few  inhabitants,  on  the  western  border  of 
the  town,  was,  by  an  act  of  the  legislature,  added  to  this  town. 


COLERAINE*  was  incorporated  in  1761.  It  was  previously  called 
Boston  Township.  It  was  partly  settled  by  emigrants  from  Ireland, 
who  were  Presbyterians  in  religious  sentiment.  The  church  in 
this  place  was  Presbyterian  till  1819,  when  it  became  Congre- 
gational. The  first  minister,  Rev.  Alexander  McDowel,  it  is  be- 
lieved, was  from  Ireland.  Rev.  Daniel  McClallen  was  born  in 
Pennsylvania,  but  educated  in  Ireland.  Yery  little  is  known  of 
the  early  state  of  the  religious  affairs  of  the  people,  as  either  no 
church  records  were  kept,  or  if  kept  have  been  lost.  Mr.  McDow- 
el, the  first  minister,  was  settled  in  1753 ;  Mr.  McClallen  in  1769. 
The  third  minister,  Rev.  Samuel  Taggart,  was  settled  in  1777,  and 
died  in  1825  ;  he  retained  his  connection  with  his  church  and  so- 
ciety till  the  close  of  life.  He  was  a  member  of  the  house  of 
representatives  of  the  United  States,  from  1804,  for  14  years.  He  is 
said  to  have  remarked  to  a  Christian  friend,  that  he  had  read  the 
Bible  through  at  Washington  every  year  during  the  time  he  had 
served  as  a  member  of  congress.  Rev.  Aretas  Loomis  succeeded 
Mr.  Taggart  in  1829. 

Coleraine  has  a  larger  population  than  any  other  town  in  Frank- 
lin, county.  It  is  finely  watered  by  two  branches  of  North  river,  a 
tributary  stream  of  Deerfield  river,  affording  water-power  for  a 
number  of  factories  in  various  parts  of  the  town,  which  are  now  in 
successful  operation.  After  the  union  of  the  two  branches  of  the 
North  river  in  this  town,  in  its  course  towards  Deerfield  river,  it 
passes  through  a  very  narrow  defile,  with  lofty  elevations  on  each 
side,  particularly  on  the  north  bank ;  the  road,  in  some  places, 
passes  at  a  great  elevation  from  the  bed  of  the  river,  and  to  a  lover 
of  natural  scenery  in  its  varied  forms  this  place  possesses  uncom- 
mon attractions.  The  engraving  is  a  western  view  of  part  of  the 
village  in  the  central  part  of  the  town.  The  Methodist  church  ap- 
pears on  the  right,  and  the  Congregational  on  the  left.  This  place 
is  surrounded  by  lofty  elevations  on  almost  every  side.  It  is  9 
miles  from  Greenfield,  30  from  Adams,  30  from  Northampton,  70 
from  Albany,  N.  Y.,  and  100  from  Boston.  Population,  1,998.  In 
1837  there  were  3  cotton  mills,  5,000  cotton  spindles ;  125,000  Ibs. 

*  It  is  said  that  this  town  was  named  from  Lord  Coleraine,  in  Ireland.  His  lordship 
was  so  well  pleased  with  the  honor  done  him  that  he  sent  the  inhabitants  a  fine  bell ; 
but,  through  the  unfaithfulness  of  the  agent  to  whom  it  was  intrusted,  it  never  reached 
them.  It  is  believed  to  be  still  in  existence,  and  used  in  one  of  the  churches  in  Boston 

0  O  I,  E  R  A  I  N  E  . 


Western  view  of  Coleraine,  (central  part.) 

of  cotton  were  consumed  ;  930.000  yards  of  cotton  goods  manufac- 
tured, valued  at  $59,500;  40  males  and  120  females  were  em- 
ployed. There  were  4,340  merino  and  1,414  other  kinds  of  sheep 
in  the  town;  value  of  wool  produced,  $9,133  11 ;  capital  invested, 
$14,385.  There  were  two  air  and  cupola  furnaces  ;  150  tons  of  iron 
castings  were  made,  valued  at  $17,500.  Various  other  articles 
were  also  manufactured  in  the  town. 

One  of  the  first  settlers  in  this  town  was  Deacon  Thomas  McGee, 
a  Protestant,  from  Ireland ;  he  located  himself  about  two  miles 
south  from  the  center  of  the  town.  James  Steward,  who  officiated 
as  town-clerk  for  a  number  of  years,  lived  a  little  east  from  Mr. 
McGee.  Hugh  McClallen  located  himself  in  the  south-western 
part  of  the  town ;  he  filled  various  public  offices,  and  was  the  first 
acting  magistrate.  John  Cochren,  from  Pelham,  Hampshire  coun- 
ty, located  himself  in  the  center.  He  built  the  whole  or  part  of 
the  Barber  House,  so  called,  near  the  Congregational  church : 
this  house  is  now  standing.  John  Clark,  of  Irish  descent,  had  a 
house  about  half  a  mile  north  of  the  meeting-house,  on  land  which 
was  given  to  his  father  by  the  proprietors  of  Coleraine.  Mr.  Clark's 
father  was  killed  in  the  "last  French  war.  Hugh  Morrison  located 
himself  about  one  and  a  half  miles  north  of  the  center.  He  was 
a  captain,  and  commander  of  the  north  or  Morrison's  fort.  Dea- 
con George  Clark  settled  about  a  mile  easterly  from  the  center. 
Capt,  John  Wood,  from  South  Hadley,  kept  the  first  tavern>  a  build- 
ing now  standing.  The  first  meeting-house  built  by  the  proprie- 
tors stood  about  80  rods  north  of  Capt.  Wood's  tavern  ;  it  was  two 
stories  in  height,  and  was  never  completed  on  account  of  its  loca- 
tion. Rev.  Mr.  McDole,  or  Dowel,  the  first  minister,  lived  about  80 
rods  north,  in  a  building  used  as  a  fort.  Besides  the  two  forts  men- 
tioned, there  were  two  others :  one,  called  the  east  fort,  was  situated 
about  two  miles  eastward  of  the  meeting-house  •  the  south  fort  was 


244  C  O  N  W  A  Y  . 

near  Deacon  McGee's.  Hezekiah  Smith,  from  Woodstock,  in  Con- 
necticut, settled  about  two  miles  south-west  down  the  North  river. 
Thomas  Fox  and  Deacon  Moses  Johnson  were  early  settlers. 
Deacon  Elliot  Harroun  and  Joseph  Thompson  settled  near  Hugh 
McClallen,  in  the  north-western  part  of  the  town. 

In  May,  1746,  Matthew  Clark,  with  his  wife  and  daughter,  and 
two  soldiers,  were  fired  upon  by  the  Indians.  Clark  was  killed, 
and  his  wife  and  daughter  wounded.  One  of  the  soldiers  returned 
the  fire  and  killed  one  of  the  enemy,  which  gave  them  a  check, 
and  the  wounded  were  brought  into  the  fort  and  saved.  In  July, 
David  Morrison  was  captured  by  the  Indians.  In  1756,  John 
Morrison  and  John  Henry  were  wounded  near  Morrison's  fort,  but 
getting  on  to  a  horse,  made  their  escape.  The  enemy  burned  a 
house  and  killed  some  cattle  on  North  river.  In  1759,  John 
McCown  and  his  wife  were  captured,  and  their  son  was  killed. 


THIS  town  was  incorporated  in  1767.  The  first  minister  of  the 
place  was  Rev.  John  Emerson,  who  settled  here  in  1769.  At  this 
time  the  town  contained  but  400  or  500  inhabitants.  Mr.  Emerson 
afterwards  shrewdly  remarked,  that  when  he  came  "  it  was  lite- 
rally John  preaching  in  the  wilderness."  He  lived  to  see  a  popula- 
tion of  about  2000  souls.  Mr.  Emerson  was  eminently  a  prayer- 
ful and  devoted  minister  of  the  gospel.  "  For  several  of  his  last 
years  he  had  an  impediment  in  his  speech  ;  it  was,  however,  scarce- 
ly perceptible  in  his  devotional  exercises,  showing  it  was  more 
natural  for  him  to  pray  than  to  converse."  Rev.  Edward  Hitch- 
cock was  settled  as  colleague  with  Mr.  Emerson  in  1821.  Mr. 
Emerson  died  in  1826,  aged  80.  Mr.  Hitchcock  was  succeeded  by 
Rev.  Daniel  Crosby,  in  1827. 

The  following  is  a  southern  view  of  the  central  part  of  Conway, 
as  it  appears  from  the  road  passing  over  the  elevated  ground  south 
from  the  village.  The  village,  which  consists  of  about  thirty 
dwelling-houses  and  other  buildings,  lies  principally  in  a  narrow 
valley  between  two  elevated  hills,  the  one  westward  called  Beal's 
Hill,  the  one  eastward  Billings'  Hill.  South  river,  a  mill-stream, 
passing  into  Deerfield  river,  divides  the  village  into  two  parts. 
There  are  two  churches  in  the  village,  one  a  Congregational,  the 
other  a  Baptist  church.  The  Congregational  church  is  seen  in  the 
engraving  in  the  southern  part  of  the  village.  The  Baptist  church 
is  without  a  spire,  and  stands  in  the  northern  part,  on  elevated 
ground.  Distance,  7  miles  S.  W.  from  Greenfield,  and  100  from 
Boston.  Population,  1,445. 

In  1837,  there  was  one  cotton  mill,  924  spindles ;  cotton  con- 
sumed, 10,045  Ibs.  ;  cotton  goods  manufactured,  151,140  yards, 
valued  at  $16,625 ;  males  employed,  8 ;  females,  20 ;  capital  in- 
vested, $10,000.  One  woollen  mill,  which  manufactured  3,500 
yards  of  cloth,  which  employed  18  hands.  There  were  in  the  town 



Southern  view  of  Conway. 

2,415  merino  sheep ;  other  kinds  of  sheep,  2,415;  merino  wool  pro- 
duced, 7,245  Ibs. ;  other  kinds  of  wool,  7,245  ;  average  weight  of 
fleece,  3  Ibs. ;  value  of  wool,  $5.071 ;  capital  invested,  $7,245. 

The  following  votes,  passed  during  the  "Revolutionary  times," 
are  copied  from  the  records  of  this  town.  They  will  serve  to  show 
the  process  used  against  those  who  were  disaffected  towards  the 
American  cause,  and  who  dared,  like  freemen,  to  let  their  senti- 
ments he  known.  The  orthography  is  retained. 

At  a  legal  meeting,  held  June  25,  17.77,  Voted  to  try  the  minds  of  the  town  with  re- 
gard to  the  enernical  persons  that  the  selectmen  have  entered  in  a  list  and  laid  before 
»he  town  as  such  seperately. 

Voted,  the  following  persons  are  dangerously  enemical  to  the  American  States,  viz. 
Joseph  Catlin,  Elias  Dickinson,  Joseph  Brunson,  Elijah  Wells,  Elijah  Billings,  James 
Dickinson,  Win.  Billings,  John  Hamilton,  Jonathan  Oaks,  Capt.  Consider  Arms 
Eben'r  Bedfield,  and  David  Field.  Voted,  that  Capt.  Alexander  Oliver  be  the  person 
to  collect  the  evidence,  and  lay  it  before  the  court,  against  the  above  enemical  per- 

At  a  legal  meeting,  held  August  27th,  1777,  Voted,  that  we  proceed  in  some  mea- 
sures to  secure  the  enemical  persons  called  Tories  among  us.  Then  the  question  was 
put,  whether  we  would  draw  a  line  between  the  Continent  and  Great  Britain  ;  voted  in 
the  affirmative.  Voted  that  all  those  persons  that  stand  on  the  side  of  the  Contanant 
take  up  arms  and  go  hand  in  hand  with  us  in  carrying  on  the  war  against  our  unnatu- 
ral enemies  ;  such  we  receive  as  friends,  and  all  others  treet  as  enemies.  Voted,  that 
the  broad  ally  be  a  line,  and  the  south  end  of  the  meeting-house  be  the  Continant  side, 
and  the  north  end  the  British  side  ;  then  moved  for  trial,  and  found  6  persons  to  stand 
on  the  British  side,  viz.  Elijah  Billings,  Jonathan  Oaks,  Wm.  Billings,  Joseph  Catlin, 
Joel  Dickinson,  and  Elias  Dickinson.  Voted  to  set  a  gard  over  those  enemical  persons. 
Voted  the  town  clerk  emmediately  desire  Judge  Mather  to  issue  out  his  warrants 
against  those  enimical  persons  returned  to  him  in  a  list  heretofore. 


DEERFIELD  is  the  oldest  town  in  Franklin  county.  In  1669,  a 
tract  of  8,000  acres  of  land  was  granted  by  the  general  court 
at  Pocumtuck  to  a  company  at  Dedham,  embracing  most  of 



the  interval  lying  on  Pocumtuck  or  Deerfield  river,  and  the  plain 
southerly  as  far  as  Hatfield  bounds.  The  proprietors  first  met  at 
Dedham  in  1670  ;  at  which  time  it  was  agreed  to  lay  out  the  lots 
at  Pocumtuck.  By  subsequent  grants  it  comprehended  within  its 
limits  the  present  towns  of  Deerfield,  Conway,  Shelburne,  Green- 
field, and  Gill.  Whether  the  whole  was  purchased  from  the 
natives  does  not  appear.  A  deed,  however,  of  a  part  of  the  early 
grant,  is  still  extant;  it  was  made  to  John  Pynchon,  Esq.,  of 
Springfield,  "for  the  use  and  behoof  of  major  Eleazer  Lusher, 

Southern  view  of  Deerfield,  (central  part.) 

ensign  Daniel  Fisher,  and  other  English  at  Dedham,  their  asso- 
ciates and  successors,"  by  Chauk,  alias  Chaque.  the  sachem  of 
Pocumtuck,  and  his  brother  Wapahoale,  and  is  dated  Feb.  24, 
1665,  prior  to  the  grant  by  government.  The  deed  is  witnessed 
by  Wequonock,  who  "  helped  the  Sachem  in  making  the  bar- 
gain ;"  and  reserves  to  the  Indians  "  the  right  of  fishing  in  the 
rivers  and  waters ;  hunting  deer,  or  other  wild  animals  ;  the  gath- 
ering of  walnuts,  chesnuts,  and  other  nuts,  and  things  on  the  com- 
mons." The  first  settlement  at  Deerfield  commenced  in  1670, 
and  within  four  years  a  considerable  number  of  buildings  were 
erected.  In  1686,  the  Rev.  John  Williams  was  settled  as  minister 
of  the  place,  on.  a  salary  of  £60,  to  be  paid  in  wheat  at  three  shil- 
lings and  three-pence  the  bushel,  pease  at  two  shillings  and  six- 
pence, Indian  corn  at  two  shillings,  and  salted  pork  at  two-pence 
halfpenny  the  pound. 

Deerfield  is  finely  situated  on  the  west  bank  of  Connecticut 
river.  Deerfield  river,  a  large  and  beautiful  stream,  meanders 
through  the  center  of  the  town,  and  on  its  banks  are  large  tracts 
of  interval  land,  the  quality  of  which  is  equal  to  any  in  the  state. 
The  principal  street  runs  north  and  south  on  a  beautiful  elevation 
above  the  meadows,  which  spreads  out  from  the  foot  of  East  or 
Deerfield  mountain. 



The  engraving  on  the  opposite  page,  is  a  view  (looking  to  the 
northward)  in  the  central  part  of  the~  village,  showing  the  Unita- 
rian Congregational  church,  and  some  other  public  buildings. 
The  ancient  house,  which  escaped  destruction  at  the  time  the 
Indians  burnt  the  town  in  1704,  is  seen  in  the  distance,  standing 
a  few  feet  westward  of  the  church.  Deerfield  is  principally  an 
agricultural  town.  In  1837,  there  was  one  manufactory  of  cutlery, 
which  employed  seventy  hands;  the  value  of  cutlery  manufac- 
tured was  $100,000.  The  value  of  palm-leaf  hats  manufactured 
was  $7,800;  the  value  of  corn  brooms  made  was  $10,990;  the 
value  of  pocket-books,  &c.,  $11,000.  Population,  1,952.  Distance, 
3  miles  south  from  Greenfield,  18  miles  north  of  Northampton,  60 
to  Hartford,  Conn.,  and  95  from  Boston. 

Monument  and  Sugar-loaf  Mountain,  Deerfield. 

The  above  is  a  north-western  view  of  the  monument  at  Bloody 
Brook,  erected  in  memory  of  Capt.  Lathrop  and  his  men,  who  fell 
on  this  spot,  in  an  ambuscade  of  the  Indians.  This  monument 
stands  perhaps  30  or  40  rods  southerly  from  the  Cong-  ogational 
church.  South-easterly  from  the  monument  is  seen  Sugar-loaf 
Mountain,  a  conical  peak  of  red  sand-stone,  about  650  feet  in 
height.  In  1835,  the  160th  anniversary  of  the  destruction  of  Capt. 
Lathrop  and  his  men  was  commemorated  in  this  place.  The  Hon. 
Edward  Everett,  now  governor  of  Massachusetts,  was  appointed 
orator  for  the  occasion,  and  General  Epaphas  Hoyt,  of  Deerfield, 
was  appointed  to  make  the  address  at  the  laying  of  the  corner 
stone  for  the  monument.  About  six  thousand  persons  were  present 
on  this  occasion.  Governor  Everett  delivered  his  address  under  a 
walnut  tree,  a  few  rods  eastward  of  the  monument,  the  top  of 
which  is  seen  rising  between  the  two  mountainous  elevations  in 
the  back  ground.  About  forty  years  after  Capt.  Lathrop  and  his 
men  were  killed,  a  rude  monument  was  erected  to  their  memory, 
but  the  different  occupants  of  the  soil  removed  it  so  many  times, 
that  it  was  a  matter  of  uncertainty  where  he  or  his  men  were 

248  D  E  &R  F 1 E  L  D . 

buried.  In  1835,  the  committee  of  investigation,  guided  by  the 
tradition  of  some  aged  people,  found  the  spot  where  he  and  about 
thirty  of  his  men  were  interred  ;  the  grave  was  just  in  front  of  the 
door-yard  of  Stephen  Whitney,  Esq.,  and  about  twenty  feet  north- 
west of  his  front  door.  Their  bones  were  in  a  state  of  tolerable 
preservation,  but  fell  to  pieces  on  exposure  to  the  air.  "A  grave, 
probably  containing  the  bones  of  the  ninety-six  Indians  who  were 
slain  on  that  day,  was  likewise  found  by  accident  about  the  same 
time,  nearly  one  hundred  rods  west  of  the  road  leading  from 
Bloody  Brook  to  Con  way.  by  Mr.  Artemas  Williams,  and  a  little 
more  than  half  a  mile  south-west  of  the  grave  of  Lathrop." 

The  monument  is  six  feet  square  and  about  twenty  feot  in 
height;  it  is  constructed  of  marble,  by  Mr.  Woods,  of  Sunderland. 
On  its  completion  an  address  was  delivered  at  its  foot  by  Mr. 
Luther  B.  Lincoln,  of  Deerfield.  The  following  is  the  inscription  on 
the  monument : — 

On  this  ground  Capt.  Thomas  Lothrop  and  eighty-four  men  under  his  command, 
including  eighteen  teamsters  from  Deerfield,  conveying  stores  from  that  town  to  Had- 
ley, were  ambuscaded  by  about  700  Indians,  and  the  Captain  and  seventy-six  men 
slain,  Sept.  18th,  1675,  (old  style.) The  soldiers  who  fell  were  described  by  a  co- 
temporary  Historian,  as  "  a  choice  company  of  young  men,  the  very  flower  of